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imputed to natural incapacity or natural prejudice, but
to ihe fact that the time was not come when the designs
of God were to be made plain. The doctrines of
Atonement for Sin, and the supercession of the Mosaic
Law, not clearly expressed by Christ himself, and
only to be found in the teaching of God's Spirit
through the Apostles.

292

The Discovery of the Christian Covenant of Pardon and Grace,

a sufficient comfort and compensation to Christ's followers for

his departure from the World.

Enumeration of the advantages to which the eyes

of the Apostles were thus first opened. Effect of these

discoveries on their conduct and character.

293

The Discovery of that Covenant a necessary and sufficient

vindica-

tion of Christ's character from the objections of the Jews.

The Spirit of God, in his capacity of Paraclete, was

to testify of the Messiah's truth,-io convict the world

of the guilt they had incurred in rejecting him, &c.

Objections urged by the Jews against the truth of our

Lord's pretensions to the character of the Messiah.

Those objections not sufficiently answered by the

blamelessness of his Life or the greatness of his Mir-

acles. Jewish Treatise called the Nizacchon. Suffi-

ciently answered by the discovery of the nature of that

Salvation which Christ wrought for us, and of the

means by which it was to be accomplished. The

Unitarian system of Theology takes away the only

competent answer to the Objections urged by the

Jews;ando all adequate motives for the prophecies

and miracles by which our Lord's birth, life, and death

were distinguished. A Revelation from God may be

expected to contain discoveries transcending human

293

By his Revelations made to the Apostles the Paraclete instructed

the Church in "things to come.

Our Lord himself rarely assumed the prophetic cha-

racter. Our knowledge of the rise and fall of Anti-

Christ,—of the events which are to take place in the

last days, &c. all derived from the Holy Ghost through

the Apostles.

294

Answer to the Objection that, since the time of the Apostles, no

fresh revelation of God's will has been made to the Church.

The promise of our Lord implies the universal and

continual superintendence and perfection of the Para-

clete, but not that he should be perpetually guiding us

into new truths. The inspiration accorded to the

Apostles and the elder Prophets not continual or

universal. The length of the intervals between the

Revelations made to them immaterial. Intervals of

the same kind and of very considerable length, oc-

curred in the history of the Jewish Church. The

Bath-Col a Rabbinical Fable. Yet God still dwelt in

his Temple (Matt. xxiii. 21.) though he had ceased,

in a perceptible and miraculous manner, to declare his

will from thence,-and, therefore, the Comforter may

still be present with the Church, though no case has

latterly arisen to demand a new Revelation.

294

But, further, the Comforter has, in every uge, continued to teach

the Church by the Scriptures of the New Testament.
A knowledge of Divine Things being given to the
Church,--the manner in which this knowledge is com-
municated is a matter of indifference. All Revelations
made to a few that the many might, through their
means, be benefited. Immediate Inspiration not ac-
corded to the majority of Christians in the Apostolic
Age. This dispensation not unequal nor disadvan-
tageous to the majority. The abode of the Paraclete
among men would have been sufficiently proved by a
succession of one or more inspired individuals by whose
instruction the Holy Ghost should govern the Church.
No difference whether this instruction were oral or
epistolary. Nor whether their authors were absent or
dead. Therefore, so long as the writings of a deceased
Apostle govern the Church, the Holy Ghost who
dictated those writings, continues to govern it by them.
The Scriptures not only dictated by the Inspiration

of the Holy Ghost, but preserved to our time and

offered to our notice by his Providence. This particu-

lar exertion of his Providence how distinguished from

his general care. By the peculiar dispensation in

question, the rites which our Saviour appointed before

the Paraclete's coming, and the dispensations of the

Spirit's mercy and power which we share with other

ages and nations, have become more blessed and val.

uable to the Chistian than to the rest of the world.

But it is through Scripture only that the character of

these dispensations is thus altered. And by Scripture

alone that the Holy Ghost now guides us into truth,

or shows us things to come, or pleads the cause of

Christ against his enemies. It is, then, as Dispenser
of Supernatural Truth and Teacher of the Doctrine of
Redemption, that the Holy Ghost sustains his charac-
ter of Comforter. And this truth he now conveys to
us through the Holy Scripture.

295
The Inspired Authority of the New Testament asserted,
1st, From the Personal Inspiration of its reputed Authors.

Their Inspiration proved by the miracles which they

performed. The reality of those miracles admitted by

the ancient enemies of Christianity---Celsus—Julian-

the Toldos Jeschu. No want of ability or inclination

in the contemporaries of the Apostles to detect any

false pretences to miraculous power. The reality of

the works in question rendered probable by the sensa-

tion which they excited in the Heathen World. Na-

ture of the change which they produced in the habits

and pretensions of those who continued hostile to

Christianity. Their reality further shown from the

internal evidence to this effect offered by the Apostolic

Writings. St. Paul speaks of miracles not only as

wrought by himself, but by those to whom his Epis-

tles are addressed. Force of this argument. The Apos-

tolic Epistles not addressed in the first instance to the

Heathen, or even to the Church at large. Devoid of

empirical ostentation.

- 297

2. The New Testament is the genuine Work of the Writers

whose name it bears.

Proved from internal Evidence-from universal Tra-

dition-from the reluctance with which Christians in

every age have admitted any works into their sacred

canon,-- from the excellence of the works themselves,

as contrasted with the spurious productions which

have been, at different times, offered to the Church, -

and with the acknowledged compositions of the unin-

spired contemporaries of the Apostles,

298

Lect. VIII.-Preliminary Observations.

The entire New Testament the work of the Apos-

tles or their accredited amanuenses. The Gospels of

Mark, and Luke, sometimes called those of St. Peter

and St. Paul. Distinction made by the primitive

Church between the Canonical writings and those of

the Apostolic Fathers. The claims of those writings

called' àrtiaróueve, always placed on the ground of

their being the genuine works of the Apostles only.

But, though all the works of the New Testament pro-

ceed from Inspired Persons,-it might still be ques-

tioned whether their Authors were Inspired at the

time. Inspiration not a perpetual and pervading gift.

Difficulties urged against the inspired Authority claim-

ed by the New Testament.

298

Probability that some of the writings of the Apostles should be

inspired, shown,-1st, From the necessity of the case.

Written documents absolutely necessary to the ex-

tension and perpetuity of Religious Truth. No rule of

faith or practice can be absolute and definitve unless in-

spired. "Nor unless the person who delivered it were

inspired at that time and to that effect. Inconvenien-

ces of renouncing the plenary inspiration of Scripture;

or of confining, with Simon and Warburton, the inspi-

ration of the Sacred Writers to a few conspicuous truths. 299

2. From the Analogy of the Mosaic Dispensation.

Certain Written Laws were given by inspiration to

the Jewish Church. But the advantage which was

given to the less perfect dispensation would not be

withheld from the heirs of the promise to whom it was

equally necessary. Nature of this necessity further

explained. The leading Facts on which our Faith is

founded, might be believed on historic evidence only.

-But the practical results which follow from those

facts, as explained in Scripture, must be received on

the authority of Revelation, or rest on no firm ground

whatever.

- 300

3. From the fuct that the Oral Doctrine of the Apostles was, in

certain cases, inspired.

This fact established from the promises of Christ,

(Mark xiii. 11. Luke xii. 2.) But if the discourses

which only extended to a few were thus privileged,

we may much more suppose the like assistance given

in works where all ages were concerned.

• 301

The particular Treatises which made up the New Testament,

shown to be inspired. By internal evidence. By Tradition. By the claims advanced in their favour by the Apostles themselves. 1 Cor. vii. 25. 1 Cor. xiv. 37. 2 Cor. v. 20. 2 Pet. iii. 16. Rev. ii. 29. Answer to the objection of Spinoza, " that the Apostles themselves lay no claim to inspiration.". The Superscription “ Apostle of Christ," in itself implies inspiration. Answer to another objection of Spinoza, taken from 1 Cor. vii. 25, 26. How answered by Horbery. That Text in reality a strong proof of the general inspiration of St. Paul's writings. Spinoza's Third Objection taken from the fact that the Apostles reason and persuade instead of commanding. Not well answered by Simon. God may, without impeachment of his Power and Majesty, use persuasion with his creatures. Exemplified from the Old Testament.

- 301

Answer to the Objections levelled against the style and matter of

the New Testament. Necessity of such an answer. All manifestations of God's will, being appeals to the judgment or senses

of his creatures, in themselves challenge investigation. 302 Answer to the Objection of the Romanists that the Scriptures are, in themselves, insufficient as a Rule of Faith.

Presumption of requiring an additional guide. The ancient Synagogue and the primitive Church made no such claims as those advanced by a Romanist. The Anathema, what. No remedy provided by Moses for those to whose instruction his writings did not suffice. St. Peter's conduct with regard to the obscure passages in St. Paul. An infallible interpreter of Scripture, a futile expectation—and unnecessary. The Faith of Christians built on Scripture only. By the Scripture the Holy Ghost performs all the Functions of the promised Comforter. Conclusion.

305

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HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES AGAINST THE ALBIGENSES, IN THE THIRTEENTH

CENTURY. CHAP. 1-First Crusade, from 1207 to 1209.

440 Chap. IV.-Crusade of the French against the AlbiChap. II.—Continuation of the Crusade against the Al- genses, from the Death of Simon de Monfort to the bigeuses, to the Battle of Muret, 1210_1213. 447 Death of Louis VIII, 1218—1226.

458 Chap. III.-Submission of the Albigenses-Revolt and Chap. V.-Affairs of the Albigenses from the Death of

New War to the Death of Simon de Montfort, 1214 Louis VIII, 1226, to the Peace of Paris, 1229; and -1218 • 454 its final ratification, 1242.

- 467

THE LIFE OF BISHOP WILSON.

Chap. I.-Introduction-His Early Life.
CHAP. II.-His Conduct as a Bishop.
CHAP. III_His Domestic Character.
CHAP. IV.–His Sunday.
CHAP. V.-In his Closet.

. 477 CHAP. VI.-His Beneficence.

. 490 • 480 CHAP. VII.-His old age, and latter days.

492 - 485 Appendix, Containing a few Passages from Bishop Wil• 488 son's Papers, Illustrative of the Preceding Memoirs. 494

419

SERMONS BY THE RIGHT REV. JOSEPH BUTLER, D. C. L. SERMON I._Upon Human Nature.

• 502 Sermon X.-Upon Self-Deceit. SERMON II. III.-Upon Human Nature.

• 505 SERMON XI.— Upon the Love of our Neighbour. SERMON IV.-Upon the Government of the Tongue. • 509 SERMON XII.—Upon the Love of our Neighbour. SERMON V.-Upon Compassion.

• 511 SERMON XIII. XIV.-Upon the Love of God. SERMON VI.-Upon Compassion.

514 SERMON XIV. SERMON VII._Upon the Character of Balaam. · 516 SERMON XV.–Upon the Ignorance of Man. SERMON VIII.-Upon Resentment.

- 518 CORRESPONDENCe between Dr. Butler and Dr. Clarke. Sermon IX.-Upon Forgiveness of Injuries.

- 520

- 523

526 - 529 - 532 . 534 • 537

539

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SERMONS BY THE LATE REV. ROBERT HALL, A.M., OF KELSO. Sermon 1.—The Gospel a light to the Gentiles, and a Sermon IV.-The Advent of Christ.

556 salvation unto the end of the earth. - 545 SERMON V.-The Obedience of Christ.

• 560 Qualifications of a Minister stated

549 SERMON VI.—The Necessity of Christian Fruitfulness. - 562 SERMON II.-The security of the Church in its relation SERMON VII.--The Desire of Life; a New Year's Disto God.

• 551
course.

- 564 SERMON III.-Christ, our High Priest.

- 553

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