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RAMPAGEOUS [raam paijus], adj. Violent; obstreperous; unruly. Applied to persons or animals.


has possibly crept in by confusion with ramping, from rampe, to rear, to rage.

Quiet! ya rampageous young son of a bitch!

RAMAGE, or coragyous. Corragiosus, luitosus—Promp. Parv.

þer ben bestis þat hau venym, as þe heynde, þe hounde, and þe wolf, and oper bestis, þat whenne þei arn ramagous or joli, here venym gretly noyep, so pat oftyn sipes þei makyn men sike.—Sloane MS. 2584, f. 173, quoted by Way.

Or ellis he is not wise ne sage,

No more than is a gote ramage.-Chaucer, Romaunt of the Rose, 1. 5386.
Distracted; overcome; raving.

RAMPIN [raam'peen], part. adj.

The idea is tearing or pawing like a wild beast.

I be rampin way the toothache.

ez two nights.

I'an't a-had a wink o' zlee-ap

Poor blid, they do zay her's rampin maze, i. e. raving mad, ever sinze he was a-brought home.

For pe saul sese þan about it stande
Grysly devels agayn it raumpande,

Als wode lyons þai sal þan fare

And raumpe on hym, and skoul, and stare.-Pricke of Cons. 11. 2906, 2224. RAMPSING [raam'seen], adj. Big; awkward; ungainly. [Guurt raam seen tùe an dud fuul'ur,] great awkward two-handed fellow, i. e. strong.

RAM'S CLAWS [raam z tlaa'z], sb. The stalks of the common butter-cup, when overgrown. Ranuuculus acris. In some seasons, especially wet ones, the butter-cup attains a rank growth, and the cattle refuse to eat it, so that the meadow, if not mown for hay, becomes covered with coarse stalks without leaves, but still bearing the yellow flowers on the top-these are called ram's claws. The name is analogous to bent or bonnet (q. v.) applied to grasses.

It is likely that this may be a corruption of the old word ramsy. The application to another plant does not at all affect this suggestion, for the same name is often given to many different species.

RAMZYS, herbe (rammys, K. S. ramsis, H. ramseys, P.). Affodyllus.—Pr. Parv.

Ramsons are named of the later practitioners Allium sylvestre, or Beares Garlicke Allium latifolium, and Moly Hippocraticum: in English, Ramsons, Ramsies, and Buckrams. Gerard, Herbal, p. 180.


Ramsey an herbe.-Palsgrave. RAMSHACKLE [raam'shaak l], adj. Rickety; disjointed; out of order; dilapidated.

Call thick a carriage! I calls 'n a riglur ramshackle old shandrydan.

No, I an't a tookt the farm, such a proper ramshackle old house

didn plase the missus; but I zaid to her tho, same time, s' I, You know we can't never live by a fine 'ouse. But there, her zaid her widn never go there, zo twadn no good, but the place was well 'nough else.

RANE [rae un], v. t. 1. To cause to crack or split. Nif that there board idn a-put away the zun 'll rane it ali to pieces.

2. Also applied to cloth-to overstretch, so as to cause it to become thin, and almost torn.

Thick there board-cloth was wole and sound avore her warsh 'n, now he's a-raned eens he on't hardly hang together.

3. v. i. [rae unee]. To crack; to split.

We've a perch the board in under thick gurt tree, in the [shee'ud] shade like, eens midn rany. 'T'll drowy there vast enough, 'cause the wind can come to it. Said by a sawyer of sawn timber. Oak's most the wistest tim'er is, vor to rany.

4. sb. [raeun]. A crack in wood, or a thin overstretched place in a piece of cloth.

RANGE [ran‍j], sb. A sieve used for straining liquids and not for sifting dry matter. In cider making, the juice is strained through a range; so in cheese making. Many cooking recipes direct, "Strain off through a fine range," i. e. a hair sieve.

RANGLY [rang·lee], v. i. To twine, or move in a sinuous manner. (Rare.) Rangling plants are such as entwine round other plants, as hops, woodbine.

RANTER [ran'tur], sb. An outdoor preacher. The word is distinctly depreciatory.

One o' those yer ranter fullers, hot 'll vind prayers so long's anybody else 'll vind mate n' drink.

RAP [raap], v. t. 1. To exchange; to swap (q. v.).

[Aal raap wai'ee, gi mee zik'spuns tu bèo't,] I will exchange with you, (if you) give me sixpence to boot.

Our Jim told me how Tailder Jones should zay how he'd rap a new suit o' clothes vor two o' they there little pigs; but Jim zaid he widn rap way un, 'thout he'd let'n had a new hat 'long way 'em.

2. sb. An exchange.

[Dhai-d u-gau't-n een u raap vur dree buun'lz u stroa un u púch krauk,] they obtained it in an exchange for three bundles of straw and a pitch crock.

Capical good mare her is, mind. I had her in a rap wi' George Toms vor th' old oss and dree poun'.

3. sh. Applied to land or crops a strip.

What b'ee gwain to put thick rap o' groun' to, where you had the carrots last year?

There's always a covey o' birds in one or tother o' they raps o' mangle and taties.

4. Plot of any shape; piece cut off.

Mus' have a rap o' cloth vor the bum cork, paper idn no good. I've a got a rap o' taties over in Mr. Hosegood's field, but they baint hardly a-worth diggin'.

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RAPE [rae up], v. t. To scratch with violence. To scratch implies gentleness, i. e. to gently rub so as to cause pleasure; hence the figurative expression, "to scratch his back (i. e. to wheedle, to butter up), evidently from the delight given to a dog, cat, or other animal by that operation.

Hast a-got other bit o' rag in thy pocket? I've a-rape my 'and way a gurt humack, eens he do blid like a pig.

RAPID [raa'peed], adj. Violent; rough.

I zim I be a little bit better s'mornin, doctor, the pain idn nothin' near so rapid's 'twas.

Sober! don't 'ee be so rapid way un; neef 'ee don't take care and be tender way un, you'll tear'n all to pieces. Said of using a mowing-machine.

RARE [rae ur], adj. 1. Raw; under-done-applied to meat. 'Tis a little beet too rare vor my aitin'.

'T'll do nezackly vor me, I likes it rare.

Ang.-Sax. hrére, raw.

Rere or nesche, as eggys. Mollis (sorbilis).—Promp. Parv.

maces and ginger, rere egges, and poached egges not hard, theyr yolkes be a cordiall. An. Borde, Breviary of Health, quoted by Way, P. P. 430. Reere as an egge is, mol, molle.—Palsgrave, p. 322.

2. adj. Excellent in quality; good; prime. Natlins be rare trade, I be ter'ble fond o'm. cider. That's a rare piece o' wheat. 'nough. Thick's a rare knive to cut.

Yours is rare

We'd a-got rare fun, sure

RASH [raa'sh], adj. and adv. Rough; awkward in handling. Sober! you be to rash by half, you'll tear the cover o' un all to pieces; he wadn a-made vor to be a-sar'd (served) so rash. (On opening a box.) Much the same as RAPID.

RASTY [raas'tee], adj. I. Rancid


Put barlie to malting, lay flitches a salting.

Through follie too beastlie, much bacon is reastie.-Tusser, 20, v. 2.

2. Choleric; irritable.

Mr. Cole's a good maister to we, but he can be rasty like sometimes, nif he's a put out.

RAT [raat], v. t.; p. t. [raat ud], p. p. [u-raat-ud]. To cause to rot or decay.

I heard a man say in praise of some good tipple

Darn'd if this idn rare trade, this here's the stuff to rat out the veet o' your stockins.

The vloor o' the tallet's proper a-ratted way the wet coming in.

RATCH(Y [raa'ch(ee], v. t. and i. To stretch at waking or getting up.

I always likes to zee young bulliks ratch and ream theirzul well hon they gets up. I warn they be growin' and getting on. Th' old dog don't bethink to ratchy, do er?

and seodden he gon ramien, and raxlede swiðe.-Lazamon, 1. 25991.
Benedicite he by-gan with a bolke⚫ and hus brest knokede,
Rasclede and remed⚫ and routte at þe laste.-Piers Plow. VIII. 6.
Roxed and raxed in other readings. See P. Plow. B. 398.

Northumb. Rax. See BROCKETT. Raxled, E. Allit. Poems, Patience, l. 1174. RATHE [rae'udh, rae'uv], adj. Early. The positive, of which rather is the comparative degree. The expression "we be gwain t'ave a rave spring de year" is not uncommon. The word also implies in persons or animals precocity of development, either mental or physical.

"Her's a rave young bitch, her is," was said of a girl, and was not intended as a compliment. They yeffers be rave, sure 'nough, i. e. big for their age, forward in growth. Ang.-Sax. hræð.

And holdep ys doztere wip deshonour, & hermyep hem late & rathe.
Sir Ferumbras, 1. 3873.

"O dere cosyn myn, dan Johan," sche sayde, "What ayleth yow so rathe to arise?"—Chaucer, Schipmannes Tale, 1. 98. Wi' shoulder'd shule an' peckiss, rathe Ta work the lab'rers starts.-Pulman, Rustic Sketches, p. 22. See also p. 56.

RATHER [rae'udhur, rae uvur], adj. Comp. of rathe. Earlier ; sooner in point of time. Not used for the rather of literary English, to express preference; for this zoonder or leaver are the words. Your taties d'always come rather'n ours.


Rathare (or sonnare, infra). Pocius. Sonnare, or rathere. Cicius.-Pr. Parv. and 3yf þat I passe Rather pan sche, it ys my wyH þat a spengola. sold a-non forth-with; 1417. Stephen Thomas, Fifty Earliest Wills, p. 38. Many sarsyn þan huld hem coye pat raper wer fers & proute. Sir Ferumbras, 1. 2286. See also II. 426, 2331, 2705, 2924, 2958. but whan þe bataile is i-doo, þan schal he be as he was raper, he and opere kny3tes al i-liche. Trevisa, Lib. I. cap. xxvi. p. 261. See also Ib. p. 93.

And if thou put a lytel terre in his eye, he will mend the rather (i. e. quicker, sooner). Fitzherbert, Husbandry. Ed. Skeat, E. D. S. 46/3. Tha cortst tha natted Yoe now-reert, or bat leetle rather.-Ex. Scold. 1. 210.

RATHE-RIPE [raedh'uruy'p, rae uv-ruy'p], sb. An early kind. of apple yellow codling, with pinkish streaks. The first pronun., the commoner of the two, is, I believe, intended for rather-ripe.

A girl who developed into a woman at an early age would be called rathe-ripe by elderly educated people. See Ex. Scold. p. 148. Th and are interchangeable. Fitzherbert (Husbandry, Ed. Skeat, E. D. S. p. 14, l. 9) spells nave of a wheel nathe.

RAT'S-BANE [raa'ts-bae'un], sb. Chervil. A common wild umbelliferous plant, in appearance something like hemlock— probably mistaken for it. Charophyllum sylvestre.

RATTLE [raa'tl], sb. and vb. Noise of any kind; chatter. A keeper of my acquaintance always uses this word.

We shan't never get aneast 'em way all this yur rattle.
The birds be all a-urned out way our rattle.

per-fore bei ratellen pat it is azenst disceitis & synnes.

RATTLE-BAG [raat l-bag], adj.

ing; spendthrift.

charite to tellen opynly here cursed Wyclif, Works, E. E. T. S. p. 274.

Wild; harum-scarum ; royster

Ees, I knows'n, and a purty rattle-bag osbird a is too.
RATTLE-BRAIN [raat l-braa'yn], adj. and sb. Same


RATTLER [raat·lur], sb. 1. A roysterer; a wild liver.


He's a proper rattler, 'ton't be long 'vore he've a-brought gwain hot little the poor old man lef'm.

2. Cant term for a lie.

Nif that idn a rattler tell me!

RATTLE-TRAP [raat-l-traap], sb. and adj. I. A makeshift contrivance; a shaky, rickety thing; shabby; dilapidated.

I baint gwain in thick old ratile-trap, I'd zoonder walk by half. Purty rattle-trap concarn you've a-stick'd up agin my wall. I baint gwain to put up way that, take my word vor't, zo there now ! 2. Movables; odds and ends; chattels.

Look sharp'n get your rattle-traps out o' the way.

RATTLING [raat leen], adj. Fast; wild; profligate.

He mid do very well in thick farm, nif he wad'n so rattlin; but there, the father o' un was jist the same.

RATTY [raat ee], v. i. To become rotten. For ex. see VINNY. RANDY [ran'dee], sb. A merry-making; a jollification; a drinking party.

I widn gee much vor none o' these here taytotal clubs. I likes

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