« PreviousContinue »
but occasionally such an expression might be heard as "trying to mend the pump Zunday."
18. I think Dr. Evans' instance (Ib. p. 32), "the Quane to yer aunt," not to be a substitution of to for for, but to be precisely similar to the ordinary phrases-" without a coat to his back," "no key to the lock," or to the Scriptural language, "We have Abraham to our father."
In preparing this work for the press, I had made some considerable progress before it occurred to me that the number of words and syllables dropped or omitted, and of others inserted, was very considerable as compared with standard English, and the recurrence of the same form in a variety of the illustrative sentences under revision, decided me to begin to note these systematically, with the view of bringing them together in such a shape that fresh rules of syntactic construction, as well as of pronunciation, might be induced. No attempt is here made to show whether these peculiarities are right or wrong abstractedly, but merely to contrast them as they are with their counterparts in lit. English. However imperfect the result of these notes, it may not be considered waste of space to insert them here. In some cases the omission is confined to that of a single word in some particular phrase; but when so noted it will be understood, unless otherwise stated, that the form noted is that in such common use as to deserve the term always.
I first take connective words or parts of speech, and then go on to special idioms, and finally to omissions of initial or final syllables and sounds.
Beginning with distinguishing adjectives, it is very common to find both a and the omitted. It must be borne in mind that an even before a vowel is unknown. (See W. S. Gram. p. 29.)
1. A is dropped very frequently but not always before the adjective or adverb in descriptive sentences such as
'Twas terr'ble close sort o' place, I zim. Mr. Jones is mortal viery man. See Illust. QUICK-STICK, KIN.
2. A is omitted before bit or quarter when used as a fraction. Thick there idn quarter zo goods 'tother. Wants quarter to one, an' there idn no sign o' no dinner not eet. SNOUT, RUNABOUT.
3. A is dropped after for.
See also PLATTY,
I've a-keep the market vor number o' years. Nobody ont do nort vor man like he. See PINCHFART, Spat.
4. A is dropped after such, nearly always.
Jis fools' he off to be a-starve to death! You ant a-zeed no jis noise 'bout nort in all your born days. See GRUBBER 2, JITCH, PANTILE, RUMPUS, RUSE, WORD O' MOUTH.
5. A is dropped after so good in comparative sentences.
I zay 'tis zo good lot o' beas' as I've a-zeed's longful time. See LIKE I.
6. The is often omitted before same as, a phrase which has become the regular idiom for like or just as.
I've a-do'd same's father do'd avore me. See JOGGY 2, OUT 3, RUNABOUT, OFF 2, SPUDDLY.
7. The is always omitted before words which, though proper names or com. nouns, serve to point out position or occupation, precisely like the literary-I am goin' in to town—as we say, not of London only, but of everywhere.
I be gwain vor zend to station to-marra.
He's that a crippl'd, can't put his voot to ground.
I zeed'n in to Board (Guardians), but I could'n come to spake
We always say send "to mill," "to lime" (kiln), "to shop," " to farrier," "to smith," &c. for anything wanted.
The cows be down to river. I be gwain down to sea.
To drive a dog out, we always say-Go to doors! A publican would say, Nif you don't keep order, you'll be a-put to doors. This phrase implies more than omission of the; it stands for out of the. See To 2.
Illustrations of various uses will be found as follows under HOME TO, MEET WITH, HAPSE, POST OPE, RUSE 2, RAKE ARTER, SIDELING, TIMES I, HARREST DRINK, IN HOUSE, Wad.
Before the names of public-houses the is always omitted, and also in the com. phrases, to back door, to door, to hill, to load, to rick, to road, to vore door, to lower zide, in house, up in tallet, &c. I zeed'n in to King's Arms. See PEDIGREE, POOR 3, RUSE 2, STEAD.
The phrase tap is peculiar, being a contraction of upon the top of, and hence tap in the dialect has become a regular preposition. See TOP, RUSE I.
Where's the pen an' ink a-put to? I left it tap the table nit quarter nower agone!
8. A pronoun, when it is a nominative case, is often omitted; also both nom. case and verb as well are omitted at the beginning of a sentence. (He is a) riglar good strong 'oss, (he) idn none o' your jibbers mind! The words in brackets would be omitted without any context precedent or otherwise to lead up to the omission. (Thou) couldst do it well enough nif (thou) wouldst. [Kuds dùe ut wuul nuuf neef wúts.]
(He) mid a-went very well neef (he) was a mind to.
Baint gwain to part way all 've a-got-i. e. we are not, &c.
See for omissions of (I) CATCH HEAT, JOGGLY 2, Letting, Lent CORN, MID, Neet a most, NOTHER NOTHER.
(You) HOVE, JAR, MAKEWEIGHT, NACKLE-ASS, PANSHORD, PUT Out, Ride 5.
(He) GAMMIKIN, MUMP, NESAKTLY, RUSTY.
(It) KEEPING, HELE, JARGLE, LAMENESS, NECK-OF-THE-FOOT, NICK 6, ONE BIT, ONT BE A ZAID, PEAR, PINDY.
(One) Low v., KITCH, MAKE SHIFT, ONE-WAY-sull, Skit. (We) GANTERING, IRE STUFF, IN HOUSE, LATTY WEATHER, MOOR 1, MOMMIT.
(They) HAND Over head, Plim, PURTENANCE.
Nom. case and verb omitted. For illust. see
(I am) LAPPERY. (I was) HANCHING. (I have) HEEL O' THE HAND. (He is) GAMMIKIN, ITEMS, JACK UP. (It is) PRicked, SCALD 1. (Let it) OTHER. (You are) KICKING ABOUT, Ride 4. (You have) CASION, MUXY. (They were) RUMPUS 2. (It was) SCUMMER 2, JOB, GOOD TURN.
9. Auxiliary verbs are constantly omitted, while the nom. case is expressed. For illust. see as follows
(Have) KITTLE-PINS, LIVIER, MALEMAS, OUT OF SORTS, OCEANS, PLAY 3, RUMPUS 3, Ruvvle, RENE, SEEMLY, SPLIT 1, STAND UP FOR. (Has) KNOCKING ABOUT, ON 3, PLAY 3, LET 2, LUCK, MAKE-MOWS, MIND I, OVER, ONE TIME, SING SMALL, SENSE, SNUFFLES, SQUINGES. (Had) OFF 2.
10. Be in the infin. mood is often dropped, nearly always before forced, safe, sure, when following shall or will, and after used to, ought to.
We shall fo'ced to stap work. Jim'll saafe to tell maister o' it.
Thick 'oss'll sure to kick. Things baint a bit same's they used to. See TIME I.
Bet es won't drenk, nether, except ya vurst kiss and friends. —Ex. Court. 1. 534.
(After shall) STAND-TACK. ought to) MISTRUST.
(After will) TOP-SIDED.
(Before sure) GIFTS, HEFT sb., HORCH, LAB, JAKES, PEASE ERRISH, QUAINT, SORE FINGER, TACKLING, SHOD.
(After used to) GRIP sb., JUMBLE, SHAKE 2, LIE ABED, LONGDOG, OUT-DOOR-WORK, PITCH 4.
11. Relative pronouns are very often omitted. See W. S. Gram. pp. 32, 41.
There's a plenty o' vokes can 'vord it better'n I can.
Tidn he can make me do it, and that I'll zoon show un.
I know very well twad'n my boy do'd it.
Was there no other place might serve to worship in.
1642. Rogers, Naaman, p. 535.
See GENITIVE, LOOBY, POKE 5, SHARPS, SNAP, UNDECENTNESS.
12. Webster says, "There, is used to begin sentences, or before a verb, without adding essentially to the meaning." So much do we feel this, that we very often leave it out when it would always appear in literary English. In negative sentences this is nearly always the case. Idn nit a mossle bit a-lef. That there's the very wistest sort is. On't be no cherries de year. Wad'n but zix to church 'zides the pa'son. Was more pigs to market'n ever I zeed avore. They holm-screeches be the mirscheeviusest birds is. See COWHEARTED. The same may be said of the adverb when.
I can mind the time very well, could'n get none vor love nor money—i. e. when I could'n.
The day'll sure to come, you'll be zorry o' it.
See POPPLE, HEART 2, JOBBER, MANSHIP, MOLLY CAUDle, MUNCH, MATH, ONE WITH TOTHER, PECK, PROOF, TIMBER DISH, GETTING, PROACH, GLARE, LEW, QUADDLY, Loss, MILL, MOGVURD, RUBBY, RIGHTSHIP, REVEAL, RINE, THROW 3.
13. In sentences or clauses, with so or as qualifying another adverb, we very commonly omit the first of these connective words-Vast as I can drow the stuff out, 'tis in 'pon me again. Quick's ever her could, her brought the spirit, but twadn no good, he wadn able vor tich o' it. See LEGGY, MAKE HOME, MANNY, LONG-DOG 2,
MUTTERY, MASH, PAY, RISE v. i., SACK I, STIVER. These examples seem to be all uses of soon, but the same form is common with many other adverbs.
I tell ee tis vright's ninepence. Thick there cask is zweet's a nit See SCAMBLE 1. So as, i. e. in such a manner as, is often omitted; for example see PAPERN.
14. In phrases denoting the same time or position, the connecting prepositions and adverbs are often omitted before and after same. I never didn think to meet ee, same place I zeed ee to, last time I was yer-long-i. e. at the same place as.
Her zaid her never widn have no more to zay to un, same time, nif I was he, I widn bethink to try again. See RAMSHACKLE.
Where in lit. English we should draw a comparison by using like, or in the same manner as, in the dialect we constantly use the phrase same as, omitting the words just the, or exactly the.
Thick old fuller! why he's same's a old hen avore day. That there's same's the young farmer White do'd. See MAZE 1, REAM 2.
15. After just upon, we omit the connective words, the point of, the act of, and the sense must be inferred from the context.
The doctor was jis 'pon gwain, i. e. just upon the point of going. The tree was jis 'pon vallin, hon a puff o' wind come and car'd'n right back tother way. Nif her wadn jis 'pon lettin go the bird, hon I clap my 'and 'pon the cage. See LEB'M O'CLOCKS.
16. All, is regularly omitted in that commonest of phrases" But everything" (q. v.).
I baint gwain gatherin (i. e. collecting subscriptions) there no more. I 'ad 'n hardly a-told'n my arrant vore he begin-nif he didn call me but everything; and I hadn a-gid he no slack whatsomedever.
17. The words in comparison with, or compared to, as used in a literary sentence, would be omitted by us.
Mr. Piper's proper near now, sure 'nough, what he was, cant git a varden out o' un-i. e. compared to what he was. Our roads be shocking bad, what yours be in your parish-i. e. in comparison with what yours are. This is not a mere looseness of speech,
but the common idiom. See TAFFETY, SLACK 4.
18. After numerals it is very common to omit the description of price, weight, or quantity of the articles referred to, as in the literary hundredweight, leaving it to be inferred by the context or custom of the market what integer is spoken of.