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The subjects which we have considered in these lectures, the hatred of antichristian bigotry. They were embodied by are such, that their importance cannot be overstated; and the them in the formularies of the whole protestant church, as more you reflect upon the statements regarding them which the doctrine of the oracles of God. In every land in which I have made, the more will you become convinced, I am sure, the power of the reformation was felt, the same system of that these have been scriptural and just. I have desired to doctrine was simultaneously drawn from the divine word, avoid all points of needless controversy among true believers and that system is the one which I have attempted to display in the gospel, while at the same time I have desired to state to you in these discourses. They are, further, the truth's most clearly and decidedly what I believe to be the truth of which, by all faithful teachers of the gospel of Christ, are God, however it may be opposed by those who would set proclaimed now in the various denominations of orthodox aside the spiritual, heart-changing character of the religion of Christians; the truths by which the doctrine of Christ is triJesus. I pray you to compare the views which I have pre- umphing among men, and under which alone the souls of sented to you, with the declarations of the divine word; if sinners are or can be converted unto God. They are, finally, they speak not according to its testimony, I shall allow there the truths which our church every where teaches, and by her is no truth in them. But the more studiously you make this fidelity in declaring which, she shows her worth to us, and comparison, the more will you see the accordance of all you the honour she gives to God. May they be the truths which have heard with the Lord's sacred communications, and I in this house you shall always hear, as the wisdom of God, trust, also, experience their convincing and renewing power and the power of God unto salvation. Prize them as your in your own souls.

treasure; cling to them as your hope; proclaim them as the These are the truths which the apostles preached in the blessed instrument of universal good, and may God cause demonstration of the Spirit, casting down all man's native them to bring forth in you the abundant and eternal fruits of pride and wisdom, and exalting the Lord alone, as his righte- holiness for his sake. And all the glory be to the BLESSED ousness and salvation. They are the truths for which the Trinity, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, ONE venerable reformers of the church sacrificed themselves under | God, world without end. Amen.

Vol. II.-G

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THE UNERRING TRUTH OF THE INSPIRED NARRATIVE OF THE EARLY EVENTS IN THE

WORLD IS EXHIBITED, AND DISTINCTLY PROVED, BY THE CORROBO-
RATIVE TESTIMONY OF PHYSICAL FACTS, ON EVERY

PART OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE.

BY

GEORGE FAIRHOLME, Esq.

PREFACE.

raged a hope, that, as in all other cases, the truth would finally

appear and prevail. In presenting the following pages to the judgment of the It has been well rem ked, by the able author of a work world, I have reason to fear, that the very title of the work which has lately appeared, full of information, and written will excite, in the minds of some, feelings by no means fa- upon the soundest principles,—"It is now thirty-five years vourable to an unprejudiced perusal of it.

since my attention was first directed to these considerations. I am fully aware of the objections which have frequently It was then the fashion for science, and for a large part of the been raised to the endeavours to connect physical facts with educated and inquisitive world, to rush into a disbelief of all the details of scripture; and I am, also, aware of the mischief written Revelation; and several geological speculations were that has sometimes ensued to the cause of religion, from the directed against it. But I have lived to see the most hostile imprudent or unskilful defence made by those whose wishes of these destroyed by their own as hostile successors; and to and intentions were the most friendly to it.

observe, that nothing, which was of this character, however The course of every science niust be progressive; begin- plausible at the moment of its appearance, has had any raning in faint attempts to dissipate the obscurity of ignorance, tion in human estimation, not even among the sceptical.”# and gradually advancing towards the full light of truth. To Of late years, accordingly, fact after fact has been gradually this usual course, the science of geology cannot be considered accumulating; each tending to temper the wild character of as an exception, having already passed through some of its an hypothetical philosophy; and every day produces some early stages, which were avowedly marked with obscurity new evidence of the hasty and erroneous conclusions from and error. During these stages of geological ignorance, I am physical facts, to which the friends of Revelation had found free to admit, that the attempt to connect the supposed dis-it too often necessary to succumb. coveries in the physical phenomena of the earth, with the Each of these errors in philosophy has been a source of tritruths announced to us in the sacred record, could not but umph to the cause of truth; and the time is gradually aptend to injure either the one cause or the other; because, proaching, if it be not yet fully come, when the trial must be it is impossible that any concord can exist between truth and brought to a positive issue, and when those undeniable physierror. In this case it unfortunately happened that the asser- cal facts, seen in a new and more correct light, will lend their tions of philosophy were uttered with such boldness, and so aid to the support instead of to the destruction of our confidence supported by the deceptious evidence of physical facts, seen under in scripture ; and when the simplicity and consistency of the a false light, that it was difficult for the supporters of revela- geology of Scripture, will make us regard with astonishment lation, ignorant, as they generally were, of the nature of these and contempt, schemes that could so long have exerted so facts, to hold their ground with success, or not to weaken powerful an influence over our reason and understanding. their own cause by an apparent failure in its support.

I am not vain enough to suppose that I am myself qualified The necessity which has, however, been acknowledged, of to bring about so desirable an end : but, as it is the duty of rejecting the geological theories of those days, opposed, as every one to lend a hand to the demolition of ERROR, and to they were, to the Mosaical History, was, therefore, a fair the encouragement of TRUTH, I propose, in the following pages, source of hope and encouragement to such as advocated the to endeavour, in as clear and concise a manner as the subject unerring character of Inspired Scripture. It, at least, left that Mosaic Narrative uninjured by the assault; and encou- * Sacred History of the World, by Mr. Sharon Turner.

will admit of, to account for the geological structure of the and subsequent changes of the globe which sustains us; and upper surface of our earth; taking the Mosaical History for for many years of my life I have regularly studied almost my guiding star, to be kept constantly in view throughout my every thing that has been advanced on those important subjects.

In the course of repeated travels over a great part of Europe, course.

I have also had many opportunities of practically forming a A great part of my object will be attained, if I can succeed judgment of the more visible and tangible evidences adduced in bringing any one of those able minds, who are now so in- in support of those theories. I have never felt, however, fluential in the geological world, to view, in the same light as either on the subject of the primitive or secondary formations myself, the phenomena presented to our examination on the of geology, that firm conviction of the truth of the doctrines

taught by the great leaders in science, which is the necessary earth. I am persuaded, that many of those individuals, so consequence to be looked for in sound and truly logical readistinguished in science, are not so wedded to a party or theo-soning. In the very opening of the subject, in treating of ry, as not to acknowledge and retract an error in judgment, if the mode of first formations, and in the numerous revolutions they are convinced of its existence.

which are said subsequently to have left unquestionable traAmongst the many unquestionable physical facts, there- ces upon the earth, I have never found any argument advan

ced which did not leave the mind in a bewildered and uncerfore, which I hope to be able to produce in the course of this tain state; and in but too many of the theories of philosophy treatise, supporting, in a remarkable manner, the Sacred His- on these subjects, we find opinions broached by the very tory of the early events in the world, should any thing be ablest men, so extraordinary, and so repulsive to our reason found sufficiently strong, and sufficiently pointed, to shake and common sense, that we are compelled at once to reject

them, and not without losing, at the same time, some portion the foundations of many of the present received opinions in geology, I hope that some one, or more, of those gifted indi- always to inspire us.

of that high respect, with which a sound philosophy ought viduals, may be found with sufficient candour to retrace his In the course of these studies, I have never been able to steps, and to lend the aid of a powerful and active mind to the exclude from my mind those lights and beacons held out, as cause of Revelation.

it were, for our guidance, in tracing the more obscure portions It is, however, to be feared, that there are many geologists, truth of which, on other subjects, the unprejudiced mind can

of the history of the earth, by the inspired writings, of the (if indeed they are deserving of the name,) whose great de-entertain not a shadow of doubt, strengthened as they are light in this subject arises from the play of fancy its consid- by the great and wonderful events which have been foretold eration, under a false view, gives rise to; and who would; in prophecy, and, subsequently, literally fulfilled in history. consequently, be unwilling to yield so pleasing a source of " The great problem of creation has been said to be, Mat

ter and Morion given, to form a world;' and the presumption argument and hypothesis to the plain and simple course of

of man has often led him to attempt the solution of this abevents which the Mosaical History unfolds.

surd problem. At first, philosophers contented themselves Notwithstanding, however, the opposition I may meet with with reasoning on the traditional or historical accounts they from such theorists, and in the absence of more able advocates had received; but it is irksome to be shackled by authority, for the support of this view of the subject, I propose to follow or for the learned to be content with the same degree of inthe course I have laid down ; and I feel perfectly confident, the people. After having acquired, therefore, a smattering of

formation on so important a subject as the most ignorant of that any failure in the proposed plan will not arise from the knowledge, philosophy began to imagine that it could point defective nature of the plan itself, or from the materials within out a much better way of forming the world, than that which my reach for the completion of it; but merely from the inabil- had been transmitted by the consenting voice of antiquity.ity of the builder, which defect may, at any time, be remedied, Epicurus was most distinguished among the ancients in this

work of reformation, and produced a theory on the principle by the same materials being placed in the hands of a more

of a fortuitous concourse of atoms, the extravagant absurdity able, though not more zealous advocate for the cause of truth. of which has alone preserved it from oblivion. From his

It must, however, be kept in view, that it is not the object day to the present time, there has been a constant succession of this treatise to enter minutely, or in detail, into the nature of systems and theories of the earth, which are now swallowed and history of each particular formation in the upper strata of up by those of a chaotic geology, founded on chemistry; the the earth. We must first lay a solid foundation for our views, speculations of which have been attended with many useful by an enlarged and general system; and when this great and tion; but when applied to solve the problem of creation, or

results, in so far as they proceed on the principles of inducprimary object has been perfectly attained, we may then, with the mode of first formations, will only serve, like the systems safety, examine in detail the many interesting objects present of their forerunners of antiquity, to demonstrate the ignoed to our inspection, without, at any time, however, losing

rance and presumption of man. sight of the great first principles by which we had found it

Unfortunately for the cause of truth, and of sound philoso

phy, the study of geology was begun, at no very distant peexpedient to be guided in our course. We may thus hope to riod, in a school where the only history which could be conbe led, by the full light of day, through those devious paths, sulted on such a subject was neglected and despised, on over which so complete a twilight has hitherto been spread; points incomparably more important than scientific inquiries. and we shall, undoubtedly, have the gratification of finding, We cannot, therefore, feel surprise, that the philosophy of that the same dignified simplicity and truth which have al- that period should have excluded from its view the concise ways been remarked as the characteristics of the other parts first part of the Mosaical history.

but most important geological information given us in the of Inspired Scripture, are not less remarkable, in the concise

Misled by the theories of the earth set forth by the contibut emphatic details of the early events of the world. nental philosophy and infidelity, theories so wild and absurd,

that sober reason now looks upon them with conternpt; many zealous and able men of our own country have been hurried away by the torrent, and have been induced to follow

out their own researches, under the delusive and prejudiced INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.

impressions of their early studies.

Even some of the most learned divines, without any The very high interest and importance of the history of knowledge of geology, have considered themselves bound, the globe which we inhabit, will be admitted by all whose in translating and explaining the sacred record, to submit to minds are capable of entering beyond a mere superficial the dictates of philosophy, and by taking liberties with the consideration of the objects around us; and the principles of original text, which would not be tolerated in translating curiosity, and the innaie love of truth, so inherent in the hu- any classic author, have thus unintentionally aided the cause man mind, lead us, step by step, from the consideration of of scepticism and unbelief. They have admitted a doubt upobjects themselves, to the Great First Cause from whence on a great and fundamental point, in which the inspired hisall things have originally sprung.

tory, fairly translated, directly opposes thein; viz. in conI have always felt an ardent desire to study, and endeavour ceding to the theories of philosophy the duration of the six to follow up, the theories which, from time to time, have been formed by philosophy, respecting the original formation

Edinburgh Encyclopedia.

%*

"*

duys of the creation. As it was contrary to these theories to is described as being originally much like other animals; but admit the perfect creation of all things, at the first, by an by the habit of feeding on branches of trees, it gradually asAlmighty Power, it became necessary to search for such sumed the form we now look upon with admiration. Such secondary causes, as would, by the mere laws of nature, as glaring absurdities as these have long ceased to find supportthey are called, have produced the primitive rocks, as we ers; but it is no less certain that the idea of gradual creation, now find them.* These supposed causes were discovered in or production of successive species of animated beings, is chemistry; and as it was found by chemists that various sub- still to be found in the principles of our modified philosophy; stances, under certain circumstances, formed themselves into and that the tribe of zoophytes, or sea animals, resembling crystals, and, by geologists, that granite, and other primitive plants in their form, is still looked upon as the first link in the rocks, had a crystalline appearance and formation, it was as- great animated chain. It will, therefore, not be considered sumed as a fact, assisted by the heathen notion of a chaos, that unworthy of our attention, if we take a more extended view all matter once existed in a confused and imperfect mass, from of the argument, and endeavour to show that such an arrangewhich, in the course of some indefinitely long period of time, ment in nature is not only derogatory in the highest degree our globe, in all its crystalline beauty, must have formed itself. from the Almighty power and wisdom, but completely at variWe are no where informed by this chaotic philosophy whence ance with a correct view of the animal kingdom. We find it the material atoms, of which this imperfect compound was correctly stated in the following extract from one of the most formed, were produced; how the liquid mass was held togeth-instructive and able works of our times, that the various er before the laws of attraction and of gravity were ordained ; or tribes of zoophytes subsist upon the minute species of animalby what power the laws of nature, by which crystallization cula, so abundant in the sea as well as in all the other waters of takes place, were first instituted.

the earth, and which have been called infusoria, from the By some philosophers of the French school, this theory well known circumstance that scarcely any vegetable subof gradual perfection was extended even to animated beings. stance can be infused in pure water, without, in a short time, They considered that life, in its lowest shape, was first gene exhibiting, under the microscope, myriads of such wonders rated in this fermenting mass, and that the present variety of the creative power and wisdom. * Zoophytes appear to and perfection, so remarkable in the animal world, gradually feed principally on infusoria, (or sea animalcula,) and they rearose from those species of marine creatures called zoophytes, quired Only the existence of that class to prepare the sea for their resembling, as their name denotes, the order of plants. It creation. Their remains form the oldest fossil apinals met is not easy to determine the original ground-work for so extra- with in the strata of the earth.' ordinary and impious a theory ; but it probably arose, in some The latter part of this passage, from the pen of a learned degree, from the erroneous conclusions from fossil remains, professor, shows that its author directly pointed towards the which hare been the fertile cause of so much misconception above mentioned notion, grounded on French philosophy, during the last century. It has been remarked by geologists, although the case is not expressly stated in words; but, as in that the only fossil remains of animated beings to be found all similar doctrines of an unsound philosophy, this passage in the earliest secondary rocks, are of this description of contains the antidcte as well as the poison, for it fixes upon a zoophytes; and it has therefore been concluded as a positive class of animated beings as food for this first link of the anifact, that zoophytes were the first and most imperfect of an-mated chain, of all the wonders of creative wisdom, that imated beings, from which, by a living principle in nature, which is, perhaps, best calculated to excite our most profound all other improvements have gradually sprung up. It may admiration. easily be imagined to what absurdities such theories must That all created beings present to our admiring view a have led, and from them we may trace the systems of great chain of various parts, each link connected with its Lamarck, who held, amongst others, the following extraor- fellow by easy shades of similarity of structure, is a fact addinary, opinions. He considered that all the forms of anima- mitted by the most cursory student in this wonderful book. ted beings, as they now exist, must have been gradually de- But what link of this chain is to be looked upon as less veloped, as their wants and necessities demanded. For in- wonderful, or incomprehensible, in its origin, than another? stance, the deer, and the antelope tribe, had not originally the And if, which it would be difficult to do, we can discover delicate forms and nimble activity they now display; these one more imperfect than another, for the performance of the qualities were produced by the necessity of flying from their great ends to which it is decreed, are we to fix upon this apenemies, and of seeking safety by rapid flight. The aquatic parent imperfection as the first attempt and failure of the birds and beasts having webbed feet to assist them in swim- Almighty hand? The wonders displayed by the microscope ming, had no such helps in their primitive condition, but by ought for ever to obliterate from our minds any such impious constant action and exertion of the toes, the membrane con- and unworthy notions. That instrument exhibits to us the necting them at length became extended. But one of the great fact, that if perfection of design, combined with what most whimsical of these ideas, perhaps, relates to the we consider dificulty in formation, is to be looked for in the unusual length of neck exhibited by the cameleopard, which creation, it is amongst the minutest of the insect tribe that

we shall find displayed the most wonderful wisdom of the * In the understanding which has, in a manner, been tacitly agreed Creator. All that the most profound genius is capable of upon in science, carefully to exclude cvery allusion to the Deity, in inventing, presents but a feeble image of the structure and the contemplation of his works, we constantly find the unmeaning actions of these minute creatures; and yet the tribe of 200name of nature introduced, even in pages where the admiration of phytes, as the most imperfect of created animals, "ONLY hen works would make it appear impossible to avoid an acknow- required the existence of the class infusoria to prepare the sea mous treatise by Milton, we find the following just reflections on this for their creation!" Such ideas of imperfection in the works subject.—“Though there be not a few who deny the existence of of the Almighty, are quite unworthy of our enlightened times; God, for the fool hath said in his heart, there is no God,'(Psal. xiv.) and the streams of knowledge flow tv little purpose, if the yet the Deity has imprinted on the human mind so many unquestion- head-springs are tainted with such impurities. able tokens of himself, and so many traces of him are found through- Our notions of the power of the Creator never can be more out the whole creation, that no-one in his senses can long remain ig- elevated than in contemplating the more minute portions of norant of the truth. There are some who pretend that nature, or the animated chain, the wonders of which make it appear as that it must owe its birth to some prior agent ; and fate can be noth- if he wished to veil his most perfect works from human ing but a Divine decree, emanating from some superior power.” eyes, and to lavish them on beings the most obscure, and, in

We must, however, in justice admit, that, in the minds of many, appearance, the most vile; for, according to our finite and the exclusion above alluded to has been acceded to with the very imperfect ideas, there would be less difficulty (if we may best intention, though this admission may be looked upon as a proof so speak of the works of the Almighty,) in forming the to the great truths of Revelation ; for, in the obscurities under which large members of the whale, or of the elephant, than the many of the phenomena of creation are still viewed, and under the delicate fibres and minute vessels of the gnat or of the impression of such obscure and erroneous theories as have been put spider. But as we descend in the scale of magnitude, we forth by philosophy, men of the soundest faith must have found seem to ascend in that of perfection and incomprehensible themselves so constantly involved in contradiction to the records of difficulty; for by the aid of the microscope, we discover new inspiration, in the course of their scientific researches, that it would wonders at every step of our investigations, and find that collision as must occur, till the views of creation become more en-beings which adorn the earth. The mind is lost in wonder, entire exclusion, than to confound and shatter both, by such continual our unassisted vision can perceive but one half of the living lightened, and complete concord is established between Revelation and is incapable of conceiving what the tongue can so easily and the phenomena of the world around us. This desirable and express, that there are, in almost all fluids, animals as perinevitable concord is every day advancing with rapid strides ; for, however the theories of philosophy may change, the Rock of 'Revelation stands for ever immovably fixed.

Edinburgh Encyclopedia, vol. xviii. p. 843.

fect as ourselves in bodily structure and action, so minute, forms shall be arranged? No. The potter may form the that it would require millions of them to form the compass of vessel, but he cannot create the clay. one single grain of sea sand ?* But when we thus arrive at Amongst the many inextricable difficulties in which we the verge of power in our instruments, we have still no rea- become involved, by a departure from the guidance of the son to conclude that we have reached the utmost limit of an-sacred record, and by supposing, with the continental philoimated creation. Future instruments may possibly exhibit sophy, that the solid globe was a chemical crystalline deposit wonders as great as those we are now considering; and we from an aqueos chaos, we have to overcome this certain fact thus find, as astronomers have done in the opposite extremity, in these same laws of nature; viz. that as we know of no that we can discover no bounds to creative power and wisdom. other source of heat, and, consequently, of fluidity on our

It may also be remarked, that the balance of animal and globe, and, probably, in the other members of the solar sysregetable productions is so admirably arranged, that the re-tem, than the sun; as we know that there are parts of our moval of any one link would serve to throw the whole chain planet around the poles where no water can exist in a fluid into confusion. We come, then, in conclusion, to the same state, for the greater part, if not the whole of the year, from point from whence we at first set out, viz. that zoophytes the absence of that sun's influence, nor, indeed, ever could could not exist without the animals on which they feed; and have existed since the solar system was arranged ; and as we as the same may be concluded, with regard to any other know that without that solar influence no fluidity could exist individual species, that all must have been the spontaneous on any part of the earth's surface, by the mere luws of nature, creation of an Almighty power, at one and the same period, (as even mercury becomes solid at a higher temperature than and not a gradual production, by the mere laws of nature. We exists at the poles,) how are we to suppose a chaotic AQUEOUS shall have a future opportunity of showing why zoophytes fluid, held together in empty space, and without the melting could not but be the earliest fossil productions found in the influence of a sun, which, consistently with this philososecondary strata of the earth.

phy, we must conclude was not yet precipitated or crystallized The supposed chemical process, however, which we were into perfection within its own chaos ; for if we adopt the before considering, must have required a much longer period chaotic principle, with regard to our own planet, we cannot, than the inspired writings have given us, to bring it to per- in fairness, refuse it to the other heavenly bodies. fection. The days of the Mosaical history, (which history In adopting secondary causes, then, or the theory of the fornever could be entirely excluded from the minds of men,) mation of the earth by ihe mere laws of nature from an aqueous with their evenings and their mornings, were, therefore, chaos, we must account for fluidity without heat, an effect withforced into the indefinite periods necessary for the operation. out a cause, and directly opposed to all the known laws of

Geologists, without any knowledge of the original text, nature.* and learned men, without any knowlege of geology, have, In advocating, then, the chaotic philosophy, we must actherefore, unintentionally formed a species of coalition, the count for the creation of the crnde materials of which that effects of which strike deep into the very root of our confi- chaos must have been composed, and also for those wonderful dence in scripture, and sap the foundation on which our be-laws to which matter has been subjected, and by which it is lief in the Omnipotence and Omniscience of an Almighty Crea-forced to assume those crystalline forms which we so much tor ought to be founded.

admire; and being thus forced to acknowledge a Creator so With whatever pleasure and interest, then, we may follow wise and powerful as to be able to form even a chaos out of the more plausible theories of secondary formations on the nothing, (for if God did not create the first thing, then there surface of the earth, it appears impossible for our reason to is something besides Him that was never made, and then enter, even in the slightest degree, into the hypothetical sys- there are two Eternals,”1) we come to the consideration of tems taught by the highest scientific authorities with regard to his power to create things in a more perfect form. We find first formations. We are taught, both by scripture and by our that created matter is divided into three kingdoms, as they reason, that the earth, as but a small part of an immense have been called, of animal, vegetable and mineral: there are sytem, was intended as a temporary abode for immortal souls few who would now dispute that the first and second of these in their mortal bodies. We have no reason to suppose that great divisions must have been at first formed in a perfect we are misled by history, when we are informed that but a and mature state, although both have since been submitted very few thousands of years have elapsed since the creation to laws, through which they must pass from the embryo state of mankind : we are taught to believe, from what we read in to perfection. We cannot for a moment suppose the first a part of scripture, which it is not so much the object of man to have been once an infant, or the first oak tree to have science to dispute, that a very considerable portion of the historical events of the world has already passed away, and,

* The greatest degree of natural cold that has hitherto been obconsequently, we may infer, that the scene on which we now served in the open air, is about 50 degrees below zero ; but at the act a part, will not be of immense duration. Now, in con- rounded by ice, and

inaccessible by ships for upwards of 1000 miles

actual poles, and more especially at the south pole, which is sursidering the laws by which events are brought about, and the on all sides, is probably, at a much lower temperature. Mercury changes of this world are effected, we never discover so great freezes at 39 degrees below zero, and then becomes malleable like a disproportion between the means and the end, as would be any other metal. Thus, at the poles, mercury never could have the case, if we admit, with but two many geologists, that existed in a fuid state, any more than water; and the strongest spirits millions of years may have been necessary for the preparation are frozen at a still higher temperature.

“ All substances in nature, as far as we know them, occur in one and ripening of this earth from chaos, to fit it up as a stage on

or other of three states; that of solids, of liquids, or of elastic fluids. which so brief a drama was to be acted. This is one of the

“ In a vast number of cases the same substance is capable of asfirst difficulties our reason has to encounter in considering the suming each of these states in succession. Thus, sulphur is usually gradual formation of the globe from secondary causes: but solid, but at 218 degrees it becomes a liquid, and at 570 degrees it our difficulties are only then beginning, for even if we admit boils, and is converted into an elastic fluid. Water is a kquid, but at this theory, we do not, in the least degree, advance towards 32 degrees it freezes into a solid, while at 212 degrees it boils into an the object of our search; we are as far as ever removed from elastic fluid, a GREAT FIRST Cause, to which our reason is as true as the by heating them sufficiently; and almost all liquids by cooling them

"All solids (a very few excepted) may be converted into liquids magnet to its pole. We cannot close our eyes upon the great sufficiently, may be converted into solids. The law of nature then, truth so deeply impressed upon our minds by every thing is, that solids by heat are converted into liquids and elastic fluids; around us, that, even admitting a chuos, that chaos must have while elastic fluids and liquids by cold are brought into the state of been CREATED in all its component parts. The chemist, in his solids.Edin. Encyclop. Chemistry, p. 56.

“ From what has been advanced respecting the situation, properlaboratory, may compound the various substances and fluids,

ties and manner of formation of the ice surrounding the pole, we from the qualities of which he is aware that crystals will be

may naturally conclude that a continent of ice-mountains may exist formed; but he is obliged to exercise the knowledge acquired in regions near the pole, yet unexplored, the nucleus of which may from study and experience, and to apply the heat necessary be as aneient as the earth itself, and its increase derived from the sea for their formation. Although he may thus form the com- and atmosphere combined."--Scoresby's Arctic Reg. vol. ii. p. 319. pound, can he create the materials of it? Though he may

+ LETTER FROM JEREMY TAYLOR, TO Jour EVELINE, Esq. produce crystals, can he enact a law by which these beautiful

“ To your question, How it appears that God made all things out

of nothing,' I answer, it is demonstrably certain, or else there is no The author has lately had' an opportunity of demonstrating, in God. For if there be a God, he is the one principle: but if he did the most unequivocal manner, that it would require from one to three not make the first thing, then there is something besides him that millions of some active animalcula to form the bulk of a grain of sand. was never made, and then there are two Eternals. Now, if God This distinct measurement is made by means of a vegetable gradu- made the first thing, he made it of nothing. ated fibre, accidentally discovered in a greenish scum on a gravel

“ Your obliged and affectionate servant, valk.

“ JEREMY Taylor."

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