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to the agency or influence of God. I that spirit is not of God, which I believe that the Father of our contradicts the plainest principles spirits does afford aid to his frail of common sense, and the plainest children, in ways which philosophy declarations of Scripture. What cannot yet explain, to strengthen, internal feelings can be allowed as to console and to guide: but I a just ground for conviction that know no proof that he at present Jesus Christ is God Supreme, communicates truth by any super- when his own words are, "The natural means. I am sure, at any Father is greater than I," and when rate, that we have a right, and that he exclusively speaks of him, in it is our duty, to "try the spirits;" the solemn act of prayer, as "The and I feel a firm conviction that only true God?”(f)
been satisfactory had Dr. Carpenter referred us to the texts of Scripture which he had immediately in his eye when he wrote the words we have just quoted. It would have removed all uncertainty from our minds about the identical portion of scripture he had in view. That there is no (true) God besides JEHOVAH, is a doctrine most unequivocally admitted by the Trinitarians, and for very obvious reasons. In the prophecy of Isaiah, for instance, ch. xlv. "the Spirit of truth thus expressly teacbes" I JEHOVAH Speak righteousness, I declare things that are right--there is no God else besides me-I am God and there is none else-ver. 19, 21, 22. This we suppose to be the text on which Dr. C. had his eye, when he affirms that "there is no God besides Jehovah," and it is full to his purpose-only, most unfortunately for his argument, it contains one of the strongest proofs that can be adduced for "the true and proper Deity of Jesus Christ"-it proves that JESUS IS JEHOVAH! Thus the argument stands. Having declared all the idols of the earth to be vanity, ver. 30, Jehovah asserts his own glorious character, as the Just God and the Saviour, and thus he addresses the children of men. "Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is none else. I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return; That unto me every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall swear," ver. 22, 23. Does the reader ask, Who it is that says, Unto ME every knee shall bow? he hath only to turn to Rom. xiv. 10, 11. and he will find "the Spirit of Truth, who cannot contradict himself," expressly applying that sublime passage to Jesus Christ, who both died and rose and revived that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. Paul's words are " We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ; for it is written (namely, in Is. xlv. 23. the very text that Dr. C. appears to have in view) "As I live, saith Jehovah, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God." Dr. C. "too well understands the rules of evidence," to make it necessary for us to draw the inference that in the opinion of the apostle Paul, Jesus Christ is Jehovah incarnate, and consequently "the ONLY true God." He may demur to this if he chuse, but then the controversy must rest between him and "the Spirit of truth," in which dispute we beg leave to be no party! And even though it were possible for him to escape from the horns of this dilemma, on which we leave him, it would only be to fix himself on another which he will find in Phil. ii. 10, 11. where "the Spirit of Truth, who cannot contradict himself," expressly teaches the same doctrine and evidently makes the same use of the passage in Isaiah.
NOTE (f) Christ's own words are, "The Father is greater than I."] The difficulty of which Dr. C. complains in this paragraph does not arise from the subject, as taught by the Spirit of Truth, but from his own mind which is beclouded with prejudices and prepossessed by erroneous notions that prevent him from receiving the plain doctrine of the scriptures. Though both reason and revelation unite in teaching us that there is only one living and true God; yet in the economy of redemption there is a distinction in Deity plainly held forth by three personal names and relative characters, as well as by every mode of speech whereby we distinguish persons among men. They are not distinguished to us by any essential property of the divine nature, for that they possess in common; but by relative names and characters, and by a certain order of working peculiar to each, both in creation and redemption. In creation the Father is represented as first in order of operation. All things are said to be (g) of or from God the Father, as the first mover or original source; and they are also said to be (Sa) by or through Jesus Christ as the immediate agent, bringing the Father's designs into actual effect, 1 Cor. viii. 6. Thus God is said to have" created all things by Jesus Christ," Eph. iii. 9. and to have made the worlds by his Son, Heb. i. 2. Col. i. 16. John i. 3. But notwithstanding this order of 3 A
to Unitarianism, in this city at least. To the welfare of the congregation as a body, various individuals who have not his claims to the public notice, have contributed much more than he and as to his importance to the cause of Unitarianism, I do not learn that he took any active share in the measures designed specifically to pro
"But after all (it will be said) you regret the loss of him." Certainly we do; but not because we cannot do without him. His steady attendance on the duties of public worship, and the still more uniting ordinance of Christian profession, -his ardour of feeling, contributing to cherish zeal in others,-his devout and amiable character, as well as his distinguished attain-mote it. His change will prove
him ments, made member of the congregation with which he had been for many years connected. But his importance to its prosperity has been vastly over-rated; not by himself, for he would not do it; but by those who wildly imagined that his change would be the death-blow
a valuable more beneficial to Unitarianism than his previous services. It will lead, as it has led many, to inquire and to think: and all we ask is, that the serious inquirer will give our cause a fair hearing. Among the many who are afraid to hear, to read or to think, we do not expect success.(g)
operation, as creation is a work peculiar to God so it must demonstrate the eternal power and Godhead of the Son as well as of the Father. Now the same mode of speech is used to express their order of acting in the work of redemption. "All things are (x) of God, namely, the Father, who hath reconciled us unto himself (Sa) by Jesus Christ," 2 Cor. v. 18. In the economy of redemption, the person of the Father sustains the Majesty of the Godhead, and acts his part in the character of the great Supreme, in relation to both his creatures and his Son. Hence he is termed "the God and Father," not only of angels and men, but also of our Lord Jesus Christ." Eph. i. 3, 17. Though the Son is possessed of the same divine nature with the Father, yet as a Son, partaking of human nature, and vested with the office of mediator between God and man, he sustains and acts in a subordinate character to that of the Father. The Father is represented as the original source of all that authority, dominion and fullness, which the Son possesses as mediator. It was the Father who sent his Son to be the Saviour of the world, 1 John iv. 14. The Spirit which dwelt in him without measure was given him by the Father, John iii. 34. He neither did nor spake any thing of himself, but as commissioned and instructed of his Father, John v. 19. ch. viii, 28. He sought not his own glory, nor did his own will, but that of the Father who sent him. John viii, 50. ch. vi. 38. It was the Father that gave him power to lay down his life for the sheep, and to take it again, John x. 17, 18. The Father raised him from the dead, Rom. iv. 24. ch. x. 9. and exalted him to the highest glory and dominion at his own right hand, as the reward of his sufferings, and hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the church, Eph. i. 19, 23. And as he holds the mediatorial kingdom of the Father, till the ends of it are answered, so when the end cometh, he shall deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father, and be also himself subject to him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 28. And as the Father hath committed all judgment to the Son, that all men should honour the Son even as they honour the Father," John v. 22, 23. so when we worship the Lamb that was slain, and bow the knee to the exalted Redeemer, confessing that he is Lord over all, we do it to the glory of God the Father, who hath exalted him, put all things under him, and commanded all, the angels of God to worship him. Phil. ii. 9—12. Heb. i. 6. These sentiments are founded on the plainest declarations of scripture" -and what is there in them, (we demand to know) that "contradicts the plainest principles of common sense?"
NOTE (g) All we ask is, that the serious enquirer will give our cause a fair hearing.] All this is very fair; and we ask nothing more from Dr. Carpenter and his Unitarian friends in behalf of the Trinitarian hypothesis. The cause of truth has nothing to fear from the fullest investigation that can take place, and God forbid that we should shrink from meeting the minister of Lewin's Mead, or any of his brethren in the fair field of legitimate controversy. We trust we shall always be ready to do this-with only one simple provision, namely, that they shall say nothing to us about THE IMPROVED VERSION! Because, to avail ourselves of the new light reflected on the moral hemisphere by that strange performance, we find we should need a new
I do myself individually regret his change. The little personal intercourse I had with him, and
what I knew of him from other sources, led me to believe that I should find in him a friend to
bible altogether. We cannot, however, even for the present, take our leave of Dr. Carpenter, without tendering him a word of advice; and if it should be thought either intrusive or impertinent, in such obscure individuals as we are, presuming to lecture a Doctor in Divinity, we beg leave to remind him, that, in the present instance, he owes it to his own officious conduct. Nothing was ever more apparently spontaneous than his interference on the present occasion. How far his prudence has kept pace with his valour will perhaps more obviously appear hereafter. He would fain persuade us that he is engaged in a most sincere and disinterested pursuit of divine truth, and he therefore regrets that he is not privileged with the co-operation of Dr. Stock in that noble pursuit. But if such be really his opinion, we use the freedom to tell him, that he is egregiously deceiving himself in an affair of no little importance, and it is therefore an act of benevolence to apprise him of it. It is not TRUTH that he is in quest of, but pernicious error! and there are two characteristic marks or evidences of it, which, if duly considered, are in themselves quite sufficient to decide the question. The system which he is bending all his efforts to support, stands in direct opposition to the highest display of the divine glory-and to the eternal happiness of his fellow creatures. Is it possible to adduce stronger proofs of the falsehood of any Theological system? A brief illustration of each of these positions will close what we have to offer on the present occasion.
1. The system of Socinian doctrine (or, if they like it better, that of Unitarianism) stands in direct opposition to the highest manifestation of the divine glory, that ever was, or ever will be exhibited to the view of men or angels. No doubt, all the works of the blessed God are eminently glorious. When he called the Universe into existence "the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy." Job xxxviii. 7. This was a signal display of his power, his wisdom, and his goodness, and so "the heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth forth his handy works." Ps. xix. 1. His providence, too, which, while it "wings an angel, guides a sparrow," shews us much of the divine beneficence and care of his creatures, Matt. vi. 26-32. the earth is full of the riches of his goodness. Ps. civ. Yet we learn that it was reserved for the work of redemption (the greatest of all the divine works) to give us a full display of his character as the Just God and the Saviour-that character under which he delights to present himself to the view of guilty men. Ex. xxxiv. 6, 7. Is. xlv. 21. In this stupendous work of mercy, truth, and grace, every perfection of the Godhead shines with everlasting and resplendent lustre, and they all concentrate in and blaze forth from the cross of Christ, where, in the language of the poet, we behold "Expended Deity on human weal." His wisdom, power and goodness are herein manifested in another manner than they had ever before been. His holiness, justice and faithfulness are also manifested in the highest possible degree; but that which bears the capital figure, and which could not be discovered in creation or providence, is his sovereign love and mercy, his rich and free grace to the guilty. This is emphatically termed THE RICHES OF HIS GLORY. Rom. ix. 23. the glory of his grace, Eph. i. 6, the riches of his grace and kindness. ch. ii. 7. It is the vicarious sufferings and death of Christ in the room of us who were ungodly and without strength" that exhibits his love towards us, to the highest possible advantage, Rom. v. 8. But this is that view of the divine character which Dr. Carpenter is labouring to obscure and eclipse; and we may add, that, in so doing,
2. All his talents are exerted, not to promote, but to oppose the best interests of his fellow creatures. When the apostle Peter, from a mistaken zeal for the honour of his divine master, set himself to oppose the notion of his sufferings and death in those memorable words, "Be it far from thee Lord, this shall not happen unto thee," like the modern Unitarians, he little thought that he was actuated by a diabolical influence, to aim at frustrating the glory of God and the happiness of mankind. But it is added, "Jesus turned and said unto him, ' Get thee behind me, Satan; thou art an offence unto me; for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men." Matt. xvi. 22, 23. Paul, adverting to the spirit which actuated the unbelieving Jews in putting to death the Lord Jesus and persecuting his apostles, declares that "they pleased not God, and were contrary to all men," I Thess. ii. 15. in other words, they were enemies to God and to the eternal interests of men; for it will be found invariably to hold good, that the glory of the blessed God and the best interests of our fellow creatures, are promoted by us just so far as our minds are well affected to the gospel of divine grace and, no further.
Appreciating Dr. Carpenter's labours by this touchstone, what now are we to think of them? What can we, indeed, think of a System that degrades the creator of the universe to a level with ourselves-that denies the Deity of Him" in whom dwelt
of English fanaticism; and the particular sentiments which dis-· tinguish us as a religious community have to encounter a proportionate degree of misrepresentation and obloquy:") but I was little acquainted with his share in those proceedings till after his change; and I had no direct com
value and to love: our pursuits would, in many respects, have been similar; and our great objects, in more: our love of truth would have led us in the same direction; and it would have been cheering, in the duties of my pro. fession, to have had his co-operation. But it should be stated, that he was not the official organmunication with him whatever. of the Lewin's-Mead Society in their different communications with me. He took, indeed, an active share in the business of the congregation at that period, far be-diate or remote influence, it shouldyond what the state of his mind fully authorized; and he composed the letter of invitation to me, (in which he says, our city has been designated by an eminent writer, as the nursery and hot-bed
I regret that change; and believing that it was from truth to error, I regret it on his own account. If, however, in its imme
be the means of bending his heart
all the fulness of the Godhead"-that dares to wrest those scriptures which speak of him as a propitiatory sacrifice, a ransom, a surety, dying the Just for the unjust and redeeming sinners by his blood, and in the face of such authority, would place the death of the REDEEMER upon an equality with that of any martyr suffering patiently in the cause of truth-that denies the personality of the Holy Spirit and calls all supernatural influence in the present day only the enthusiasm of fools and visionaries, thereby bereaving believers of all other assistance in working out their own Salvation than what they derive from the exertions of their own corrupt and enfeebled natures -that denies the perpetuity of future punishment, and the existence of such a being in the universe as the Devil! Considered in itself, the Unitarian system teems with impiety and blasphemy; and viewed in its unhappy abettors, it exhibits a set of men sinking into the very dregs of worldly conformity, apostatizing from truths in defence of which their forefathers would have died, and retaining nothing of religion but the exterior.
Such modern Unitarianism-it is (in the language of an eminent writer, whose name we need not quote to Dr. Carpenter)" it is an hypothesis which staggers all speculation. It is contrary to every maxim of historical evidence; and if pursued to its obvious consequences, involves the overthrow of Christianity, and renders every record of every age suspicious and uncertain. It cuts to the root of all that is distinguishing in the gospel-destroys the necessity and importance of a miraculous interposition, and gives the infidel too much reason to exclaim, that all that was extraordinary was superfluous-and that the apparatus was too expensive and too splendid for the purpose to which it was applied."
Should Dr. Carpenter or any of his associates, who may be differently minded from us on the subject, think these animadversions deserving of a reply, the press is fairly open to them and they are at full liberty to proceed. We must however entreat them, under these circumstances, not to content themselves with carping at trifles, nor to disregard the texts of scripture by which our sentiments are supported throughout these Notes. It is doing nothing to waste their time in quibbling about words-let them attend to the principles on which the controversy turns, and if they can defend their own and refute ours, let them do so. We seek no dispute with any man, much less with Dr. C. whom, for old acquaintance sake we would gladly have spared; but we cannot forget who hath said, "Earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints." Elated by his translation from Liverpool to Exeter, and from Exeter " to the See of Bristol," it was very natural for him to wish to give his new constituents a proof of his zeal and of his talents, and had he contented himself with confining his "Remarks" to his own immediate circle, he should have found no opponent in us; but his claim to have them conveyed to our readers through the medium of our Magazine, was actually throwing down the gauntlet, and he has no pretence to blame us, if in our own defence we have taken it up.
SOME ACCOUNT OF MR. HUT- Hutchinson became steward to a
gentleman in Yorkshire, and when he quitted that station he visited the Earl of Scarborough who would gladly have retained him in his employ; but his determination to serve the Duke of Somerset prevented his compliance, and he accordingly removed soon after into his Grace's household, where he distinguished himself in such a manner as to obtain the chief stewardship, and the particular favour of that nobleman.
CHINSON AND HIS WRITINGS. JOHN HUTCHINSON, the founder of Hutchinsonianism, was born at the village of Spennythorn in Yorkshire, in the year 1674. His father possessed a small estate of forty pounds a year, and, intending to qualify his son for the office of Steward to some Gentleman or Nobleman, he gave him the best education which the neighbourhood afforded, purposing to put him, at a proper age, under the finishing hand of some About the year 1700, Mr. abler master. In the mean time, Hutchinson visited London, and however, a favourable opportunity during his residence in town, formoffered for his further improvement ed an acquaintance with Dr. at home, by the assistance of a Woodward, author of the "Natural gentleman who came to board at History of the Earth.” This pubhis father's house, and who, on lication seems to have attracted being made acquainted with his the particular attention of Mr. H. intentions concerning his son, and to have directed his thoughts offered to instruct him in every towards the study of natural hisbranch of learning proper for the tory. His situation calling him station he was designed to fill, on into different parts of England and condition the father would enter- Wales, he began to make useful tain him in his house, during his observations in his journeys-to stay in those parts; which he collect fossils, &c. and soon after promised not to leave until he had published a small pamphlet entiperfected his son's education. tled "Observations made by J. H. These conditions were accepted, mostly in the year 1706." Pursuand the Gentleman punctually ful-ing his researches, he in a course filled his engagements. Young of years had formed a Collection Hutchinson was initiated in such of fossils, which he committed to branches of the mathematics as were more immediately connected with his destined employment, with a competent knowledge also of the most celebrated writings of antiquity. It is a remarkable cir-earth at the creation, and the recumstance, that it does not appear to have been ever known to Mr. Hutchinson's family, who the Gentleman was, to whom the subject of this Memoir was indebted for his education: he industriously concealed every incident relative to his own history, and so effectually, that no discovery could be made; for having fulfilled his engagement he retired from the neighbourhood, and does not appear to have been heard of more.
At the age of nineteen, young
the care of Dr. Woodward, intending them as materials for a work the object of which was to prove the truth of the Mosaic account of the first formation of the
formation of it after the deluge, to occular demonstration. Dr. Woodward had engaged to draw up and publish a treatise on this subject, partly from our author's materials and partly from his own; but neglecting to perform his promise, Mr. H. began to suspect that he did not seriously intend to fulfil it, and therefore formed the resolution of trusting to his own pen for effecting what he in vain expected from the pen of another. lle consequently prepared for the