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its of human learning, my readers will not acquit me of the To Christian professors, whose habits and pleasures are charge of inconsistency, unless they bear in mind the two-found in the field of intellect, we cannot but observe, how much fold principle upon which my assertions are founded, and they may learn from this highly-gifted saint, of that “simfrom which I hope I shall not appear to have deviated. On the plicity and godly sincerity,” that careful inspection of moone hand, I conceive that to enlarge and strengthen, to culti-tives, that watchful subordination of natural indulgence to the vate and refine, to enrich and beautify the intellect, is of all supreme object of the glory of God, which can alone exclude the objects of mere earthly attainment, incomparably the the blast of Divine jealousy from these legitimate sources of most worthy. Viewing study, in this light, I cannot but enjoyment. All her views of science were received through speak in its favonr with some degree of liveliness and pas-a spiritual medium, and elevated her soul to the hallowed atsion, as one who has tasted, though very slightly, of the bene- mosphere of communion with her God. The spirit of prayer fits which flow from it. On the other hand, when I compare was the constant guard upon her intellectual studies. Never this best of earthly things with the lowest and meanest of did she enter upon the daily course of tuition with her young heavenly attainments, it sinks ineffably in my esteem; no cousin without earnestly imploring the blessing of her heavenly longer possessing any intrinsic worth, but valuable only from Father. We have already seen a specimen of her spirit of its subserviency to these higher objects. Considering it, supplication on this interesting subject, upon which it would therefore, in this point of view, I am exceedingly fearful of be well for the student to meditate, till his heart becomes overrating its efficacy. I am led to speak of it with the cau- deeply imbued with its simple spirituality and enlargement. tion due to a pursuit, which is equally capable of becoming a How delightful again is the pattern set forth in one of her letsingular blessing, or an extraordinary snare. Thus when I ters! Speaking of some perplexities relative to the pursuing weighi intellectual cultivation in any earthly balance, I cannot of her studies, she adds—I am now resolved, God helping but adjudge to it a decided superiority. But when I place it me, to give this week to prayer, presenting each of my stuin the balance of the sanctuary, I perceive that it has no weight dies to Jesus, that he may prosper and sanctify it by his Spiat all, but what is derives from the blessing of God on ac- rit, take from it all self-love, and cause me in all my employcompanying circumstances. By affixing to human learning ments, even in the least, to aim at his glory, and to labour in any independent value, we take from it that which it really his name. Join with me in this prayer. Not less instruchas; for though exceedingly useful as a submissive attendant tive is the practical spirit that pervaded her studies. Nothing upon divine knowledge, it can do us nothing but harm, if we was done for self-indulgence. Her pursuits were only valpermit its entrance as a dominating usurper.
uable in proportion as they were consecrated. We should be less apt to set our hearts upon the pleasure thing, to her to live was Christ. Nothing besides seemed of intellect, if we reflected how much they partake of the eva- worthy the name of life. Nothing seemed to command her nescent nature of all earthly enjoyments. When this little mo- interest independent of this great object. To a correspondent, ment which we call life is fled, of what use shall our studies who had inquired her sentiments relative to the cultivation of be to us? Our enlarged faculties will then discern in an in- her mind, she writes— 1 think it may be done, with a prayer stant more than a thousand lives of intense application would however, and a resolution, that all thiat we do shall one day now enable us to discern. Our earthly pursuits and attach- be employed in the service of Christ. I think the only thing ments are among those “childish things, which we shall putis, never to lose sight of this great object. And to this end I away," when we arrive at man's estate. The very best and know no other means than that of making it a subject of wisest of them are but the "summi amores puerorum, qui una prayer. I have often been prevented from praying for succum prætextá ponentur.” While, however, we are in this cess in study, because I thought it was better only to mention fleeting state of existence, we must not despise those tempo- spiritual wants at the throne of grace. But I now think, that rary delights and assistances, which the goodness of God has after having asked a blessing upon our common occupations, so wonderfully adapted to our imperfection; nor need we fear we are less likely to forget the end, which alone can enable to avail ourselves of them with due moderation, and in a sim- us to follow them without danger. Apart from this holy ple dependence upon God's blessing, But never let it be simplicity of principle, (which is the exclusive character of said of the Christian, that he is so much absorbed in “ things the Christian Student,) learning-as Mr. Baxter tersely retemporal,” as to neglect, for one moment, "the things which marks,— is but the pleasing of the fancy in the knowledge of are eternal.”
unnecessary things.” Intellectual pleasures will be purchased The intrinsic excellence of these remarks render an apology at the fearful expense of the loss of heavenly communion with for their introduction needless. The high and general im- God. In the cultivation of this spirit, we shall be enabled to portance of the subject, the full development of its true prin- honour our God, and to receive his needful aid in literary as ciples, the solid and expanded views, and, above all, the well as in religious pursuits. The solid advantages of study Christian wisdom, spiritual simplicity, and unction which indeed will be safely enjoyed, and therefore will become a pervade the discussion, will commend it to the profitable at- medium, by which the Divine glory will be displayed, and the tention of every intelligent reader. The treatise itself (the presence of our God will be realized with a higher zeșt and a writer here speaks from more competent judgment than his more abiding influence. own) might probably be considered by men of science, as not But in returning to Miss Graham, we may add, that her formed upon the more approved system of mathematical study; studies were not confined to the severer branches of knowand, though displaying much power and clearness of mind, is ledge. She had cultivated an acquaintance with the Roman occasionally inaccurate in definition and illustration. The classics with considerable success. In the field of modern practical and excursive remarks (judging from the preceding extracts, and some others hereafter to be adduced) will how- * To one of her correspondents she recommends the study of the ever be generally considered to possess no common value.
Latin Grammar, as the means of a clear understanding of that noThe writer has been induced to extract so largely from ble language,' and of ennobling the intellect by the reading of the this instructive manuscript, chiefly with a view to two impor- notices--that of a more distinct and enlarged acquaintance with our tant classes of persons in the present day. In this era of re- own language, in great part deduced from the Latin,' and that of ligious excitement the minds of a large mass are at work, in- forming a good style, adding-that the English style of a person quiring, or rather speculating, in a feverish state of restless-well-instructed in Latin acquires great richness and fertility from ness and perplexity. Their feelings are interested, animated, the number of classical and
energetic words of which it is comand more or less intensely occupied with the engrossing sub-posed. While however in her manuscript she points out the subjeets now brought before the church.
stantial advantages of this instructive field of intellect, she does not Yet often—among
fail to advert to the restriction, which sound Christian judgment is young especially-whether from defect of education or of constrained to impose upon an indiscriminate indulgence. If,' she mental cultivation, their judgments have little power of dis- observes,' we cultivate classic literature with a view only to increase crimination ; their principles are confined; and their profess- our fund of critical knowledge, we shall miss many of the benefits, ion mainly characterized by spiritual dissipation, which ex- which we might have derived from pursuing it with a more valuable poses them to the besetting snares of a disputatious temper, to impart chasteness and elegance to the style, to enrich the mind
and extensive design. The true ends of that fascinating study are self-conceit, and self-delusion. To such we would strongly, with manly sentiments, beautiful images, and poetical associations.' recommend the principles, obligations, and advantages of She elsewhere recommends the cultivation of this field of literature Christian study, which Miss Graham has so admirably laid as “a corrective to’ what she calls“ the cold and jejune expression, out before them. The solid influence of these intellectual which marks the style of the mere mathematician. I acknowledge, habits upon her own character, furnishes the most satisfactory she adds, the Christian objections, that are urged, not without illustration of their importance. So far from diverting her at- weight, against the study of the ancient authors. I am only advotention from the supreme concerns of eternity, they enabled Thus guarded from abuse, let them walk hand in hand with the her, through Divine teaching, the more steadily to concentrate more abstruse sciences. They will mutually aid and correct cach her interest in habitual, enlivening, and practical contemplation. other. A high degree of classic clegance is consistent with strony literature and taste, she was perfectly familiar with the Miss Graham studied the theory of music with much atFrench, Italian, and Spanish languages. For the first two, tention, and wrote a short but correct development of its she had proper masters. The last she learnt from a Castilian, principles* for the use of a young cousin, then preparing for who was introduced to her father's house, in exchange for the situation of governess, and whom, as we have before teaching him her own language. In order to improve herself hinted, she had in part educated for this important sphere with in the knowledge of the languages, she made considerable anxious pains and interest. Apart from this object, she would use of them in mutnal correspondence with her young friends. not probably have devoted so large a portion of her valuaFor the same purpose she translated Goldsmith's Vicar of ble time to this study, as it was a matter of frequent concern Wakefield (a work not congenial to her taste, but selected to her to observe the preponderance given to this elegant as a good specimen of English style) into French, Latin, and fascinating science above the more solid and useful acand Spanish, and commenced an Italian version. She made complishments. a similar use of Gil Blas, to perfect herself in the Spanish In some of her lively exercises of mind she took up the language for an important object, which will shortly be no- subject of Chemistry with great delight, making long extracts ticed at length. She appears, however, to have ultimately from the books which she had read, and going over every relinquished this work for a reason equally characteristic of part till she thoroughly understood it. Without having any her good sense and Christian simplicity, •Should I become,' more definite object for this study, she felt that some absorbshe writes to her correspondent, perfect mistress of the ing occupation of this character was necessary to beguile the pleasing and pregnant style of Gil Blas (of which I intend to long and wearisome hours of sickness. For the same object write at least two volumes,) it would be almost too light for Botany also attracted her attention. Thus with various and the serious subject on which I wish to write. In the same successive occupations her mind was always maintained in spirit the project even of these two volumes seem to have active, intelligent, and profitable exercise. A striking feabeen quickly laid aside. The next week she writes to the ture of her character (one which entered into her recreations same correspondent: "I told you that I had begun to write Gil equally with her studies, and which formed the basis of her Blas very diligently. But yesterday I thought of the folly high mental superiority) was a total concentration of every of thus employing myself about a work in which I wished power of thought and feeling, in the object of pursuit immeChrist to do all. I am therefore determined to give the re-diately before her. Indeed, as her father observes, she mainder of this week and the following to reading the Bible followed Solomon's advice in every thing she undertook. with prayer.
" Whatsoever thine hand findeth to do, do it with thy The best English writers were familiar to her, especially might !" ! the standard works connected with the philosophy of the mind. Her peculiar singleness of aim preserved her in the midst She appears to have made herself thoroughly acquainted with of her intellectual employments from the baneful influence of the principles of Locke. She speaks in one of her letters of self-indulgence, and stimulated her to apply her literary purreading his important Essay on the Conduct of the Under- suits to valuable practical purposes. Her great object in the standing for the twentieth time with renewed interest, and study of the Spanish language, was to obtain a medium of recommends to her correspondent the study of this work with communication with the Spanish refugees. The discovery of a great earnestness, as the means of giving her an increased strong tincture of infidelity among them, combined, with the thirst for pursuits purely intellectual. Stewart was read with recollection of her own fall, to excite a compassionate, earnest, much improvement to herself. Butler's Analogy was also upon and sympathizing concern on their behalf. The second part her first shelf. The following letter to her cousin gives a of 'The Test of Truth' opens with an exquisitely touching lively and intelligent view of her interest in these valuable view of her feelings on this painful subject. Indeed the work writers.
contains the substance of her communications with some of
those interesting but unhappy men. It was sent to them, with
Hastings, July 26, 1823. much and earnest prayer, upon the eve of their departure from *I am very glad that you like Butler ; I found, as you do, England. She had intended to have translated some of the not only that he is humble himself, but that he inspires his most striking extracts from Paley and other writers upon the readers with sentiments of humility. He shows them the Evidences of Christianity, and in one of her letters she menlittleness of human reason, and how weak it is where it will tions having no less than eleven English volumes before her not submit to the light of revelation. I will tell you the mind for this purpose. Finding, however, that Paley had good Stewart has done me. I have long felt that all the ef- been translated, she purchased the work, and sent it to her forts I have made to obtain true knowledge have been almost Spanish friends with her own. useless. Stewart has shown me the reason of this. It is The following notices will give an interesting view of the because I have always allowed the greatest confusion in my exercises of her mind and faith strongly called out towards ideas. I have never arranged them. He has shown me these objects of her compassion, after she was removed from that my mind is like a large sack filled with rubbish of all immediate intercourse with them. kinds, and where perhaps something that is useful may be found, but all is packed together in so confused a manner,
Sept. 8, 1825. that whosoever sought for it would be seeking a needle in a As to my Spanish, we have been so busy about the schools, bundle of hay. I am almost in despair; however I am re- that I have not been able to do much. But I find a delightful solved to make every effort to arrange a little better the confidence that this book, having been the suggestion of Christ, confused mass, and I am more than ever convinced, that and belonging to him, and not to me, will be blessed by him. the only sure way of having the head filled with clear and I have read one part of Las Ruinas,' and in reading it I was well-defined ideas is to accustom oneself to put one's thoughts struck with the reflection, that the best answer would be a upon paper. I must tell you a resolution which I desire to continual reference to the word of God. I thought thereexecute: it is to write down from time to time all the new fore of placing my observations on the blank pages, and of ideas and facts, whether original or acquired by reading or conversation, which I have gained. By doing this we should * A Letter to a young Piano Forte player. know the progress which our minds make; and we shoud + One of her letters gives a graphical picture of this remarkable not forget, as we now do, the ideas which pass through the concentration of mind. mind without making any impression, but which might be very useful if gathered together, and reserved to a proper
Plymouth, May 10, 1825.
· When the fury of learning takes possession of me, I cannot think occasion.'
of any thing else. If I am seized with a fit for studying any partiHer acquaintance with the Greek language only extended cular thing, I cannot give my mind to any other studies, however to the reading of the Greek Testament. The further progress much I usually delight in them. I now wish to study Spanish and in this department of literature was hindered by her applica- Music. But I am so carried away with my ancient mania for tion to other studies necessary for the superintendance of the Mathematics, that, although my headaches, and I cannot think witheducation of her cousin. She was proposing to commence out inconvenience of any thing I am perpetually puzzling my brains the study of Hebrew, but increasing indisposition precluded said, that every thing is given for some good. I cannot imagine why her from engaging in any new branch of study that excited I have been endued with this invincible propensity to a study, which her interest and exercised her habits of application. is always diverting me from more useful and feminine occupations."
This letter, it will be remarked, was written several years before powers of sound argumentation. The combination forms a style of her Treatise on Mathematical Study, and before the important inreasoning as pleasing as it is convincing. The simplicity of a tellectual and moral benefit of that study, which her Treatise 80 mathematical style is thus kept from degenerating into poverty, and fully develops, had opened to her mind. its cautious correctness is not permitted to stiffen into a frozen Volney's Ruins of Palmyra, translated into the Spanish-an insterility.'
fidel work of much authority with her Spanish friends.
filling the margin of the printed paper with references. I be-led me.' Her gracious Lord however was pleased to accept seech you to pray, that if I be not a fit instrument for the con- her in the desire, not in the performance of her work. Proversion of the souls of these poor Spanish exiles, the Holy tracted indisposition hindered her from giving any definite Spirit would be pleased to raise up some other.'
shape or execution to the plan, which only remains on record, Miss Graham obtained a copy of the book, interleaved as one among the many instances of the ceaseless activity with blank paper for the insertion of her remarks. She did with which her energies were employed in the service of her not however complete this task, thinking that the simple ar. Redeemer, and of his Church. gument of The Test of Truth' was better adapted for her It is natural to expect to see her a “fellow-worker with purpose.
God,” in the daily course of active devotedness. She was a
constant visiter of the poor in the most miserable abodes, un
April 9, 1827. der circumstances trying to her delicate frame and tender spi• Last week my blessed Master gave me the power of writ- rit. For some time she took a daily and somewhat distant ing in his name to the poor Spaniards. I have written three walk through an uninviting part of the city, to spend an hour sheets in English. But as I have not studied Spanish for a with a dying young woman, whose case had deeply interested long time, I find myself in some difficulty, and must give her, and to whom there is every reason to believe that she this week to the language. Next week I hope to translate was found the blessed messenger of life and salvation. Her what I have written, and to send it to you; if you will oblige sympathy was much called out by the temporal wants of the me by seeing it put into their hands. My faith in seeing poor. Much of her leisure time was employed in working for them converted to God increases every day. At present, their benefit. A large chest of useful articles of clothing was “ the strong man armed keepeth his palace, and his goods constantly kept in her own room, while the opportunities of disare at peace." “But I have a confidence given me from hea-tribution were always improved as means of spiritual instrucven, that I shall see the “stronger than he,” who will con- tion to the objects of her consideration. Her Sabbaths were quer him, and “take from him all his armour wherein he entirely devoted to the service of God. She became a teacher trusted." I may not perhaps see this while I am here ; but in the Christ Church Sunday School, and though she was I shall not rejoice the less, because I see it in heaven.' often exhausted at the close of the day by the continued ex
About a month afterwards, we find her mind deeply exer- citement of her exertions, yet she ever counted her toil in the cised upon this work of labour and love.
work of Christ to be her highest privilege and delight.
Upon her removal from London, the interest of her intel
May 5, 1827. lectual mind continued to be called forth in the employment I wrote the Spanish book in the name of Jesus, and in the of a village sphere. A deep and abiding constraint of rebelief that he would give me a spirit and a wisdom, which by deeming Tove regulated every mental effort. Though she nature I do not possess. I had a strong faith in the promises diligently improved her retirement in adding to her already of God to manifest himself in his own time to his own elect. well-furnished storehouse; yet she chiefly regarded it as the But in the way of preparing to send it, my faith vanishes, and means of secretly recruiting her strength for the service of I have now only • an evil heart of unbelief."* To say to all God. Hers was not the mind to repose luxuriously in the the bones in the church-yard at Stoke, “() ye dry bones, hear Castle of Indolence.' Hers was not the soul that could rest the word of the Lord,”_would almost seem to me easier even in spiritual self-indulgence, insensible to the urgent calls than to say the same thing to souls dead in infidelity. How- of active duty. Even her delicate health was not suffered to ever, I feel that I have courage even for this, since - Jesus is preclude her from the self-denying exercise of Christian dethe resurrection and the life," because all the glory will be to votedness. During the first summer of her country residence, him alone; and because he has assured me, that having con- she regularly attended at the parish workhouse at seven fided myself to him, my expectations can never be disappoint-o'clock, to explain the scriptures to the poor previous to the ed.'
commencement of their daily labour. This however, like The next letter was sent some months afterwards, with every other “ labour of love," was an exercise of her faith • The Test of Truth,' and • Paley's Evidences.'
and conflict with the great enemy. She mentions to her cou
sin the repugnance, which at one time she found to this work,
Dec. 20, 1827. and her yielding to the temptation of deferring it from day to •I send you Paley, which pleases me very much, with the day. Yet it was not long before she found the victory of letter, in which, without entering upon any argument about faith over inertion; and gladly did she give the praise to Him, the Evidences, &c. I have leant upon the simple proposition, who enabled her to make a successful effort; 'I told them of that God having promised in the Scriptures to give his Spi- my intention' she writes to go every morning to pray with rit to whoever asks it with sincerity, must either keep his them, and read the word of God. My Saviour removed every promise, or not be God; and I have endeavoured to show difficulty out of the way, and caused the women to receive me them, that according to their own principles they are without with the greatest civility. excuse, if they neglect to seek their Creator in this manner. The children of the parish were the objects of constant But if even now it do not succeed, it has been a blessing to solicitude. She wrote a few simple addresses for their use. me; it has been the cause of many prayers, of many sweet She drew out also questions upon the parables and miracles moments of communion with Jesus. I cannot therefore but for the assistance of the Sunday School Teachers ; and, when hope, that in the time and manner which please him, my prevented by indisposition from attending the school, she asprayers will be answered. I recommend these unhappy peo- sembled the children at her own house for Scriptural instrucple to you. Pray for them often and fervently; possibly tion. The young women also in the parish occupied a large amongst them may be found some of those who were “cho- share of her anxious interest; and, finding them unwilling to sen before the foundation of the world." ;
assemble at the same time and place with the children, she In another letter formerly quoted, after having begged her appropriated a separate evening for their instruction. She friend to join with her in prayer for a blessing upon her stu- was, as might be supposed, a constant cottage visiter. The dies, she added in conclusion. And pray for me, that I may following beautiful extract from her mathematical manuscript have something to say to those poor Spaniards, and that my will show the high and consecrated spirit with which she love for them may not grow cold.'
connected this humble ministration with her intellectual pleaThe full result of her prayers and “trials of faith” on be- sures. Warning her Christian student of the dangerous snare half of her Spanish friends, is among the secrets which “ the of self-complacency, * she inquires of him, day will declare." Meanwhile, what Christian can fail to be invigorated by this exhibition of prayer, faith, self-denial, and Her remarks upon self-complacency are so just and searching, patient hope in the work of our Divine Master ?
that the writer is tempted to add them in a note. Allusion has been already made to a disinterested project
“ Self-complacency is another of those temptations, to which the which she had formed of devoting herself to the work of tu- student is peculiarly exposed. He may so far distrust his own heart, ition. To her cousin, she writes as if her heart was full of
as to abstain from doing any thing through strife or vain glory.' He it, I think of it day and night. The opportunity of my ill- an inward complacency, a proud consciousness of superiority, equally
may keep out of the way of human praise. And yet there may be ness appears to me excellent for preparing myself for my destructive to his growth in grace. He thinks of himself more plan, if the ability for putting it into execution should be grani- highly than he ought to think. He courts not the breath of applause:
but he drinks in the intoxicating vapour of self-gratulation and es. This book was “The Test of Truth.” Her care and anxiety for teem. There are some men, in whom pride stilles the impulses of them extended to their temporal as well as their spiritual distresses. vanity. If they seem to care little what others think of them, it is As a token of affectionate sympathy, as well as some acknowledge because they think so well of themselves. Their own opinion needs ment for valuable instruction received, she gladly appropriated the no confirmation. Their solitary plaudit is so abundantly satisfacproceeds of her Musical Tract to the fund raised for their relief tory, that the buzz of admiring multitudes would be a superfluous
VOL. II.-2 A
• Do you ever experience this proud internal consciousness by us, that I may have grace and faith to pass these days in of superior genius or learning? "God has placed a ready an- dedicating myself to this work, and that we may both of us tidote within your reach. The abode of learned leisure is in all that we do be delivered from a self-seeking spirit, and seldom far from the humble dwelling of some unlettered may take every step with our eyes fixed upon the cross of Christian. Thither let your steps be directed. " Take sweet Jesus. I am afraid of annoying you by this mode of speakcounsel with your poor uneducated brother." There you will ing of these things. But if you knew how full my heart is find the man whom our “ King delighteth to honour.' His of tenderness, while I write, you would pardon the importumean chamber, graced with one well-worn book, is as “the nity, with which I beseech you to give yourself entirely and house of God, and the very gate of heaven.” Observe how without reserve into the hands of Christ. He can give you far the simplicity of his faith, and the fervour of his love, ex- from the treasures of his grace all the zeal, love, and warmth ceed any thing you can find in your own experience, cankered which you need. All is ours already by virtne of his blood. as it is with intellectual pride. God has taught him many Let us make use of it. Let us go to him in holy boldness, lessons, of which all your learning has left you ignorant. and ask for all the grace which he is so ready to give.—Psalm Make him your instructor in spiritual things. He is a stran- lxxxi. 10.' ger to the names of your favourite poets and orators. But he The pressure, however, of increasing illness constrained is very familiar with the sweet psalmist of Israel.” He can her to relinquish her own habits of personal activity for some give you rich portions of the eloquence of one, who “spake time previous to her death. It was her appointed dispensaas never man spake.”. He can neither “ tell you the number tion rather to suffer, than to do, her heavenly Father's will; of the stars, nor call them all by their names." But he will while her solitary hours were cheered by the contemplation discourse excellently concerning the star of Bethlehem.” He of the glorious prospects opening now upon her view— "lookis unable to attempt the solution of a difficult problem. But sing for the mercy of her Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.” he can enter into some of those deep things of God's law, which to an unhumbled heart, are dark and mysterious. He will not talk to you “in the words which man's wisdom teacheth;" but oh! what sweet and simple expressions of divine love are those “which the Holy Ghost has taught him !" He “knows nothing but Christ crucified ;” but this is the ex
CHAPTER IV. cellent knowledge, to which all other knowledge is foolishness. He has the fear of the Lord; that is wisdom. He Further Extracts from her Writings and Correspondence. departs from evil ; that is understanding.” When your soul is refreshed by this simple and lowly communion with one of It is not to be expected, that the quiet tenor of Miss Grathe meanest of God's saints, return to your learned retire-ham’s habits in a retired village could furnish much variety ment. Look over your intellectual possessions. Choose out of incident or detail. We shall, however, abundantly comthe brightest jewel in your literary cabinet. Place it by the pensate for this deficiency by a more full exhibition of her side of the meek and quiet spirit of this obscure Christian. fine, powerful and spiritual mind, as illustrated in her writDetermine which is the “ ornament of greater price.” Com- ings and correspondence. pare the boasted treasures of your mind with the spiritual But this department of our work is too large to be compreriches of your illiterate brother. Run over the whole cata- hended in one mass. We will therefore set it forth in several logue. Let not one be omitted; the depth of your under- distinct divisions, and give her sentiments upon the fundastanding, the strength of your reasonings, the brilliancy of mental doctrines of the Gospel ; upon subjects of interesting your fancy ; the fire of your eloquence. Be proud of them. theological discussion; upon some points of moment conGlory in them. You cannot. They dwindle into insignifi- nected with Christian experience and profession; and upon cance. They appear to you as a drop of a bucket, as the miscellaneous subjects. small dust of the balance." ;
1. Her views of the great doctrines of the Gospel. The following letter gives a beantiful illustration of the Her apprehensions and statements of the grand fundatruly Christian "spirit, with which she inculcated upon her mentals of the Christian faith, were eminently Scriptural. friends the responsibility of persevering effort in the work of. On the humbling doctrine of original sin, she justly remarks God:
in a posthumous work:
• It is the very first lesson in the school of Christ: and it is
Stoke, August 4, 1825. only by being well rooted and grounded in these first principles, *I think that visiting the poor is an excellent help to spir- that we can hope to go on to perfection. The doctrine is ituality of mind, because it shows us our own weakness, when written in Scripture as with a sun-beam. If we do not feel we lose sight for a moment of the strength of Christ. It also some conviction of it in our own hearts, it affords a sad proof brings to light many secret corruptions, of which we were that we still belong to that “generation that are pure in their before ignorant. I am very anxious to hear about the Infantown eyes, and yet is not washed from their filthiness." ; School. Do not be discouraged by the cold answers of
After adducing some of the most convincing Scriptural Rather pray for them, that more faith may be given to them, evidence, she proceeds forcibly to illustrate the subject by the and a spirit of love for the souls that are perishing around case of infants
. them. Such a prayer offered in faith by one Christian for
• Would we know the reason of this indelible pollution, another will bring down a blessing upon both. I am very
which fallen man has transmitted to his latest descendants ? sorry that I was angry with instead of praying for her. let that given by Scripture suffice: “Who can bring a clean I do not think that Christians pray enough for each other. thing out of an unclean ? not one." But is not the new-born Perhaps the Lord is proving your faith and love by making babe innocent ? yes, from the commission of actual sin; but you wait in this cause. If it be so, do not doubt his power to not from the pollution of a nature altogether sinful: for " who carry you through all you undertake in his name. From the can bring a clean thing out of-an unclean?" " Death passed mouth of the children for whom you are interested, he will upon all men, for that all have sinned.” Why then is death cause his praises to be sounded. Do not then,“ be weary so often commissioned to snatch away the babe in the first in well-doing.". If you have not already begun, let me advise hour of its existence? why, but because that babe is a sinful you not to begin, till you have given a special time to the creature ? Sin, that root of bitterness, has already shot its scriptures and to prayer. I desire all our undertakings to be fibres into the inmost soul. That infant “ born of the flesh, " sanctified by the word of God and prayer." Then refer- is flesh;” and “as such cannot please God”—cannot bring ring to her own intention of setting apart the next week for forth any other than the accursed fruits of the flesh. As spiritual exercises in reference to her Spanish communica- surely as the cockatrice's egg will hatch into a viper, so tíons-she adds—I thought perhaps that you would give surely will the babe born of unclean parents be itself unnext week to these things, and that it would be delightful to clean; so surely it will be " by nature a child of wrath, even me to remember, that we were both thus employed at the as others.” And therefore it is as the Apostle tells us, that same time. But if you cannot do this, pray at the time fixed Death reigneth over all, even over them that have not sinned
after the similitude of Adum's transgression." I entertain not addition. Can any thing like this be found in the disciple of Jesus? Jesus: but that they need redemption, that they are sinners,
a doubt that these little ones are redeemed by the blood of Yes—for the law of sin still dwells in his members. Neither this children of wrath by nature ;" of this truth I am equally sin, nor any other, shall be permitted to have dominion. (Rom. vi. 14.) But its assaults will sometimes vex and discompose him. He well assured; and every little mound in the churchyard seems will be tempted, according to the natural bent of his character," to to have a voice that tells
me so.' seek the applause of others, or to rest in his own.
Then, after citing our Church's recognition of this doctrine
in the Ordinance of Infant Baptism, she returns to her Scrip- Maker. He would prefer God's will and pleasure to his tural ground of argument.
“ The honour that cometh from God only” would be • The Holy Ghost has instructed the Apostle to give us dearer to him than the most splendid tribute of human apsuch a full comment upon the spiritual death we all die in plause. Is any thing like this to be found in man before his Adam, that we cannot too often read and pray over the follow- reception of Divine grace? No. He " lives without God ing passages, Rom. v. 12, 21. 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22, 45, 49. in the world :" chooses his own will and pleasure, and seeks Eph. iv. 22, 24. Col. iii. 9, 10. There are many others, his own glory. He is utterly selfish; therefore he is utterly in which our nature in Adam is spoken of, in contradistinc- fallen. tion to the new and holy nature we receive in Christ Jesus. • We find then that the doctrine of man's partial depravity inSo essential is a right understanding of this truth, that until volves absurd consequences. It leads to conelusions which are we receive it, many of the most beautiful parts of the Church wholly at variance with fact. These reflections bring us service must appear just as unintelligible to us as if they back to the Scripture statement. We admit that the heart of were written in an unknown language. Nay, worse than man may yet be the seat of many noble and tender affections unintelligible; they must seem extremely foolish and ridicu- towards his fellow-men. But in regard to God, we declare his lous. How absurd (to an understanding not convinced of affections to be alienated, his understanding darkened, his the original defilement of our nature) must it appear to talk will depraved. “There is none that understandeth ; there is of remitting an infant's sins; of causing the old Adam to be none that seeketh after God. They are all gone aside; they buried, and his carnal affections to die in him ; while all the are altogether become filthy; there is none that doeth good, time the hearer thinks that the infant as yet has no sins, no no, not one." ! carnal affections; while the very existence of the old Adam The utter helplessness of man she adduces with great clearor original sin is doubted by him!'
ness and power to prove, that the work of grace, from its The second records of Christian experience furnish full con- earliest commencement to its final consummation, is “all of firmation of her humiliating statement.
God." • Oh! what an unmeaning heap of words,' she exclaims, • Grace will be given'—she observes—to all who dilihas been handed down to us in the law of Moses, the Psalms gently seek for it. But, if we attend to the Scripture account of David, the confessions of Ezra, Nehemiah, Job, Daniel, of every man, woman, and child by nature, we shall find that Jeremiah and the rest of God's saints, if that evil nature this seeking also is the effect following upon grace received ; which caused them to groan did not really exist! Above not the cause producing it. Bý this I mean to say, that the all, what shall we make of Romans iii. and vii.? What shall very act of seeking grace proves that we have received grace we understand by the conflict between the flesh and the Spirit, already; and that the very ability to seek, is itself the free between the old man and the new man, between the carnal gift of God's sovereign grace. If“every thought of man's and spiritual affections? Was St. Paul dreaming, when he heart is evil, and that continually,” surely it is not out of that said, ** I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no heart that the first desire of any good thing can spring. If, good thing ?" Was he beside himself, when he declared, by nature, “ there is none that seeketh after God," whence can “that he found in himself a law, that when he would do the first attempt to seek him arise, but from free grace drawgood, evil was present with him ?" that, though by Divine ing us contrary to nature? Freely must grace be given to grace he had learnt" to delight in the law of God after the enable us to seek at first; and freely must it be continued, to inward man, yet still he saw another law in his members, enable us to go on seeking. I know that none shall seek the warring against the law of his mind, and bringing him into Lord in vain ; none who come shall be cast out; none who becaptivity to the law of sin which was in his members ?" The lieve shall come short of everlasting life; none who choose the apostle of the Gentiles, “who laboured more abundantly than better part shall have it taken from them; but then none can they all;" he, who had been caught up to the third heaven, seek the Lord, unless he first seek them. None can come, except and heard unspeakable words which it was not lawful for it be given him of the Father ;-none can believe, save as many him to utter" amongst sinful men; he, who "counted all as are ordained to eternal life; none can choose Christ, except things but dung, that he might win Christ;" he, who was he first choose them. If again we consider the magnitude of * ready, not only to be bound, but also to die for the name of the change which must take place in every siuner's heart bethe Lord Jesus;" this chosen vessel of mercy, full of zeal fore he can truly and earnestly seek God, we shall be conand full of love, and under the immediate inspiration of the vinced that no part of it is properly his own. He must be Holy Ghost, so groaned under the burden of the original cor-born again;" must “ become a new creature; old things must ruption of his nature, " the law of sin warring in his mem- pass away, all things must become new;" he must "pass bers,” that he was compelled to cry out, “0 wretched man from death unto life;" “ from darkness to light-from the that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?" power of Satan unto God;"_" from going about to establish And from the time of Paul there has never been a real Chris- his own righteousness, to submit himself to the righteousness tian, who has not often felt himself constrained to adopt his of God;" and this, to a proud carnal heart, is the most diffilanguage, and to say in the anguish of his soul, “ Who shall cult of all. And who is sufficient for these things ? Who deliver me from the body of this death ?” The remedy, as is but He, that first formed us in the womb, can cause us to be usual in Scripture, follows close upon the complaint: “I born again of the Spirit ?" Who but He, that originally crethank God through Jesus Christ our Lord.”'
ated us, is able to " create us anew in Christ Jesus ?" Who From her mathematical manuscript we extract the follow- but the giver of natural life can give spiritual life; " and ing method of proof of the total depravity of man. In speaking quicken those that were dead in trespasses and sins ?" of the three modes of demonstration, Inference, Coincidence, · When the Lord of life stood by the grave of Lazarus, and and Reductio ad absurdum, she thus applies the last mode to said—“Lazarus, come forth; and he that was dead, instantly the subject alluded to: “ Íf man be not utterly depraved, he came forth ;" who would say, that this act of lifting himself must be in one of these two states, either perfectly good, up was the cause of his coming to life; and not rather, that without any mixture of sin; or good, with some admixture his coming to life was the cause of his being able to lift himof evil and imperfection. The first of these suppositions car-self up? It is thus, when Jesus by his word and Spirit says ries its own absurdity upon the face of it. The second is to the heart of a sinner" Awake, thou that sleepest, and plausible, and more generally received. Yet it is not diffi- arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light."
Incult to prove, that if man had any remaining good in him, stantly that dead soul arises, and its first act is seeking, or that is, towards God, he could not possibly be the creature prayer; but this same act of seeking is the effect of spiritual that he now is. There could not be that carelessness about life, not the cause. We
pray because we are alive, not that we his eternal welfare, that deadness to spiritual things, which may live. We cannot quicken ourselves when dead in sin, we perceive in every individual, whose heart has not been any more than we can bring a dead body to life. But when renewed by Divine grace. Man would not love pleasure more Jesus has quickened us, we shall as surely perform all those than God. He would not prefer “ the things which are seen actions, which demonstrate the soul to be spiritually alive, and temporal” to “ the things that are not seen and eternal.” as a dead body when raised by divine power, will surely perHe would not trifle with sin. He would not sneer at holi-form all the functions of a living person. Grace, great grace, He would not habitually neglect to pray.
must be infused, to enable us to seek at all; and he who All these things are utterly incompatible with the hy-first gave grace to seek, will give more grace in answer to pothesis, that man is only partially fallen from God. The that seeking, thus fulfilling that precious Scripture, which very least spark of innate godliness would imply a restless saith—"'To him that hath, shall be given.”. We neither bedissatisfaction in what is evil; an importunate longing to gin nor carry on the work of grace in our own hearts.
« Jesus be freed from it. The man in whom such a spark of good- is the author and finisher," the Alpha and Omega " of our ness existed would breathe after lost comuunion with his faith.” From the first spark of grace that faintly glimmers