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long as the city was open, and not to retain money in
their hands, as that would be useless during a siege.
Upon his urging the same advice on Hung Sew-tsuen,
that Heavenly Prince only ảnswered characteristically,
“Are you afraid of Death ? I, the truly-appointed
Lord, can, without the aid of troops, command Great
Peace to spread its sway over the whole region.” What
could Chung Wang say to this ? as he himself patheti-
cally inquires. All he could do was to breathe a sigh,
and move away with a body of troops in order to raise
the siege of Nganking, that place being, in fact, the key of
the whole Rebel position in the valley of the Yangtsze.

The whole of the chiefs being assembled at Nanking in October 1860, it was resolved that the great objects of the coming year should be the capture of Hankow and the raising of the siege of Nganking; and to effect these four armies were to be put in motion. The first army, under the Ying Wang, or the Four-eyed Dog, was to move from Tongching to Hwangchow, along the north bank of the Yangtsze, in rear of the covering force of Imperialists engaged at Nganking, and thence on to the east of Hankow. The second, under the Tu Wang, was to cross from the north to the south bank of the Yangtsze, in order to attack Hokeou at the entrance of the Poyang Lake, and from thence to ascend the river on Hankow. Another division, under the Attendant King, was also to march on the Poyang Lake, and thence by Nanchang, the capital of Kiangsi, on to Woochang, the city vis-à-vis to Hankow, on the southern bank of the Yangtsze. The fourth army, under the Faithful King himself, was to march south of the Poyang Lake to Yotehow on the Tungting Lake, and from thence to descend the great river to Hanyang, which is only separated from Hankow by the river Han. All these

forces were to move so as to be at or near their common object in March or April. At the same time arrangements were made for the Rebels at Soochow to move down on the cities of Chapu and Ilaiyuen, while the Nienfei (who, without subscribing to the tenets of the Great Peace, fought on the side of the Tai-pings when it suited them) were to make a raid from Tongyan against Yangchow, Kwachow, and Chinkiang. The Imperialists, on the other hand, were thus placed :— Tseng Kwo-sun was besieging Nganking; General Paou Chiaou and his forces were near Hangchow; Tseng Kwo-fan, the Governor-General, was at Kimen in order to prevent any advance on Kiangsi; and Chang Yu-liang was at Hangchow. The intended route of the Faithful King was somewhat disturbed by General Paou, who defeated him at Yuhain and compelled him to move into Chekiang. In the neighbourhood of Shanghai the Rebels were pretty quiet about this period, but they made one or two raids against Woosung in October, and ravaged the country, inflicting great misery on the people, and filling Shanghai with fugitives, the latter fact affording evidence of the terror which they inspired.

The war with the Imperialists in the north being now ended, Admiral Sir James Hope, our naval commanderin-chief, was able to turn his attention to the Tai-ping question—to its effect on our trade and on our possession of Shanghai. It was also necessary to visit the ports on the Yangtsze which had been opened to trade by the new treaty; so the Admiral started up the river in February of 1861; and, passing Chinkiang, which was in a most ruinous state, anchored at Nanking. Here he entered into correspondence with the Tien Wang on the opening of trade in the Yangtsze, on the necessity of the Tai-pings being forbidden to interfere with



Shanghai, and on orders being given that they should not approach within 100 li, or 30 miles, of it; that distance being supposed sufficient to secure it against any sudden attack. In answer to these demands the Tien Wang agreed to leave Shanghai unmolested for a year, and issued some regulations in regard to the ports on the river and its navigation. Sir J. Hope then proceeded up to Nganking, which was closely besieged by the Imperialists, Kiukiavg, which was in ruins, and Hankow, establishing consulates at the two last ports. The Rebels at this time occupied the river from their Ileavenly Capital to Wuhu, including the East and West Pillars. The accounts of the various officers and gentlemen who went up on this expedition agree in describing the Tai-ping cities and districts as having been in a state of great desolation, while the people who were left were in the utmost misery. On the other hand, in places which had been retaken by the Imperialists, confidence had returned ; the people were crowding back to their ruined homes, and trade and new houses were springing up.

Meanwhile at Shanghai Ward and Burgevine began again to make themselves felt, again collecting men for a third attempt on Singpoo, where they had been defeated by the Faithful King in 1860. In March and April 1861 Ward had collected a number of Foreigners and sent them up from Sungkiang to Burgevine, who was intrenched with some Imperialists near Singpoo ; but the consuls and admirals were so desirous to avoid any unnecessary embroilment with the Tai-pings, that they arrested Ward and some of his men on the 19th May, and took him to Shanghai, where he was tried as an American citizen illegally engaged in operations of war, but avoided jurisdiction by disowning his country and claiming Chinese nationality. It was arranged, however, that Ward should not then make any more attempts to enlist Europeans and Americans on the side of the Imperialists; and about the same time the Tien Wang, on demand, delivered up to Admiral Hope a number of Foreigners, some of whom were deserters from the royal navy, who had taken service with the Tai-pings, from whom they got no pay, but plenty of spirits and full permission to plunder. Thus we see that at this period a sincere attempt was made by the Foreign authorities to carry out a policy of complete non-intervention, and it was only after-events which necessitated a departure from it.

It is now expedient to turn to the movements of the Rebels in the beginning of 1861, when their various armies were put in movement for the capture of Hankow, the bold conception of the Chung Wang, who to attain this end undertook a march of not less than 500 miles. In January 1861 this chief left Shangchow, and marched without opposition through Yuchan, Quangsin, to Kianchang, which he found held by Imperialists, and which he failed to take, though he captured a force that was coming to its relief. He then pushed on to the banks of the river Kan, which runs into the Poyang Lake, but was there delayed for some time, the stream being swollen by melting snows. On crossing, he drove off the local militia, and, marching on, placed his troops in April in Ngan and Ouhning ; so as far as his column was concerned it had done its part, though his failure to take Kianchang had rendered his return precarious in the event of anything unfortunate happening to the other Rebel armies advancing on Hankow. The Ying Wang, or Heroic King, advancing on his shorter line, captured Yochan and Yinchan early in March, and then attack



ing a camp of Amoor Tartars with great success, took all their horses. Hwangchow, a city only 50 miles from Hankow, was taken by him by surprise on the 18th March 1861, by which time he had marched a force of nearly 80,000 men 200 miles in eleven days, and had quite outflanked the Imperialists at Loosong. The column under the Assistant King, however, was not so lucky, being defeated in April at Loping, with the loss of 10,000. The Tu Wang also was checked; for after crossing the Yangtsze at the Pillars, he was met by one of Tseng Kwo-fan's generals, and completely defeated, while another portion of his army was overthrown by the Governor-General himself. When the Faithful King heard of these failures he had himself got into difficulties, for the Imperialist general, Paou, was following him up with a large force, the Governor of Hankow had despatched another to check his advance, and the people were pillaging his convoys, so he determined to turn on his tracks before it was too late ; and after some narrow escapes, and a march of more than 800 miles, reached Quangsin in September 1861. The Heroic King, finding his colleagues did not approach, had also to fall back; and thus ended the grand scheme for relieving Nganking · by an attack on Hankow.

Paou Chiaou followed up the Faithful King some distance, and received the Yellow Jacket from the Emperor for his services, which had saved Hankow. After retreating to Tongching the Heroic King again attempted to relieve Nganking, but his troops were sadly in want of provisions, while those of his opponent, the Governor-General, were well supplied, and assisted by a fleet of gunboats; and about this time General Ching (afterwards associated with the Ever-Victorious Army), a Rebel chief of some eminence, high in favour with the

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