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50 Of Europe. Result of this View. Chalk Basins.


51 That of Paris, a Guide to all similar Basins. Salt

Chap. I.-Our ideas of the real extent of objects on the Deposits. Coal Formations. Evidences of Coal

Earth's Surface often erroneous. True height of being a Marine, and not a Lacustrine Formation.

Mountains. Depths of the Ocean. Of Mines. Of Chap. IX.-Organic Remains. Evidences derived from

Volcanic Foci. "Eruptions of Mud containing Fish. them. Erroneous Theories of Continuous Stratifica-

Volcanoes only in Secondary Formations. True Scale tion. Diluvial Fossil Remains. Diluvial Origin of

on which to view the Earth. Form of the Earth.

Coal. Unfounded Theories on this Subject. The

Newton's Demonstrations. Gravity and Centrifugal Belgian Coal Fields. Tropical Productions in Polar

Force. False inferences drawn from Newton's Hy- Regions. Buffon's Theory. High Importance of the

pothesis. True Primitive Creations. Density of the Evidence of Fossils. Natural and unavoidable mode

Earth. Reflections arising from the Subject The of Transport. Instances in proof. Buoyant nature

Days of Creation.

55 of Bodies after Death. Rate at which they might

Chap. 11.- The Second Day of the Creation. The Fir- have been transported. The thick-skinned Animals

mament, or Atmosphere. Atmospheric Phenomena. floated longest.

Magnetism, and Electricity.

59 Chap. X.--High Importance of the Evidence of Fossils.

CHAP. III.-The gathering together of the Waters. Siberian Mammoth. The entire Elephant of the Lena.

The Sublimity of this Fiat of the Creator not suffi- Theories founded on this Specimen, unsupported by

ciently understood. The Transition Rocks.

60 facts. Consistent mode of accounting for Tropical

CAP. IV.-Constant Changes in Nature. Origin of Productions in Cold Climates. Unchanged condi-

Secondary Formations. Primitive Soils, for the Nour- tion of the Climates of the Earth. Italian Deposits.
ishment of a Primitive Vegetation. Constant Circu-

Monte Bolca. Fossils on the Coast of Norfolk. For-
lation in the Fluids of the Earth. Springs, Brooks, mations of the South of England. The same View
and Rivers. The Tides. Their Cause Explained.

extended to the Continent.

The Currents of the Ocean, and their present existing Chap. XI.--The Cave of Kirkdale. Dr. Buckland's

System. Effects naturally arising from these power- Theory founded on its Fossil Remains. Contradic-

ful Causes.

61 tory Nature of this Theory. Fossil Bones from the

Chap. V.-General Nature of the Formations on the Hymalaya Glaciers, and from the Heights of South

Earth. Origin and Progress of Secondary Forma- America. Natural mode for accounting for them.
tions. Causes of Stratification in Secondary Rocks. The Habits of the Elephant. His most perfect form.
Such Deposits become gradually Mineralized. Cal. His love of the Water, and of a swampy and woody
careous Formations. Salt Deposits. Proof of Gran- Country. Habits of the Rhinoceros. Cuvier's Opin-
ite not being an Aqueous Deposit. Secondary Forma- ion of Fossil Remains. Inconsistency of this Opinion.

tions now in Progress in the bed of the Ocean. 64 Evidence of Astronomy. Evidence from Fossil 'Trees.
Chap. VI.-The Deloge. Traditional Evidence of that Conclusive Nature of this Evidence. Evidence de-
Event. Erroneous Ideas commonly entertained res-

rived from Peat Moss. Foot-marks of Antediluvian
pecting it. Distinctness of Scripture on the Subject. Animals. Scratches occasioned by the Diluvial Ac-
Evidence from Scripture. Evidence from the An-

tion. Formation of Valleys. Scripture alone capable

cient, though Apocryphal, Book of Enoch. Theories of explaining these Evidences.

of Philosophy on the Subject. The most probable Chap. XII.-Elephants clothed with Hair and Wool.-

Cause of that Destructive Event.

68 Existing Instances of this Variety, even within the

Chap. VII.-Mosaic Account of the Deluge. The Tropics. Probable Identity between the Mammoth

Mountains of Ararat. Origin of that remarkable Name. and the Asiatic Elephant. Cuvier's Theory on this
Effects during the Deluge. Action of the Tides and Subject inconsistent with Facts. More natural Con-
the Currents during the Deluge. Their Effects upon clusions. Erroneous Theories respecting Fossils.
Organic Bodies. Diluvial Strata. Abatement of the

The Mastodon not confined to the Continents of Amer-

Waters. Renewal of the Face of the Earth.

70 ica, as commonly supposed. Instance of the great

CHAP. VIII.-General View of the existing Surface. Mastodon in England. Form of the Tusks of the

Force of the Waves. Principles of Stratification. Mastodon.-Erroneous Ideas on this subject.

Cavous Limestone. Gibraltar. The plains of the Chap. XIII.-Human Fossil Remains. Why they can-

Earth. Of South America. Of Africa. Of Asia.

not be so numerous as those of other Animals. Lime,


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Benefits which they were to receive from him.


1. Inquiry into the Nature of the Comforter.

Impostors who have assumed his name—Manes-

Montanus-Mohammed. The Comforter the same

ual. The Holy Ghost not a Material Substance. 257

The expressions of our Saviour concerning the Comforter not

allegorical or figurative.
Iu all expressions not professedly parabolica), the
literal interpretation most probable. Inconsistency of
the Socinians in preferring the allegorical interpreta-
tion. Motives by which men are led to the use of Al-
legory or Metaphor :-did not apply to the discourse
now under examination. Nor have our Lord's words
any of the distinctive marks by which figurative ex-
pressions are distinguished from those which are to
be taken literally. Wherein those marks consist. The
Personification of an abstract quality not proper or in-
telligible, under any other naine than that which con-
ventionally stands for it;-much less under a name al-

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ready appropriated to a real agent. Meaning of the

term " Spirit.” No reason to apprehend that our Lord

used the term in compliance with popular superstition.

Nor that the term “ Holy Spirit,” was employed by

the Jews in a figurative meaning to express Inspira-

tion. The testimonies of Jerome and Maimonides to

this effect not conclusive. Jerome has misrepresented

Lactantius. Maimonides frequently at variance with

the usual opinions of the Synagogue. The ancient

Jews regarded the Holy Spirit as a Person. This

fact sufficient for the present argument, thongh their

knowledge of his Nature and Functions might be im-

perfect. -

- 258

The expressions in question further shown not to be atlegorical,

from the general consent of Christians, and more particularly

of the primitive Church.

Force of this argument. Reasonableness of that de-

ference which is paid to the opinions of the primitive
Church. Those opinions favourable to the Orthodox

• 261
The Ancient Christian Writers not incompetent evidence.

Those Writers not cited for their merit as writers or
commentators, but as contemporary witnesses to the
faith of the Ancient Church. Their competency to
this point.

The Orthodox Opinions not first introduced into the Church in

the Second Century after Christ.
Those doctrines found in the writings of the Apos-

tolic Fathers. Testimonies to the Personality of God's

Spirit in Hermas,-Clemens,- Ignatius,-Polycarp.

The Doxology how ancient. Canticle called the Epi-

lychnia, popular with the lower ranks of Christians.

Tertullian and Justin do not favour the notion that the

Doctrine of the Trinity was in their time recently in-

troduced. Testimonies of Justin and Irenæus to the

universal faith of the Church.

- 262

LECT. III.—The Orthodox Opinions not derived from the


The Platonizing Christians why conspicuous in Ec-

clesiastical History. Their influence with the general

body of Christians not great. The Platonists in gen-

eral hostile to Christianity, and why. Their leading

doctrines strongly opposed to the Orthodox faith. Be-

lief in Two Principles. Utter Impurity of Matter.

The Creator of the World how esteemed by them.

Their objections to the Orthodox Faith in the Incarna-

tion of the Godhead, and the Resurrection of the Body.

Porphyry. Apollonius of Tyana. Ammonius. Ju-

lian the Apostate. Synesius. Platonizing Christians

either Heretics or suspected of Heresy. The Platonic

Trinity not a conspicuous part of the doctrine of the

Academy. Its resemblance to the Christian Trinity

imperfect. Yet, from this resemblance an argument
may be drawn against the Unitarians.

· 264
The Orthodox Opinions derived from the Apostles themselves.

The Ancient Fathers appeal to Apostolic Tradition

and Authority. Necessary inferences from such an

appeal. The Orthodox regarded Apostles as the foun-

ders of their Sect. This could not have been the case

if so important a doctrine as the 'Trinity had been in-

troduced into the Church by any other person in op-

position to the authority of the Apostles when alive,

or their known sentiments when dead. Nor can we

allow that such an innovation can have been introduced

under colour of receiving the genuine opinions of the

Apostles,- for no such pretended loss and revival of

the faith is noticed by any of the Fathers. If such a

revolution in the religious opinions of the Church had

taken place, its author must have held a high place in

Ecclesiastical History. No such person is known to

have existed. Such a change cannot have taken place

unobserved. It, therefore, never took place at all. 266

Resumption of the Argument from the general consent of Chris-

The Orthodox Believers composed a Majority of the
primitive Christians. The Personality of God's Spi-
rit not held by the Orthodox only, but by the great body
of Christians however otherwise divided. 'l'he Mani-
chees.—The Arians.--The Mohammedans.---The
Gnostics.- The Ebionites.-The Nazarenes. To this

general consent, the Sabellians and Socinians the only

known exceptions.

- 267

The Spirit of God, how spoken of in other parts of Scripture.

Examination of those passages where He is said to be

given, quenched, &c. Those passages obviously figu-

rative, whether on our principles or those of the Socin-

ians. The persona efficiens may be put for the res
effecta. Expressions of the same kind applied to those

whose personal existence is uncontrovertible. The

Holy Ghost proved to be a Person on the same grounds

with those on which we believe the Personality of God
the Father. The various metaphorical names ap-

plied to the Holy Ghost, no presumption against
his Personality. Supposed Identity of the Holy

Ghost and the Jewish Schekinah an argument in favour

of this doctrine.


Socinian and Sabellian Notions compared.

If the Holy Ghost be an attribute or operation, he
must be an attribute or operation of God the Father.
Whatever is figuratively predicated of an accident is
really predicated of the Person or Substance in which
that accident is inherent. The Divinity of the Holy
Ghost in what sense maintained by the Socinians and
Sabellians. The Holy Ghost incidentally proved to
be God. But cannot be identified with God the Fa-
ther. Inconsistency of the Socinians in admitting
part of the Sabellian System and rejecting the remain-
der. 1 Cor. ii. 11, examined and explained. Con-
clusive against the Arian System but not against the

Homoousian. Ancient opinion of two Souls in Man.

Contradictions and absurdities of the Sabellian Hy-



Conclusion of the Argument in favour of the Spirit's Personality.

Motives by which a Christian is actuated in expos-

ing the errors of his Religious opponents. Exhorta-

tion to the study of Scripture. Doctrines now to be

tried. Practical nature of the Truths contended for by
the Orthodox. Melancholy effect of the Socinian


- 271

Lect. IV.-Consequences incidentally deducible from the Per-

sonality and Deity of the Holy Ghost.

The Doctrine of a Trinity in Unity necessary to re-

concile Scripture with itself. That Doctrine not more

above reason than many acknowledged trnths in Nat-

ural Philosophy and Natural Religion. No objection

to its truth that it is rather deducible from different

passages of Scripture than expressly revealed in any.

This is the case with many other of the most import-

ant Doctrines in the Old and New Testaments, and
corresponds with the general analogy of God's provi-

dence. The indirect species of proof less liable to

objection than the positive.

- 271

11. Inquiry into the Persons to whom and for whose advantage

the Comforter was promised. The Comforter not promised to
the Apostles only, but to all generations of Believers.

The Comforter was to abide for ever with those to
whom he was sent. The office of God's Spirit in this

capacity has relation to this world only.

- 273

III. Inquiry into the nature of those peculiar benefits which

Christians were to receive from the Comforter. Preliminary

investigation of the part which the Holy Ghost sustained under

the Patriarchal and Mosaic Dispensations.

Reasons for such an investigation. Difficulty of

carrying it on so far as concerns the earliest ages of

the world. Proofs of the Trinity from the word

Elohim, &c. uncertain and dangerous. The “Spirit
of God," Gen. i. 2, not a material wind. Uncertain

whether the Third or the Second Person of the God-
head be intended by it. The name of Spirit applied

to both. Presumption which this circumstance affords

against Socinianism. Opinion of the Ancient Fathers

that the Son of God, on certain occasions, appeared to

the Patriarchs and Prophets. That opinion not in-
consistent with the supposed intercourse of God's
Spirit with mankind during the same periods of Sa-
cred History. Distinction between the Persons of the
Godhead implied in the Old Testament. The name
and functions of the Holy Ghost well known to the
Jews before the time of our Saviour. Angels by whom
the Law was given. The Holy Spirit intended by

the Rabbinical Schekinah. Application of these cir-
cumstances to the explanation of several obscure pas-
sages in Scripture. Vision seen by Daniel on the
Banks of Hiddekel. Not a created Angel—nor God
the Son. Michael one of the names by which God the
Son is distinguished in Scripture. Erroneous opin-
ion that nations are snbject to Angel Governors, and
that these Governors have wars with each other. The
Holy Ghost the ruling and supporting Providence of
the world. Grounds for supposing that the Angel Ga-
briel and the Holy Ghost are the same Divine Person.
Meaning of the name Gabriel. Christ's Mortal Body,
how quickened by the Spirit, These opinions sug-
gested only as probable speculations. If true, may
illustrate, if false, cannot weaken the other proofs of
the Trinity and Atonement.

- 273
Lect. V.-Inquiry resumed. The Benefits conferred by the

Holy Ghost in his capacity of Comforter conferred on Chris-
tians only.

The Spirit of God our peculiar Comforter. The pro-
mise of his coming made to Christians only.

Those Benefits were some of which the Disciples themselves were

not in previous possession.
The terms of visitation and mission figurative only
as applied to God. Yet denotes some new manifesta-
tion of his power or goodness. The coming of the
Paraclete a compensation for the departure of Christ.
A compensation what.

- 278
Correspondence between the Miraculous displays of God's power

at the time when the Law of Moses was given, and those which
distinguished the publication of the Gospel.

The Schekinah. The day of Pentecost. Moses.
St. Stephen. St. Paul in Paradise. Prophecy. - 279
Yet the gift of Miraculous Powers was not that definite blessing

which the Holy Ghost was to dispense as Paraclete.
That blessing promised to all generations. But
Miracles have ceased. No sufficient answer to this
objection,—that Miracles have become unnecessary.
That answer disputable in point of fact. Miracles of
rare occurrence, why. Nor, though supernatural aids
may have become less necessary than formerly, would
this change in the circumstances of the recipient ac-
quit the promiser of his engagement.

have not materially changed with the Church in those
particulars on account of which the Comforter was
especially promised.

- 279
Nor is the promised protection of the Comforter fulfilled by the

grace which he dispenses through the Sacraments, and the per-
petuation of an Apostolic Ministry.

Because the promise in question is something more
definite than a general assurance of help and comfort.
And its terms are such as suit neither of these opera-
tions of the Holy Ghost. The Paraclete was to guide
us into all truth, &c. These particulars do not accord
with the Sacramental Graces nor the Grace of Ordi-
nation. Nor were the Sacraments and Ordination new
privileges conferred on the Church in consequence of
the Paraclete's coming. These rites not unknown to
the Ancient Jews. And all instituted in the Christian
Church by the Messiah before his departure. The in-
stitutions in question are more blessed and efficacious
as means of grace to the Christian than to the Jew,-
but the source of this difference still remains to be
sought after.

· 280
Nor by the protection of the Holy Ghost in temporal matters and

as ruling Providence of the World.
The departure of Christ not compensated for by the
mere continuance of that protection which the Apos-
tles had, before, in more ample measure,

The terms of our Lord's promise have no reference to
a temporal guardianship.

· 281
Inquiry into the necessity and reality of the ordinary and sanc-

tifying influence of God's Spirit.
That influence denied by modern Socinians. Sup-
posed by us to consist in the immediate agency of
God's Spirit on the Soul. How distinguished from
the inspiration of supernatural knowledge and power.
Possibility of such an intercourse. Its necessity.-
Objections of the Unitarians considered. God's gen-
eral Providence a succession of particular interferences.
The interference of the Spirit may extend through a ve-
ry wide range of our thoughts and actions. Natural and
peculiar difficulties attendant on the practice of virtue.

The inclination of man to do evil. Our human reso-
lution why insufficient to overcome this propensity.
Religious motives for self-control often less powerful
than worldly motives, why. Those motives more dis-
tant and not the objects of sense. The objects of
worldly prudence demand fewer sacrifices at our hands.
Self-government required in a Christian.

The gift
of sanctifying grace proveable from Scripture. The
opinions of Augustine and Calvin on this subject an
abuse of the Doctrine in question. How far those
opinions resemble the Fatalism of Socinians. Scrip-
tural testimonies to the reality and necessity of God's
sanctifying Grace. The gifts of Holiness and Peace
distinct from that of Miraculous Power, yet both as-
cribed to God's Spirit. Conclusion.

Lect. VI.— The ordinary and sanctifying Grace of God not the

peculiar blessing which the Comforter, as such, was to bestow
on Christians.

Nature and extent of God's sanctifying Grace, ex-
plained. Communicates no new idea to the Soul, but
enables us to profit by those which we, by other means,
acquire. Acts by the illustration not the revelation of
truth. Cannot, therefore, be said to teach all things
or show us things to come. Given to others besides
Christians. Contradictions involved in the contrary
opinion. No man can believe unless through grace
both preventing and furthering. Therefore grace must
have been given to those who were not yet believers.
This difficulty how avoided by the Calvinists. Con-
sequences resulting from their system. How softened
by Owen. Inconsequence of his reasoning. Grace
given, through Christ's merits, to the Patriarchs and
ancient Jews,—and to the Heathen. Degree of Divine
knowledge on which a justifying faith may be found-
ed, shown from Hebr. xi. 6. This degree of know-
ledge possessed by some among the Heathen. Proved
from the Heathen Writers and from St. Paul. And
from the virtues of some among the Ileathen. Those
virtues did not, all of them, proceed from impure or
worldly motives. Sacrifices and Devotions of the
Heathen, some of them offered to the true God. The
institution of Sacrifice derived from the ancient Patri.
archs. Sacrifices might bring down a blessing on
those who understood not the meaning of their ap-
pointment. Difference between a Type and a Sacra-
ment. The extension of God's sanctifying Grace to
the Heathen does not detract from the efficacy of Sa-
cramental Ordinances. A due use of those Ordinances
necessary and appointed means of Grace to all Chris-
tians. Analogy between Sacramental observances
and prayer. Defence of Infant Baptism. The Sacra-
ments only necessary to those by whom their obli-
gation is known. Spiritual regeneration sometimes
given by God without, or previous to its outward sign
in Baptism. But through Grace may be given to the
Heathen, this does not lessen the danger arising from
a perverse refusal of the Gospel. Error of all kinds,
even when conscientious, a great misfortune. The
Grace given to Christians of greater efficacy than that
which the Heathen may hope for, and why. Motives
for labouring for their conversion. And for gratitude
for our own knowledge of the Gospel.

- 285
Corollaries which follow from the above statement. 1. T'he op-
posite systems of Pelagius and Calvin are alike disproved.

All the good actions of men referred to God's Grace.
Scriptural meaning of the term “ Election." Equal
degrees of Grace not given to all. Yet no capable

2. Grace may be resisted and rendered vain. Fallacy of the

Doctrine of Assurance.
No man punished but for neglect of Grace. Men
may fall from Grace received. Our own feelings, on
the subject of Assurance, may be mistaken by us.
Differerice between the absence of doubt and the sensa-
tion of perfect confidence. The Doctrine of Predesti-
nation opposed by our natural instincts.

Lect. VII.-- The Holy Ghost has established his Title to the

character of Paraclete by the Revelations which he made to
the Apostles.

The Son of God the object, yet more than the teacher
of the Christian Faith:-Proved by the ignorance dis-
played by the Apostles, anterior to the coming of the
Paraclete, as to the nature of Christ's kingdom and the
reason of his sufferings. That ignorance not to be

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