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You cant buy very much of a 'oss less'n forty-i. e. forty pounds. I gid fifty-vive apiece for they there couples dree mon's agone, and now they baint a wo'th 'boo forty-eight-i. e. shillings. They yoes to fat, be 'em! why they baint not no more'n eighty apiece else they be vive hundid 1-i.e. 80 lbs. in weight. You can buy good two-yearold steers vor zixteen a pair-i. e. £16. I call's thick yeffer thirty and no more—i. e. thirty score in weight when dead and dressed by the butcher.

How be taties zillin? Au! you can buy so many's you mind to vor vive-i. e. five shillings per bag of 8 score, or 160 lbs. Whate do yieldy well about; Mr. Slape 'ad a-got more'n forty out o' thick there ten acres-i.e. 40 bushels per acre. To the uninitiated it must be most perplexing to follow the chaffering of the markets, and the ordinary business talk of farmers and those with whom they deal.

19. Of prepositions, the omissions are numerous and regular in the construction of sentences.

(a) At is left out in such phrases as—He do always do thick there job breakfast times. See INTO 2, Rise.

(6) By is dropped in such sentences as–Maister off (ought) to a-zen more 'ands. I know'd we wadn able vor do it urzuls -i.e. by ourselves. See His-self.

(c) For is omitted before fear, less, and other words-Mother widn come to church s'mornin fear her mid catch a cold. See paragraph 18, p. xxxv, HELE, HULK, PACK UP.

I widn put up way it for no money, nor neet no man livin'. See I-MAKÉD. Joe idn comin' long o we more'n a wik or two-i.e. for more than. See TWELVE, TWENTY.

(d) From is omitted in speaking of time or position. There ont be no grass hardly now gin out in May—i. e. from now. I wadn no vurder away 'an our door to yours—i. e. from our door. See VURNESS.

(e) In is often dropped. The roof takes wet many different places-i.e. in many. See Lissom, NORATION, SCRAN (i.e. in or while going on), TIME TO COME.

All relationships expressed by in-law, lose the in. Father-law, mother-law, zister-law, brither-law, &c.

() Of is omitted before clock in speaking of the hour.

What's the clock, Joe? Two clock, just [tue: klauk, jis]. See NOMMIT. Also after quarter when used as a measure of time or quantity. Plase to let me lost a quarter day?-i. e. quarter of a day. Missus zend me arter quarter yand more o’this here cloth. There idn no more'n quarter bag o'taties a-lef-i. e. quarter of a bag. I zeed'n g'in t'ouse nit boo quarter nower agone.

This last phrase is constantly varied to quarter's hour. Your 'oss 'ont be ready this quarter's hour [radee úz kwau'rturz aaw'ur]. They bin a-started 'is quarter's hour. See Pooch, v., RAKE OUT, ROUTY, SNOUT, SPARE I.

(s) To is very commonly dropped before the infinitive of purpose, when for is used.

My man's ago up’m town vor take out a summons agin un. See LACK, MAISTER 2, MORE AND SO, NEGLECTFUL, NO CALL, SPARE 2, TITTERY, TO 20.

In the phr. to be sure, to is generally left out.

You ant a-zold yer old mare, be sure! See JACK-A-DANDY, JAR, POOK 1. Also in tomorrow, to-day. I can't do it gin marra mornin'. Maister wadn 'ome day mornin', but p'r'aps is come back. See DAY MORNING.

In rapid speech to is often left out before proper names.

Take'n car they rabbits op Farm' Perry's.--Dec. 12, 1887. Her zaid how her'd a-bin op Wrangway. I be gwain down station arter some coal.

(h) Upon is omitted very frequently; the prep. on is first expanded into upon the top of, and then contracted into top.

Who've a-had the drenchin' horn? I put'n tap the clock my own zull a Zinday mornin'. See PURDLY, RAUGHT, RUSE 1, SoFT 1, TOP 4, TABLEBOARD.

20. Conjunctions. (a) And is often dropped in such sentences as-Why's'n look sharp, neet bide there gappin'? I'd make haste 'ome, neet stap here no longer, nif I was thee-neet make a fool othyzul. See JIG TO JOG, NACKLE-ASS.

(b) If is omitted frequently along with the entire conditional clause. Let thee alone, wit'n sar tuppence a day-i. e. if one were to let thee alone. Wid'n be much water vor to grindy way, did'n look arter the mill-head and the fenders—i. e. if I did not look

See KADDLE, PLATTY, SHIVE. (1) It is quite usual to omit that.

I never did'n thought ever he'd sar me zo. We was that busy, I could'n come no how. See Low, Nail, SCRAG 3, SCRAWL, SNAFFLE. Also very often the conjunction and nom. case following it are left out together. Her was in jish tear vor start, wad'n able vor get it ready-i.e. that we were not able. See JACKETTING, LAMENESS, LENT CORN, NAIL. OF

Frequently the two words that there are dropped.

I told'n to take care wadn no stones long way the zand. Her zeed very well could'n be no things a-lef' behind, else must a-zeed it-i.c, that there could not. See Loss, SAME PURPOSE.

21. Several words ending in y or ee in lit. Eng. drop their terminations in the dialect. To carry is alway kaar. See LINCH, MAKE HOME, MANNERLY, MAT, Mun, NIP UP. TO DIRTY, QUARRY, 7. and sb., STUDY are always duurt, kwau'r, stúd. Story also, and slippery are stoa'r and slúpur.

The termination er is frequently dropped in rapid speech. To lower is loa'; master, maa's: farmer, faa'rm; butcher, bèo'ch, &c. Car up they rabbits op Farm' Perry's way Maister's compliments.

' Dec. 1887. See Pusky. Final d is dropped after n or I, whether followed by a vowel

See FIND, MAUND, MILD, Wild, RIND, SEND, and also Word Lists.

or not.

22. Initial letters and syllables are often omitted, such as a in abate, abide, abuse, ad in adjoin, adjust, advance, be in beholdin', besides, begin, &c. See ZOONDER, and Word Lists.

23. Syllables are often omitted in polysyllabic words, as in NONSICAL, VEGFBLE, VEGETLES, &c.

If there are many omissions in our syntax, so also there are many redundancies as compared with the same standard, but they appear to be of a more exceptional character, and to lend themselves less easily to classification. It may, however, be as well to group them together so far as noted by me. And first it will not fail to be remarked by all who look into it, that in our dialect we have a very remarkable piling up of negatives, particularly when the word never is used; indeed, never seems to require another negative to complete it. No amount of negative has any effect upon the sense; however many there may be they do not destroy but rather confirm each other.

No, I never did'n zee no jis bwoys, not vor mirschy, not in all my born days. You never wid'n be no jis fool, wid'n ee?

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The following adverbs are often used redundantly-
As. See As, p. 31 text.
Here after this or these. See GWAINS ON.
Very often a second here is added, but both are purely redundant.

This here here tap dressin' don't do no good, not to the land. See THIS HERE 2.

Like is one of the commonest of words, and may be tacked on to any clause whatever, sometimes carrying a very fine shade of meaning, such as, so to speak, as one may say, but very often it is wholly redundant. For examples



There in the phrases he, or they there, and he, or they there there, is used much in the same way as here. See THERE 3.

Out is often used after superlative clauses. I calls thick there there the wistest job out. See OUT, LEASTEST BIT.

It is very common to add a redundant day after the name of any festival, as Midsummer-day day.

I can swear I zeed’n Can'lmas-day day beyond all the days in the wordle. See LOOK 2, TURN OUT.

One old man used always to complain of his “bad luck” because he was born on quarter-day. Which quarter? Why Lady-day day, be sure, wis luck! The rent wad’n ready!

To is very commonly inserted after where or wherever. The keeper's boy asked, Jan. 30, 1888–

[Sh-l ur laef: dhu dhingöz sae'um plae'us wur dhai bee tùe- ?], shall I leave the things (at the) same place where they be to? See INDOOR SERVANT, MORTAL, TO II.

To is also inserted before afternoon in a future construction, as in to-day, to-night; but with afternoon in a past sentence we use this, or rather 's. Hence we should say—I went to zee un 'sarternoon, and I'll call in again to-marra tarternoon. The butcher's comin' to kill the pig a Vriday t'arternoon—i. e. Friday afternoon. See LoviER, QUEST, S'AFTERNOON, S 2.

The is used redundantly before names of persons whenever they are described by any preceding adjective.

The poor old Jan Baker, that's th' old Bob's father, you krow. See Kew, KIN, POOR 2, The 2.

By is redundant after know in negative sentences, when the verb is intransitive.

Be em gwain to drap the bread ? Not's I know by, they'll rise it vast enough, but they don't care nort 't-all 'bout drappin' o' it. See KEEP COMPANY, KNOW BY.

For is used after why-i.e. instead of saying simply, why? we say why vor? See WHY VOR.

In is used redundantly before under, and as a prefix before detriment, durable, &c.

Will, you can put down the basket in under the table. See IN UNDER, INDETERMENT, INDURABLE.

Of is commonly used after some verbs, as ask, touch, help, and after the present participle and gerundive of all verbs.

Missus zaid I was vor ax o' ee nif you could plase to be so kind's to lend her your girt spit. Twadn


I never didn tich o'ee, an’ if I'ad I couldn help o' it. Hot be you bwoys actin' o'? They be zillin' o' things winderful cheap, sure 'nough.

There idn no good in keepin' o' it about no longer. See JUMP 2, KEEP v. t. 2, KNACK I, LATTY WEATHER, LIKING 1, MANG, OF, SPAT.

After about, when used to express inexactness of quantity, of is always inserted. I should think was about of a score. About of a forty. About o' thirty, I count.

Come and was are very often inserted quite redundantly in speaking of time, in future and past sentences respectively.

To-marra come wik I be gwain home to zee mother !—i.e. tomorrow week. I ant a-spokt to un sinze last Zaturday was week, in to Taan’un. Last Tuesday was mornin' her was a-tookt bad, an' her ant a-bin out o' bed not sinze. See LUCK, WEEK.

Do is frequently duplicated when used as a principal verb.

Well there, we do do so well's we can. Her can't help o' it, poor thing, her do do all's her able vor to. See NONSICAL.

Bit is always added to morsel.

Mr. Gregory zess you can't lave no more, 'cause idn a mossle-bit a-lef! See MORSEL-BIT.

More and most are still as in Mid. Eng. very commonly prefixed to the comparative and superlative of adjectives without adding anything to the meaning.

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