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of the Woman. And if the Woman | also possess infinite merit, because was first in the transgression, it is it is obedience to infinite majesty? the seed of the Woman who bruises And if so, the obedience and sufthe Serpent's, head and accom-ferings of Christ did not require plishes the salvation of Man. I one whose person is of infinite digbeg you to reconsider the subject, nity and worth." and see if you cannot apportion a less share of degradation to Woman, who is at once the ornament and life of society; one with Man, as part of himself, and without whom Man, our pretended superior, would be a cheerless disconsolate creature,



Yours &c. MARY. 'POSTSCRIPT. The Editor must enter his Protest against the word "pretended" in the last sentence of his fair correspondent's letter, because it militates just as strongly against the language of scripture as it does against any thing that he has written! Whenever, therefore, Mary shall have adjusted her claims of superiority, or even of equality, with the doctrine of the apostles, Paul and Peter, the dif ference between her and the Editor will be easily settled. That a sensible woman may have sometimes married a fool, he will not deny, but he is very certain that such an action ought not to be considered as any proof of her wisdom!

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To the Editor of the New Evangelical



IN a recent conversation with a professed Socinian, which turned upon the guilt of sin, I could not satisfactorily to my own mind rebut the following reply made to an argument adduced to prove the infinite demerit of moral evil. "If," said he," it be maintained that the disobedience of man against God is an infinite evil, or that infinite demerit attends sin because it is committed against an infinite Being -may it not, for the same reason, be maintained, that the perfect bedience of a mere creature would

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents who will favor me with a solution of this apparent dilemma. G.B.


We shall cheerfully insert any pointed and well written answer to this letter which may be sent us, having neither time nor room to go into the subject ourselves this month. We beg leave, however, in the mean time, to recommend to the serious consideration of our correspondent, Mr. McLaurin's Essay on prejudices against the gospel (in his Sermons and Essays, p. 163, &c. 2nd edition.) where he will find this and other specious sophisms of the Socinians successfully combated.

Justice requires that we give every one his due. Our souls and our bodies are God's: the faculties of the one and the members of the other should be employed in his service. Sin robs God of his due, and turns his own workmanship against himself. The heinousness of any injury is usually measured by the dignity of the party of fended by it. And on this is founded the obvious reasoning, that because the party offended by sin is infinite, an injury against him infinitely surpasses other crimes or injuries. As to the opposite point, viz. the obedience which is rendered to him, it

may beobserved that no mere creature however perfect in his obedience, can merit at the hands of God. But it was necessary the substitute and representative of sinners should not only be holy, there must be a fulness of righteousness in him adequate to the infinite wants of his redeemed peo ple-and hence the necessity of his being more than man, which is the doctrine of the Scripture concerning Christ,

Theological Review.

An Attempt to support the diversity of future rewards. London. But ton and Son, pp. 64. 8vo. price 2s. stitched, 1817.


and who was the preacher?-he has been at considerable pains to conceal himself; but, ubi, ubi est, non potest diu celari! And the mystery was soon

admirable Sermons which we well remember to have heard from a country minister, delivered from the pulpit of the late Mr. Austin, in Fetter Lane. This was the conclusion at which we arrived before we had got half way through the pamphlet, and the remainder of it had no tendency to shake our confidence therein. But as the author has stated his reasons for wishing to be unknown, (p. 6.) and as those reasons reflect great honour upon himself, it would be highly indecorous and quite unjustifiable in us to draw the curtain farther aside!

The subject on which this pamphlet is written, is one of those on which real Christians are differently minded; and which they certainly may be without detriment to their mutual charity. It is none of the first principles of the oracles of God; but it would be extremely absurd to infer from this, that correct and scriptural views of it, are of no impor tance to us in this world.

THIS is an extraordinary pamphlet unravelled by a recollection of some extraordinary in more respects than The first thing that struck us, on taking it up, was the singular reserve and diffidence of its author; not merely in concealing his name, but in the pains he has evidently been at, to screen himself from detection. The style of his composition, too, is in strict conformity with the modesty of his title page. He seems to think with Gibbon that "the first of the pronouns is the most disgusting of the monosyllables;" and therefore he has studiously avoided the use of it throughout his pamphlet. But unusual as these things are, if this "Attempt" had nothing of higher importance to entitle it to consideration, we should scarcely have thought of pronouncing it an extraordinary production. It is the ability with which it is written that deservedly entitles it to that appellation. Before we proceed, however, to give the reader any account of its contents, we must be indulged in another remark. We frankly confess that the author of it fairly took us by surprise. He speaks in the first page of the Preface, of his Essay having been "announced in several of the monthly publications." That may have been the case, but somehow or other it escaped our attention, and when it found its way into our hands, we took it up without the smallest prepossession, and indeed without any expectation of being much interested in it! It was chiefly as the amusement of a leisure hour that we entered upon the perusal of it; little apprehending that it was to be an hour of positive and refined enjoyment. But we had not made our way through more than a third of the pamphlet, of which every succeeding page encreased our interest in it, ere busy, medling memory," began to muster up its recol-And, as we advance in our excursions, which may at first be very limited, we lections, and we at length paused to shall obtain both the desire and the say, "These sentiments, which cer- capacity of commencing and prosecuting, tainly are not common place, are not with safety and success, a more extensive wholly new-we surely have heard expedition of discovery, and of forming them delivered no long time ago, for our own satisfaction and the use of from some pulpit; where could it be others, a map of some hitherto unknown

"Such is the intimate connexion be

tween various parts of the divine records, that the new light through which one topic is accurately and clearly seen, very frequently illuminates another, which, till then, had been involved in great obscurity. But this, though no small benefit, is not the only one; nor the greatest. Success in one instance, excites to more strenuous exertions for obtaining increasingly correct views on every other subject; and by exercise the intellect is also prepared for new and higher attain

ments. In proportion as we acquire a contemplative habit, and an inquisitive turn of mind, we shall, in reading the scriptures,


Thro' provinces of thought yet unexplored."

part of this interesting territory, some undiscovered tract of these sacred regions." Before he enters directly upon the proof of his point, namely, that "a diversity of reward will be apportioned to the saints in heaven," he anticipates and very properly obviates an objection which has frequently been started against considering the happiness of heaven under the idea of a reward, as though it militated against the doctrine of salvation by grace. Having evinced the fallacy of this objection, our author enters upon his task, and the first argument which he employs to establish the truth of his proposition is drawn from the analogy of the divine proceedings. This leads him to take a review of the conduct of the Divine Being both towards the world and the church. Having contemplated the dispensations of Providence towards the different nations of the world, as bestowing upon them that vast variety which exists in reference to soil and climate, civil and religious liberty, natural constitution and intellectual energy; he thus proceeds,

"In tracing the divine proceedings towards the church, the same "diversity of gifts" becomes conspicuous. This is visible in her internal formation, and external

advantages. In the church, considered as a spiritual family, there are many re

lative characters; such as, babes, young

on the sides of the mountain, whose views are more limited, and descriptions less and surveying that numerous class which impressive; and coming down to the base, inhabits the valley, and whose prospects are bounded in almost every direction, but whose efforts to animate the weary traveller, by directing his eye to the promised rest, and to excite others to go with them 66 to the place of which the Lord hath said, I will give it you," are not scending Being, who regards the humble, overlooked by that gracious and condeand "has respect to the lowly;" and, on such a survey, it will be extremely obvious that the variety of ministerial talent conferred on the church now, is not much less than it was in apostolic times."

The author traces a similar analogy in the diversified degrees in which God manifests to his people his approbation of their conduct. Of the seven churches of Asia, no two of them were characterised alike or received the same commendation. Of Caleb and Joshua alone it is recorded

that "they followed the Lord fully;" of Moses that "the Lord spake to him face to face as a man speaketh to his friend;" of David that " he was a man of God's own heart, &c. ;" only Peter, James, and John were permitted to witness their Lord's transfiguration, and only the latter of these enjoyed the endearing familiarity of leaning on his master's bosom.

adds strength to the argument, is Another point of analogy which men, and fathers; teachers and learners; rulers, and the ruled. Or if contem- found in the degrees of punishment plated as a spiritual body, we shall per- which await the enemies of God in a many members." All is not the future state, agreeably to the doceye-not intellect; all is not the hand-trine of Christ, Matt. xi. 21-24. Luke not exertion; all is not the head-not x. 13-15. authority; all is not the foot-not subjection."

ceive "

"Now, to sum up the preceding points "The same diversity is equally obvious of analogy, as the Divine Being bestows in the bestowment of external advantages temporal favours on the world, and spirion the church. This is particularly the tual blessings on the church, in various case in reference to ministerial instruction. portions, and as he distinguishes some In primitive times this was most conspi-churches, and many individuals, by extracuous. "He gave some, apostles; some, prophets; some, evangelists; some, pastors and teachers." Thus also it is in these latter days of christianity. The ascended Saviour is now giving to some of his churches, a Hall; to some, a Chalmers: to some, a Waugh; to some, a Mason. But, leaving a few individuals of this higher order, who in their contemplations seem to reside on the top of Pisgah, and in their public administrations, describe to their delighted hearers, in the most glowing colours, the immense and interesting scenery of the countries on each side Jordan; and descending, and observing, as we descend, those whose stations are appointed at different altitudes

ordinary testimonials in their favour, and that according to their christian attain. ments; is it not probable, that the same kind of conduct will be observed here. after. And particularly, if different degrees of punishment will be inflicted on his enemies in another world, in propor tion to their guilt in this, and in order to show his abhorrence of sin; is it not reasonable to conclude that he will treat his friends in a manner analogous with this, and for the purpose of evincing his love of holiness."

The writer next proceeeds to argue the truth of the sentiment from the great diversity of Christian experience.

It is true, as he justly observes, in relation to both our depraved and our renewed nature, that "as in water face answereth to face, so doth the heart of man to man." But this concession does not affect the truth of the premises which are restricted to the light and shade-the general cast of countenance-the diversified dispensations of Providence, &c. &c. and this kind of diversity is quite consistent with a general uniformity. He observes that a recollection of what we have already passed through, forms a medium and contrast by which our present circumstances and future prospects are greatly embittered or sweetened. If a person by extravagance and vice, fall from affluence and honour into poverty and disgrace, the remembrance of his former dignity and enjoyment, and the manner in which he lost them, will aggravate his sufferings. On the other hand; a man be raised from a state of poverty, obscurity and wretchedness, riches, fame, and happiness, the recollection of his past distresses will heighten and sweeten his enjoyments. To be brought into "a wealthy place" is very grateful; but this, after having been led through fire and water" is unspeakably more delightful.



"Now, is it not very natural to suppose that in the state of future blessedness -the heavenly Canaan, we shall remember all the way in which we have been led through the wilderness of this world, and that we shall be "glad according to the days wherein we have been afflicted, and the years wherein we have seen evil." Surely we shall acknowledge that we



transport to praise, melody and energy to the song of salvation;-all the hardships, fatigues, and privations, the marches and counter-marches, the alternate failures and successes, attendant on a scene of perpetual contest, terminating in our being made more than conquerors through him that hath loved us," will swell the shout of victory, and add honour, and happiness, and glory to the triumphant state;-looking back on this world, the wilderness which we have left, and recollecting its thorns and briars, its gins and snares, its serpents poisonous fruits, will add richness, and and beasts of prey, its bitter waters and sweetness, and exuberance to "the land flowing with milk and honey;" beauty and glory to "that goodly mountain and Lebanon," that "holy mountain" into which nothing shall enter to destroy, defile, or disturb."


Now, if all this be admitted, and it is not easy to conceive how it can be denied, degrees of happiness will follow of course. As all the redeemed throng will not have passed through the same depths of distress, the same floods of tribulation, the same violence of Satanic assault, the same flames of persecution; as all will not have performed the same services, made the same sacrifices, sustained the same conflicts, or achieved the same victories; as, in these respects the experience

of each individual will differ from that of every other in this world, so must their recollections vary in the next. As no one can remember that, in the history of his pilgrimage, which never existed; recollection cannot in every one, in the same degree, heighten, and deepen, and enlarge the contrast between the present world, and the future. The happiness of heaven, therefore, if affected at all by recollection and contrast, must exist in various degrees."


"led by the right way, that we might go to the city of habitation." But Another argument in favour of this acknowledgement supposes the rethis sentiment is deduced from the membrance of what is acknowledged; vast variety of natural capacity, with otherwise it must be senseless and disin- which Christians are endowed in the genuous formality. And these recollec- present state. He conceives that on tions will certainly have an influence on our admission into heaven, no previour happiness. The length and roughness ous acquirements will be destroyed; of the way, the trials and difficulties of no new capacities imparted; no act of the journey, will sweeten the comforts of home-the dangers which we have esof uniformity passed respecting their caped, will add pleasure to our security; strength, extent, or exercise. The the alarms and fears with which we complete renovation of our nature, have been disturbed, will endear to us then to be accomplished, will improve our "quiet habitation;" the conflicts our powers of intellectual vision; but which we have sustained, will sweeten it appears unnecessary, unreasonable, our final and everlasting discharge from and unnatural to suppose that those all the exertions and perils of warfare; powers, which are so diversified here, the sufferings which we have endured, will be brought to will heighten one invariable our enjoyments; the la- standard hereafter; and, admitting bours in which we have been engaged, this, it is easy to show how different will render repose the more refreshing ;prayers and supplications,' degrees of happiness must necessawhich, "with strong crying and tears," rily result from such variety. In we have offered up to God, will add heaven, all will be perfectly happy,

all the ".

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yet not equally so. If, indeed, they were infinitely happy, as some rather absurdly suppose, then there would exist no possibility of degrees; but this neither is nor can be the case. The interminable continuation of happiness cannot make it infinite. Endless duration is not an infinite attribute; to be such, it must be both eternal and everlasting, without beginning and without end. Or, if happiness were something entirely negative, consisting only in an exemption from evil, it would then be absolute, and of course insusceptible of degrees. But that is not the case. An exemption from evil both natural and moral is indeed essential to happiness, but not sufficient for it. Happiness arises chiefly from a full and free access to a suitable good-and hence it must follow that all will be happy in proportion to their capacity of being so. The inhabitants of heaven who will be led to "living water," may drink in proportion as they are able to draw; and according to their natural capacities, when perfectly sanctified, will be the strength of their spiritual apprehensions, desires, and anticipations-their discoveries of the character, and perfections, and works of God, as well as of the displays of his glory around them, and the enjoy ment of his love within them.

of the other a thousand fold, one will of course, and of absolute necessity, too, love God a thousand times more than the other.

An argument in favour of diversity of reward is also drawn from its superior tendency to advance the happiness of the whole society of the redeemed. If every person's talents and attainments and feelings were alike, no one could communicate to another an idea which the individual addressed did not previously possess; nor exhibit an excellence which he had not already attained, nor excite a pleasing emotion which he had not before experienced. Nothing new, at least through the medium of social intercourse, could be produced: no new discovery could be conveyed; no new feeling imparted; no new desire excited; no new anticipation formedall would be perfect sameness. There would be an immense multitude, without variety; an innumerable company without society. All would be equal in knowledge, in honour, in attainments, and in enjoyment—all would be equality, uniformity, identity. But, admit all this variety of natural talent, all those degrees of moral excellence, and all that diversity of individual happiness, for which the author pleads, and the society of heaven assumes new properties, and a new character.

Our author also infers the truth of the sentiment for which he contends But the last and best source of from the different degrees of moral ex- proof, in support of this doctrine is, cellence which will exist in the heavenly the testimony of scripture. In entering state. This is that part of his pam- upon this part of his subject, our phlet which will be the last digested author furnishes a noble instance of by his opponents, and that will pro- his own candour and attachment to bably, at first view, stagger many of the cause of truth, by wholly discardhis readers. He admits that the ing the two texts of scripture which saints in heaven will be as free from are most generally adduced in favor sin as God himself, for they will be of his position; and by shewing, which presented" faultless before the throne he has done most satisfactorily, that of his glory-without spot or wrinkle, they are irrelevant to the point in or any such thing," but it does not hand, and therefore improperly quoted thence follow that they will possess in support of this sentiment. These positive holiness in the same degree texts are, 1 Cor. xv. 41. "One star as the Divine Being. "That were an differeth from another star in glory." absurdity, says he, beyond all tolera- The apostle's object here is not to tion." To be so, requires infinity of shew that our bodies in a future state nature. Holiness in any creature will possess various degrees of honor, cannot exceed the extent of his natural when compared with each other; but capacities or rational powers. It can- that when they are constituted celestial not exist either without or beyond bodies, they will receive a glory which them. Two persons may" love God does not belong to them while they with all their heart, and soul, and are terrestrial bodies. The other pasmind, and strength;" but if the natu-sage is, 2 Cor. ix. 6. "He that soweth ral talents, or intellectual powers, or sparingly, shall reap also sparingly mental strength of one, exceed those and he that soweth bountifully shall

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