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phant, yet his attention was, on both these occasions, par- peculiarity of this coarse hair, however, is, that it is neither ticularly attracted to so uncommon an animal. I am the perfectly round, nor perfectly flat, as that from the tail of the more desirous of drawing the attention to the artless and fa- horse is occasionally found to be; but it is irregularly rounded miliar description contained in the above passage, from hav- und flattened over its whole surface, in a manner so unlike ing found, on inquiry from many who have spent a great part any other hair, that it may, probably, be looked upon as quite of their lives in the East, that this variety of the elephant is peculiar to the elephant.* It immediately occurred to me, so little known, that much doubt is entertained, by some, to compare this unusual construction with the coarser sort as to the correctness of the account of it.

of hair of the fossil specimen; and though there is not in Setting aside, however, for a moment, the character of the that sample, (which was sent to Sir Joseph Banks, from individual from whom alone we have, as yet, derived our in- St. Petersburg,) any hairs which could be supposed to belong formation of this new living variety, let us consider the col- to the tail of the antediluvian animal, yet it is most obvious lateral circumstances of the case; and we shall find, that this and surprising, to see the exact similarity which exists between generally, though not invariably small race of elephants, are the coarsest hairs or bristles of that sample, and those of said to be the natural and wild inhabitants of an extensive the tail of the common Asiatic species. range of jungle, where, though ice is rarely seen, yet hoar frost Such corroborative points, in the chain of our evidence, are is quite a common occurrence; and where, consequently, the not to be overlooked, nor despised; and though Bishop clothing of the native animals might be expected to be warmer Heber does not give us the slightest notion of the colour of than in the burning plains, at a greater distance from the the animal he saw, yet we may naturally conclude, from what highest mountains on the globe.

we already know of the existing species, that it must have We find, that this very animal on which the rajah was been of a dark brown tint, nearly approaching, in the coarser mounted, accompanied the bishop to the town or village, hairs, to black. If this be the case, it will agree, most perwhere he was to leave his elephants for a time, and to con- fectly, with the description I have read, and the samples I have tinue his journey on“ little white shaggy ponies,” in every seen, of the shaggy coat of the antediluvian animal. respect similar to those of Wales, or of Scotland, to which The coarsest hair in the Museum of the College of SurHeber likens them; and in the course of one day's journey geons, is, in colour, like that of some dark chesnut horses, further, he begins to mention chamois, which are well known which are often called black, but whose manes and tails show to be naturalized only in very cold climates. *

a reddish colour when viewed transparently. The tufts of It is not necessary, however, to urge the probability of the hair from the fossil animal, evidently indicate an inclination account of any object of that description given by the pen of to curl; the woolly hair, at the roots of the coarser sort, the amiable Heber. For, however mistaken his views may shows this even more distinctly; and the whole gives at once sometimes have been upon Indian affairs, in the short ac- the idea of its having formerly belonged to exactly such an quaintance which he was permitted to enjoy with that im- animal as Heber so graphically describes as being almost mense range over which his spiritual authority extended, we as shaggy as a poodle," to which animal alone it could, percannot, for a moment, doubt his exactness on such points as haps, be properly likened.f we are now considering; and as he was, at the time, accom- As we have now found, therefore, a situation, within the panied by Mr. Boulderston, who had for many years held an tropics, sufficiently cold to produce a thick coat of hair, on a official situation in that district, and from whom, Heber says, race of animals usually bare; but, at the same time, sufhe derived much information on the natural history of the ficiently hot to furnish a climate fitted for the richest Eastern jungles they were then traversing, it is but reasonable to vegetation, and a jungle grass so high, as nearly to cover the suppose, that the short description above quoted, was the elephants of the hunters, let us imagine, for a moment, such result of the conversation and inquiry which this new and an event to occur, as is supposed by Cuvier to have actually strange looking animal must naturally have given rise to. happened in the present Polar regions, at the period of his

I am happy to say, that, in as short a space of time as the last revolution, or, what we term the Mosaic deluge. Cuvier great distance will permit, we may hope to have a full and supposed that a sudden flood of waters must have occurred, particular account of the rough-coated elephant. Through the kindness of Dr. Wilkins, Librarian to the honourable the * The hair that is next in coarseness to that of the elephant's tail, East India Company, in London, letters have been written is that of the tail of the cameleopard, which is of a fine round form, to the gentlernan who is, at present, engaged as a naturalist, and from two to three feet in length. The hair of the hippopotamus in traversing some of the extensive districts of Hindostan, for bare. About the mouth are tufts of strong bristles—as also in the the purpose of drawing his particular attention to this animal ; ear: and it is singular, that the form and arrangement of the tail and to all who enter into the consequences, to be naturally should be the same as that of the elephant. Both are flattened deduced from its discovery, a more particular description of towards the point, and the hairs are only on the edges, and not upon it, from the pen of a naturalist, must afford a subject of the the sides of the flat part of the tail. highest interest and expectation.

+ Since writing, the above, I have, by the kindness of the ZoologiIn the mean time, I must not omit to take notice of one different parts of the body of their small Ceylon elephant ; and have

cal Society, been permitted to take specimens of the hair from point which has come under my observation, and which cer- compared them with the fossil specimens, in the presence of Mr. tainly corroborates, as far as it goes, my idea of the complete Clift, at the Royal College of Surgeons. or approximating identity of species, between this existing This small elephant in the Zoological Gardens of the Regent's caste of the elephant, and the shaggy fossil of Siberia, as Park, has not been many months in England. It is three or four well as between the common Asiatic race, and the animal years old, and is not yet larger than a small Highland ox. He is as whose bones and teeth are so generally distributed over the

hairy as many species of pigs; and his coat has a decided tendency

to be shaggy' or curly. His colour is a dark chesnut brown on surface of the earth, and known by the name of the mammoth. the

back, dirty gray on the stomach and lower parts of the body; and I have before alluded to the interesting specimens of the there is most hair, (of a yellowish colour,) about the mouth. In the skin and hair of the fossil mammoth of the Lena, preserved interior of the ear, the hair is close set, and of a light gray colour, in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, in London. much resembling that called wool, in the descriptions of the Siberian After having examined the three different varieties of hair of fossil. which this sample is composed, viz. a sort of wool or short since the animal has

been in England : and the older and larger

The keepers are conscious of the gradual increase of this bair, hair; a longer kind, about the coarseness of that of the mane Mysore elephant, of the same collection, has also a thin coat of hair, of a horse ; and a stronger sort, thicker than any bristle with of a few inches in length, all over his body, and of the same colour which I am acquainted; I had an opportunity of seeing, in the as in the smaller animal. In both, the longest hair is on the neck same fine collection, the tail of the common Asiatic elephant, and shoulders; but it has not yet assumed any appearance of a mane. with the curious arrangement of hair of which it is composed. It is, indeed, probable, that the mane described on the fossil speciThis hair is from one to two feet in length, and of such thick- men did

not more resemble that of a horse, than the longer bristles ness, that it more resembles long rounded strips of whale- always found on the neck and shoulders of the hog. Upon the whole,

the small Ceylon elephant appears fast approaching to such a shaggy bone, than any thing else to which I could liken it. The appearance as Heber describes, and as Mr. Adams found on the Siand, at the same time, an equally sudden and violent diminu-depths of the ocean, an element to which many of those anition of heat, so as first to envelope the animals in the water, mals must have belonged, which we now generally look upon and then to convert that water, almost instantly, into ice; as extinct, it must be admitted to be extremely probable, that which has been the means of preserving, in an entire state, many of our conclusions on that head have been inconsidereven the most perishable parts of some of the animal bodies ate and hasty. We have long been amused, from time to embedded in it.

berian fossil elephant. * " The pahariahs, or hill people, are quite a distinct race from The resemblance of the hair of the fossil, and of the recent animal, the rest of the iahabitants of Bengal; and, from every circumstance, is complete, having that general inclination to red, before remarked; may be, with reason, considered as aborigines. They are in stature and the longer hair of both is chesnut when viewed transparently, and figure very like the Welsh,” &c.

and so similar in this respect, that the one cannot be distinguished “ Most people conclude the climate of India to be invariably sul- from the other. try and scorching, whereas the months of December and January I have, also, by the kindness of Mr. Cleft, been permitted to exare often so cold as to produce a thin coat of ice upon the puddles; amine the tooth of a Siberian fossil, which was sent to Sir Joseph and, very commonly, a smart hoar frost on the grass and vegeta- Banks at the same time as the hair. It is completely identical'in tion.”-Field Sports of the East.

form and structure to that of the common Asiatic elephant.

time, with reports of what have been termed sea serpents, of It must be obvious to every one, that if such an event were, enormous dimensions; and these accounts, though coming at the present day, to occur in the jungles and forests in the from a great variety of persons and places, have usually been vicinity of the Hymalaya range, now inhabited by a race of set down to the account of ignorance and fable. Without elephants more or less or shaggy;" and also by innumerable being, by any means, an implicit believer in such stories, I other animals of every sort, usually found in such latitudes, cannot but think it possible, and even highly probable, that we should expect to find, on inspecting the frozen mass, that there are still many things in the wide earth but little the animal remains were invARIABLY entire, and, in no in- dreamt of in our philosophy;" and that some such monsters stance, exhibiting such decided marks of marine action, as of the deep may exist, and be occasionally seen, as has so oysters, and other sea creatures, firmly attached to them. In- often been asserted by many respectable persons.* stead of prodigious beds of “mud," mixed with “ice," and It was, formerly, one of the well know facts of geology, " bones," so correctly described by Professor Buckland, as that there had once existed a species of CARNIVOROUS elephants. the state in which the shores and islands of the Polar seas This extraordinary idea, arising from the form of the teeth of are now found, we should look, with a confident expectation, the mastodon, is now entirely exploded. It was, also, a preamounting to certainty, for the mass of vegetable substances, vailing opinion, and reasoned upon as another of these well and entire trees, which must have equally shared the melan- known facts, that that animal must have been a native of choly fate of the unhappy elephants.

America, as his fossil remains were only found in that country; Such, however, is by no means the state of things in the thus encouraging the groundless notion, that the continents of latitude of the mouth of the Lena, in Siberia ; and, as every the New World had existed, as they now do, before the flood. thing there denotes total ruin, and diluvial confusion, we have This idea has been subsequently proved to be as unfounded a right to assume, as a demonstrable fact, that the theory of and false, as so many other parts of the theories of philosophy, Cuvier is entirely groundless. It must, however, in justice, It may be admitted, that the remains of this particular spebe admitted, that the shaggy coat of these fossil animals cies of the elephant have been, hitherto, oftener observed in formed a strong and plausible ground for some such theory. America, than elsewhere; and if it were necessary, it would But the enthusiasm, too common on the discovery of a new not be difficult to advance very plausible theories to aeand interesting fact, was, in this instance, permitted to outrun count for the predominance of the fossil remains of one the discretion so necessary on a point which was to lead to species over another, in particular localities, in the same such sweeping conclusions. For the undeniable facts which manner as we find the greater part of one deposit to consist were assumed from this discovery, led to the following una- of fish, and of another of bones, or shells. voidable results ; first, that all northern fossils must have Such currents of the ocean as now sweep along the coasts been "clothed in wool," secondly, that the remains of the of New Holland, must, at the period of the deluge, have same class of animals found in less rigorous climates, such somewhere deposited those animal bodies which might have as our own, were also those of natives of such climates respec- belonged exclusively to any similar portion of the former dry tively; and, thirdly, that the climates of the antediluvian lands. In the direction of this branch of the currents, or in earth, as well as the nature of its animal productions, must any of the eddies which it might chance to have occasioned, have been widely different from what they now are. we should certainly look for such fossil remains as would be

All these conclusions, and innumerable others which rarely found in other parts of the bed of the sea. In the naturally flowed from them, we must now hold to be utterly event of such a calamity, in the present day, the peculiar false and groundless. Every thing denotes, on the contrary, animal and vegetable productions of New Holland would that the earth, and its productions, have been nearly, if not certainly attract a great share of attention, and be productive entirely, uniform, ever since they came from the hand of the of much theory in philosophy, supposing that we had still Creator. We have not yet discovered, it is true, an existing remained ignorant of the existence of that immense country, variety of the elephant, exactly similar to that which has re- and of its curious productions, as we were half a century ago. ceived the title of mastodon among geologists; but, as we But, as my object is rather to treat of facts than of theories, I have now advanced so important and unexpected a step with shall proceed to give an interesting instance of the fossil masrespect to the mammoth, we may not altogether despair of todon in our own country, and in the immediate neighbourhood still becoming acquainted, at some future time, with a living of one of the most extensive and remarkable diluvial deposits mastodon. Science is a plant of but tardy growth, even un- with which we are any where acquainted. We know, that, der the most favourable circumstances of civilized society ; in America, the remains of both the mastodon and mammoth much more, then, in countries where such fostering care can-are constantly discovered in the same soils. This circumnot be afforded for its protection. In our eastern possessions, stance would, of itself, be sufficient to destroy the whole for example, so far removed as they are from the parent theory of geologists, who confine the mastodon to America, country, there must still be the richest field for scientific re- as they do the gigantic elk to Ireland, or the Isle of Man, search in every branch of Natural History. Our young men because his remains happen to have occurred in those counhave, however, for the most part, hitherto gone out at an age tries, in several instances. One undoubted instance of the when the mind is unprepared to take advantage of the vivid mastodon in Europe would be sufficient, then, for the support impressions which noveliy affords. We soon become famil- of the system we are now defending; and we cannot have iarized to what was, at first, new and surprising; and we are, the smallest doubt, that, however rare these instances may, afterwards, incapable of perceiving that, what is an every day as yet, have been, a more intimate and general acquaintance occurrence in a foreign land, may prove of the highest interest with the distinguishing features of the two fossil varieties, to science in our own more cultivated societies. Thus, for (which are only to be known by the form of the grinders,) example, has this shaggy race of elephants been seen, for will make us acquainted with many more instances than we years, by numbers of our countrymen, without any one hav-have at present heard of. + ing thought of its being more interesting than the common In a former part of this treatise, and in quoting from the breed. Geology, or general science, is, probably, but little thought of, in a country where business must require all that * Amongst the fossil animals which are now looked upon as extinct, exertion and energy of the mind, which is not dissipated by sider, that by far the greater part of the interior of Africa is still

are some species of the saurian, or crocodile tribe. When we conthe debilitating effects of the climate. We have, it is true, unexplored, and that we are but partially acquainted with the promade a most rapid progress in our knowledge of Natural His- ductions, even of its knowo rivers, we must suspend our judgment tory within the last half century ; but, with almost all China, on the subject of the extinct species of the crocodile ; and we may the greater part of Africa, and nearly the whole of New Hol- reason from analogy, that we shall still become acquainted with land, still before us, unexplored, we probably have much to many new things, and may conclude, that every new discovery will learn, before we reach the boundaries of so wide a field for tend to show the literal truth of the Inspired Record, and the proviinquiry.*

dent care of the Creator, for the preservation of all created species. When we consider, on the other hand, the unfathomable Nile, and greatly resembles one variety of the supposed extinet fosinteresting communication of Mr. Layton, on the fossil re- We are not, however, to infer from these variable evidenmains of the coast of Norfolk, mention is especially made of ces, either that all fossil elephants had spiral tusks, or that the skeleton of the “great mastodon” having been found all recent ones have those of a simple bend upwards.* nearly entire, in the neighbourhood of Norwich. Being On this latter point, as upon the subject of the teeth of the desirous of ascertaining upon what certain grounds this mastodon, we must reserve our judgment until we have a skeleton was called that of the great mastodon, I wrote to more perfect knowledge of all the existing varieties. We Mr. Layton, to request some further explanation on the sub- ought to learn caution on subjects which involve such importject; and, in reply, I had the pleasure of receiving the ant conclusions, from the numerous instances we, from time following interesting statement.

The crocodile of the Ganges differs much in form from that of the

sil species. We cannot peruse the Monthly Transactions of our different + Professor Buckland mentions the bones of the mastodon as har. Scientific Societies, without perceiving descriptions of animals and ing formed a part of that remarkable fossil deposit, formerly alluded things not already described, and entirely “new to Science.” to, on the banks of the Arno, in Italy,

to time, experience, of being forced to give up what had long " Your doubt, as to the great mastodon being found in been looked upon as well established facts.' From such inNorfolk, came not at all unexpected. I should have doubted stances we may safely infer, that nature has not undergone it myself under almost any other circumstances; as it is, I such total changes as we are generally taught to suppose. feel sure and certain of the fact.

The planet we inhabit, together with its animal and vegetable “I lived at Catfield, in Norfork, six miles from Hasbo-productions, remains governed by the same general laws it rough, and about as far from Horstead. From this latter ever has been subjected to, since the creation. The numerplace, marl (soft chalk, with regular layers of fint, about four ous revolutions of the continental geology must, therefore, feet apart, or less,) is carried to all the villages in the neigh-pow be reduced to the ONE great revolution, recorded in the bourhood, to be spread upon the lands. A boatman, who was Inspired Writings, and of which we have now been tracing in the habit of bringing me fossils, brought a grinder of this so many, unquestionable proofs. We are thus, every day, mastodon as a curiosity, saying, it had been found in the marl, more and more securely confirmed in the confidence to be reand given to him by the head pitman. It was the posterior posed in these inestimable records; and the more closely we portion of the grinder of the great mastodon, (I am certain of examine the evidences by which they are corroborated, the the fact,) containing, as far as I recollect, eight points, none more striking is their resemblance to some deep bedded rock, of which had been cut, or brought into use. On the first on which the angry waves of scepticism are for ever breaking opportunity, I went to make inquiry about it at the chalk pit. in vain.t The pitman pointed out to me the place where it was found, and said, that the whole animal was, as it were, lying on its side, stretched out on the surfuce of the marl. He described it as being very soft, and that a great part of it would at first spread like butter ; the whole, however, had been thrown down along with the marl, and carried away. He said he had looked

CHAPTER XIII. upon it as very curious indeed, but of no use; and he had kept that piece of the tooth merely by accident. He afterwards found Human Fossil Remains.Why they cannot be so numerous as another fragment or two of the bones, in his garden, where he those of other Animals.--Lime-stone Caves and Fissures.had thrown them, and he sent them to me. They are now in An Example in the Cave of Gaylenreuth, with its Fossil Conmy possession, but I am not able to identify them with the tents.-Dr. Bucklund's Theory of Caves and Fissures.mastodon, as distinguished from the mammoth, or elephant. Human Fossils found at Guadaloupe.-Also at Durfort.The grinder I sent to Dawson Turner, Esq., of Great Yar. Great Fossil Deposits in Spain, containing Human Bones. mouth, who, probably, has it now. Smith, in his “Strata Quarries at Köstritz, containing Human Bones.- Natural Identified,' has given the figure of a very fine grinder, (mas- Conclusions from the above Account.--Dr. Buckland's Contodon's,) said to have been found at Whitlingham, by Nor- clusion respecting Köstritz inconsistent with other parts of wich; and Mr. Woodward, of Norwich, has a fragment, his Theory.-Caves and Fissures in Lime-stone. - General which appears to be half of one of the points of a mastodon's spread of Diluvial Effects. grinders, found at Bramerton, adjoining Whitlingham."

We have here the most clear and unquestionable statement We now come to the consideration of a part of the subject of this interesting fossil body, and on the testimony of one, of organic fossil remains in rocks and soils, which has, who not only possesses, perhaps, the most perfect collection hitherto, occasioned very considerable difficulty, and has of the teeth of the mammoth any where existing, (amounting to 70, of all ages and sizes, selected ont of nearly 200,) but to this the supply necessary for the rest of Europe, and of the Eastwho has, also, made this curious part of geological research ern nations, our astonishment is excited at the number of elephants his particular study; and who, therefore, could not possibly that must

ammually perish; and at the vast extent of wild country

which such . be misled with respect to the animal in question, distinguish

* In the Museum of the College of Edinburgh, there are two very ed, as it so clearly was, by the form of its grinders. And we large fossil tusks, from Siberia. One of these is perfectly formed, have thus a well-defined instance of the fossil existence of a with one simple bend; the other is very slightly of the cornuform, species of animal, in our own soils, which has long been which appears, in that instance, quite accidental. looked upon as exclusively confined to the continents of

+ Before concluding the consideration of the varieties of the fossil America alone.

elephant, I cannot omit this opportunity of correcting an error in

which our ideas of these antediluvian animals have been involved : One of the most remarkable features of both the known and this explanation may serve to show how easily the public mind fossil varieties of the elephant, appears to have been the oc- may be missed by the most trifling and casual circumstances. I am casional horn-like, or spiral form of the tusk. It is the opinion enabled to mention the following fact, on the authority of Mr. Clift, of some able comparative anatomists, that all the tusks, even of the Royal College of Surgeons, who kindly communicated it to me, of modern elephants, have a tendency to this particular shape;

and has permitted me to make it public. but this opinion does not appear to be supported either by the discovered near Newburgh, on the Hudson River; and in this there

In the year 1799, a great fossil deposit, of animal remains, was fossil or the recent specimens of ivory. The largest recent were found so many bones of the fossil elephant, called the mastotusks with which we are acquainted, have seldom been found don, that two nearly complete skeletons were constructed, with some to exhibit much indication of this form ; and, on the other little assistance from artificial means. The most perfect of these rehand, many fossil tusks have been found as uniform in their mained at Philadelphia, while the other was brought over for exhibi. bend as those of the common elephants most generally exhi- tion in London; and, in the year 1802, we were thus, for the first bited in Europe.*

time, presented with a specimen of the carnivorous elephant, (as it was then thought to be.)

This curious specimen excited much attention for a time, and some It is highly interesting to trace the history of such immense ani- idea of its purchase was entertained ; but the price demanded being mals as the elephant ; and when we consider the high value that has, great, a report arose, and was soon circulated, that it was nothing at all times, been set upon his tusks as an article of commerce, it but the skeleton of a common elephant, and was, therefore, not wor appears surprising that the whole race has not, long since, become thy of so much attention. This idea threatened seriously to affect the extinct. We know that elephants are in some countries hunted ex- profits of the exhibitor ; and, in order to prevent this, and to keep clusively for the sake of their ivory, although some portion of our up public attention in favour of a highly ingenious and deserving supply may also be derived from teeth found in the woods, when individual, who had, at great expense, introduced so rare an object the animals die, or are destroyed by wild beasts. From the year amongst us, the late Dr. Shaw, of the British Museum, suggested 1788 to 1799, there was imported into Britain at the rate of 1576 the idea of humouring the public ; and, by changing the position of hundred weight of ivory annually! Now, if we take the average the tusks, of thus giving a totally different appearance to the animal, weight of each tusk at 40 pounds, which is a very low estimate, we and restoring its credit as a rare and interesting object. This idea find that upwards of two thousand of these noble animals

must have was immediately adopted. The tusks, which had been very properly perished each year, to supply the British market alone! Some tusks placed so as to point upwards, as in the common elephant, were now have been known to weigh from 325 to 350 pounds: and 100 pounds reversed, and placed downwards ; and one of the great resemblances is not an uncommon weight; so that the above number is, probably, to the common race baving now disappeared, the animal again came rather below than above the real annual consumption. If we add into public favour, and, no doubt, was considered as much more

thrown a shade of doubt and uncertainty over the historical | fossil remains, ought rather to be looked upon as the strongest account of the deluge, which, however, appears to be totally confirmation of the general history of the earth, which we are unwarranted by facts. I allude to the rarity of human fossil now considering. We must keep in mind, too, that it is only remains amongst those of the animated beings, which are fre- within a few years, and in a very confined portion of the quently discovered in such abundance on the earth. For, it whole earth, that fossil remains, in diluvial formations, hare is objected, if all the human race, excepting one single family, excited the attention which they now do: and that before the perished by the flood, at a period when the population of the study of comparative anatomy became so common as it now world must have been very considerable, there can be no is, many bones must have been frequently discovered which good reason given why we should not also find their remains ought to have been considered under this head, but which in the same abundance as those of other animals, on every were, in ignorance, mistaken for those of other animals, or part of the surface of the present dry lands.

attributed to some more recent era. It is certain that, at all In reply to this objection, it may be answered, that there times, since the deluge, such remains must frequently have can be no doubt that we have a consistent right to expect, been found; but, in the ignorance and darkness of past ages, occasionally, to find such fossil remains. But that we should these instances have generally been overlooked and forgotten. discover them in any thing like the abundance in which we Besides, as such discoveries must almost always be made, find the remains of other animals, would be to expect what, even in our own enlightened day, by the most ignorant of the from the very nature of the case itself, must be an utter people, instances must still frequently occur, which would be impossibility.

of the highest interest to science, but which are lost or forgotten When we look back to the early history of the world, and from the thoughtless ignorance of the peasants who discover consider that man was created, cne male and one female, from them.* whom the whole human race was to spring; while all the This darkness is, however, at least in our own country, other species of animated beings were produced abundant- passing rapidly away; and the love of science is now spreadly," and the earth at once replenished with them; we must ing from our own shores into every part of the habitable readily perceive, that at the end of any given period, such, globe ; from whence, we may hope, that the instances of difor instance, as the 1656 years between the creation and the luvial human fossil remains will soon be greatly accumulated, deluge, there could be, numerically, no proportion between and will afford us, from year to year, additional corroborative the race of man and that of other animals.* We should evidences of the true history of the earth. When we concome to the same conclusion, even in our own times, and in the sider, indeed, the few spots on the surface of the globe, either most populous countries, where, as in England, the number by art, or by nature, laid open to our inspection, we ought, of inhabitants bears but a small proportion to that of quadru- perhaps, to feel surprise at the extent to which our knowledge peds and birds. Much more then, if we extend our view has already attained. generally, over the whole inhabited earth, where the immense There is no part of the systems of geology, of the present forest tracts are peopled with millions of quadrupeds and day, in which more scepticism is evinced than in the instanbirds, for every hundred of the human species.

ces which have occurred of human fossil remains ; and it has For instance, if we conceive any such event as the deluge even been, by some, considered nearly certain, that human to happen to the continent of America, at the present time, beings had not been created at the period when the other aniwhen the wilds of that country are swarming with deer, wild mals, whose remains we find in a fossil state, were the incattle, horses, and every inferior race of quadrupeds and habitants of the earth. The instances of human remains, birds, with a human population, scarcely worthy of calcula- which have been, hitherto, discovered, are not indeed numertion, in proportion : we should feel no surprise, if, on being ous; but they are abundantly sufficient for the support of the enabled to examine the wreck, we should discover the re- general system now under consideration : and the instances mains of the former, in thousands of instances, for one of the which I ain now about to mention, bring this branch of our latter. Instead, then, of exciting astonishment, or creating subject, in the most natural and consistent method, within the doubt, the circumstance of the comparative rarity of human very same class of facts, as those we have been, hitherto,

occupied in passing under our review. fierce and carnivorous looking than it was before, being thus furnished with hooks for the capture of its prey:

Before entering upon these statements, however, it may be Drawings and engravings were made of the skeleton in this dis- necessary to say a few words upon the subject of the limeguise ; and, from that time to the present, the common impression of stone caves and fissures, in which such animal remains are the public, with respect to the mastodon, is, that it was a fierce and so generally found. The nature of some lime-stone rocks to flesh eating animal, and quite unlike the modern race of elephants. split into fissures, and to become perforated in all directions, In a late number of a cheap and popular publication, intended for by cavities more or less extensive, is well known to have the diffusion of knowledge amongst the poor, the figure of the mas- given rise to one of their geological names, that of carous todon, or the mammoth, is accordingly given with the tusks placed limestone. This particular character is, as may naturally be in this unnatural and inconvenient position. * “ The kingdom of Congo, like most other parts of Africa, pro

supposed, not confined to any country, nor to any district; but duces a prodigious variety of wild animals. Amongst the most is as universal as the extensive secondary formation to which remarkable are the elephants, which are found chiefly in Baurda, a lit belongs. Accordingly, innumerable instances of such cayprovince abounding with woods, pastures and plenty of water. They ities may be found in all countries; but they have, of late, go in troops of 100 or more, and some are said to be of so monstrous come more especially into notice from the organic remains of å size, that the prints of their feet measure from four to seven spans. diluvial destruction, which they have, in a great variety of mense size, tigers, wolves and other beasts of prey, abound in this instances, been found to contain. The cave of Gaylenreuth, country. The zebra, the wild ass, the buffalo, and numerous tribes in Franconia, has long been celebrated for such animal reof deer and antelopes, are all most abundant; and the forests swarm mains; and as an account of one will serve to give a very with hyænas and wild dogs, which hunt in packs with dreadful howl- general idea of all such caverns or fissures, I shall here give ings." - Bibliot. Univers. de Voyages.

Dr. Buckland's account of it; without, however, entering, in 7 The population of England, which is not exceeded by that of any country in Europe, in proportion to its extent, is about ten or mal remains of this, or other caves, came into their present

any degree, into his theory of the means by which the anieleven millions. It is calculated that there are about twenty-six millions of sheep in this country alone ; and if we include Scođand remarkable situation. and Wales, where the disproportion is infinitely greater, we may form some tolerable idea of how the matter stands, when we add to * On three several occasions, I have lately had opportunities of the sheep, every other species of quadruped and bird, with which remarking the careless apathy with which discoveries, most interour woods and plains are so abundantly peopled.

esting to science, were regarded, both by overseers and labourers, "The Missouri and Arkansas territories, which would be capa-in extensive works, where objects were every day discovered, most ble of sustaining, probably, more than fifty millions of inhabitants, likely to attract their

curiosity and attention. In the coal mines, if in a state of civilization, are, at present, occupied by something both of England and of Scotland, I have seldom met with any workmore than one hundred thousand Indians; and they have been com- man who was aware that trees and plants were visible in almost puted to contain about one million of square miles.”

every part of their works; they have no difficulty in admitting the “The buffaloes go in immense herds, and no one, ignorant of the fact when pointed out to them ; but the situation of these remains extent of these fertile prairies, can form any idea of the countless must appear so improbable to them, that they would scarcely credit myriads that are spread over, and find support on them.”——

Hunter's the evidence of their senses. One pitman, in a Scotch coal mine, Memoirs of his Captivity among the North American Indians. appeared, however, to have viewed the interesting objects around

On the south of the river Saladillo, (in Buenos Ayres,) are the him with more attention. Observing that I held my light towards immense plains of Pampas, which present a sea of waving grass for the walls and roofs of the gallery, without, however, having made nine hundred miles. Their luxuriant herbage affords pasture to in- any remark to him, he said, there must have been fine confusion numerable herds of cattle, which rove about unowned and unvalued: here, sir, in the time of Noah.” I could not help wishing that this they are, also, the abode of immense troops of wild horses, deer, remark had come from some leading member of our scientific ostriches, armadillos and every sort of game.”

societies.

“The mouth of this cave is situated in a perpendicular depth which must average, at least, six feet, and the cubit rock, in the highest part of the cliffs, which form the left side contents of which must exceed 5000 feet. If we allow two of the valley of the 'Weissent river, at an elevation of more cubic feet of dust and bones for each individual animal, we than 300 feet above its bed. We enter by an aperture, about shall have, in this single vault, the remains of at least 2500 seven feet high, and twelve feet broad ; and, close to it, we ob- BEARS, a number which MAY HAVE BEEN SUPPLIED in the space serve an open fissure rising from the cave, towards the table- of 1000 years, by a mortality at the rate of two and a half per Jand above.* The whole consists principally of two large annum. chambers, varying in breadth from ten to thirty feet, and in Dr. Buckland's theory of the mode by which such animal height from three to twenty feet. The roof is, in most remains became enclosed in caves, in every similar situation, parts, abundantly hung with stalactite; and, in the first cham- is simply, that all such caverns were, before the deluge, inber, the floor is nearly covered with stalagmite, piled in ir- habited by wild beasts, which, in some cases, as at kirkdale, regular mamillated heaps, one of which, in the centre, is ac- accumulated the bones of their prey in great quantities in their cumulated into a large pillar, uniting the roof to the floor. dens; and in others, as in the above mentioned caves of Ger

“From the first chamber we descend, by ladders, to a se- many, the animals died a natural death, when their decomcond, the floor of which also appears to have been overspread posed remains were gradually added to the common stock; with a similar crust: this, however, has been nearly destroy- and while the diluvial currents were in force, the waters, ed by holes dug through it, in search of the prodigious quan- filling these caverns, and drifting into them a mixture of mud tities of bones that lie beneath. This last chamber is connected and rolled pebbles, the whole mass of loam, gravel, and by a low and narrow passage, with a smaller cavern, at the bones, subsided into the hollows of the cave, became mixed bottom of which there is a circular hole, descending like a up together in the confused state we now find them; and, well, about twenty-five feet, and from three to four in diame- in the course of subsequent years, the whole surface beter. The circumference of this hole, in descending, is, for came incrusted with stalagmite, often forming a hard and stony the most part, composed of a breccia of bones, pebbles, and breccia. Loam, cemented by stalagmite. The depth to which this ex- As to the bones of animals, accompanied with loam and tends has not yet been ascertained. The roof and sides of all gravel, contained in the fissures, or more confined cavities of the artificial cavities, (formed in the search,) are crowded with lime-stone rocks, Professor Buckland looks upon it as certain teeth and bones : but these do not occur in the roof or sides of that these were open fissures before the deluge, and that numany of the upper, or natural chambers, above the level of the bers of the wild animals of that period, endowed, it would stalagmitic crust that covers the floor. This observation ap- seem, with a much smaller degree of natural instinct than plies equally to all other lime-stone caverns of this descrip- those of our own day, carelessly

wandering among the woods tion, and is important on account of the erroneous statements and pastures, fell in, and perished. That the bones of these and opinions which exist on this subject. The floor of the animals were of a much less perishable nature, than in our own first chamber has been already stated to be almost entirely times, is thus evident; for, during the whole period, previous covered with a crust of stalagmite. Through this crust large to the deluge, or for upwards of 1600 years, these open holes have been dug, and in these we see a bed of brown fissures preserved their animal prey; and when the diluvial diluvial loam and pebbles, mixed with angular fragments of gravel and earthy sediments came to be lodged in them, the rock, and with teeth and bones. I could not ascertain the depth whole of the bones were not compressed at the bottom, as we of this diluvium.

should naturally have expected, but were mixed up in com“In the second chamber the formation is of the same de-plete chaos, together with these earthy sediments in every scription, but more abundantly laoded with bones. Its depth part of the fissures; though they are, in numberless cases, of appears to be irregular, and, in some parts, extremely deep. prodigious depth and extent. A side chamber descends rapidly into the body of the rock, Had the above theory respecting caves, being formed upon and contains cart loads of teeth, bones, and pebbles, dispersed the solitary instance of one cave, or even a set of caves in the through a loose mass of brown diluvial loam, but not united same locality, containing the bones of one species of animal, by stalagmite." “ The distribution of the component mate- such, for instance, as bears, we might have looked upon it as rials of the breccia of these caves is irregular; in some parts not only highly ingenious, but as having even much appearthe earthy matter is wholly wanting, and we have simply a ance of probability : but when we extend our view over the congeries of agglutinated bones ; in others, the pebbles whole earth, and coolly examine all the circumstances of inabound; in a third place, one half of the whole mass is loam, numerable cases, of a similar nature, we cannot fail to perand the remainder teeth and bones. The state of preservation ceive the inconsistency of the whole theory, and consequent. of these animal remains, when incrusted with stalagmite, is ly, that the abovementioned "ANIMAL DUST" must be attributed quite perfect, and the colour a yellowish white."

to a different cause from that of the gradual decay of “two This cave of Gaylenreuth is only one of many such lime- THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED Bears in the space of 1000 years, at stone caverns in the same neighbourhood, all furnished, in the rate of TWO AND A HALF per annum!". this manner, with similiar witnesses of diluvial destruction. Amongst other proofs of the solid foundation on which this

Dr. Buckland's account of the cave of Kühloch is truly re- singular theory has been offered, and so generally accepted as markable. “ It is literally true,” says, he “ that in this single satisfactory, by the scientific world, we must be informed, on cavern, (the size and proportions of which are nearly equal to the surest evidence, of some one post-diluvial cave, inhabited, those of a large church,) there are hundreds of cart-loads of like Gaylenreuth, by hundreds of bears at the same time, and black ANIMAL DUST, entirely covering the whole floor to a of the unnatural habit of these animals to admit of even two

and a half putrid carcasses in the year, to rot and moulder to a * It may here be important to remark, that nearly the whole of black “animal dust" under their very feet. The range of the this part of Germany forms one great table-land, of little variety on Jura mountains is the exact situation where the professor's the surface, and in which the rivers, (and amongst others, the Rhine,) search ought to be directed; for there, in a climate very simirun, as it were, in trenches, the sides of which often present a per- lar to that of Germany, are to be found, in considerable abunness of character in both sides of which greatly detracts from the dance, not only bears in the most savage state, but caves and beauty of the scenery for which the Rhine is more particularly cele- fissures, of lime-stone rock, of exactly a similar nature. In brated. That all this plain country, connected as it is with the low-Geneva, the tables of the curious are every winter spread er levels of Belgium and Holland, on one side, and of Poland and with this species of game; and the peasants, on both sides of Russia on anothier, once formed the bed of the sea, is a fact so gen- the Jura, are so partial to the chase of the bear, that his erally admitted, that it is here unnecessary to dwell upon it. The haunts and habits are as well known as those of the red deer period at which this state of things existed becomes a more important question ; and if I have succeeded in proving that the chalk to the Scottish Highlander. We may add a hope, that the formations of France, and of England, were in this state immedi- Zoological Societies of London, with that zeal for scientific ately previous to the Mosaic deluge, and by that event were ele- information for which they are so distinguished, will turn vated to their present level above the waters, we can have no hesi- their attention to this important and interesting trait in the tation in carrying the same level, and the same line of reasoning, natural history of the bear. over all those plains of Germany, in which these cavities are found. + When water is filtered through lime-stone, it becomes impreg

I shall now proceed to lay before my readers the accounts nated with a calcareous principle ; and when exposed to evaporation of such undoubted instances of human fossil remains as are at in the atmosphere, it deposits a stony matter, in the same form as present known to science: and that I may avoid, as much as icicles in a moist cave or cellar ; such stony icicles are often seen de- possible, all appearance of prejudice, in favour of the views I pendent from the arches of bridges lately constructed, being formed am at present supporting, I shall quote the statements of these from the mortar used in the building. When the matter is formed instances from the works of writers who have held very difon the roof of a cave, it is called stalactite; when on the floor, it is named stalagmite.

ferent opinions from myself; and who appear, in some inReliq. Diluv. page 133.

stances, to have written these accounts under a general and

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