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I do myself individually regret his change. The little personal intercourse I had with him, and
what I knew of him from other sources, led me to believe that I should find in him a friend to
bible altogether. We cannot, however, even for the present, take our leave of Dr. Carpenter, without tendering him a word of advice; and if it should be thought either intrusive or impertinent, in such obscure individuals as we are, presuming to lecture a Doctor in Divinity, we beg leave to remind him, that, in the present instance, he owes it to his own officious conduct. Nothing was ever more apparently spontaneous than his interference on the present occasion. How far his prudence has kept pace with his valour will perhaps more obviously appear hereafter. He would fain persuade us that he is engaged in a most sincere and disinterested pursuit of divine truth, and he therefore regrets that he is not privileged with the co-operation of Dr. Stock in that noble pursuit. But if such be really his opinion, we use the freedom to tell him, that he is egregiously deceiving himself in an affair of no little importance, and it is therefore an act of benevolence to apprise him of it. It is not TRUTH that he is in quest of, but pernicious error! and there are two characteristic marks or evidences of it, which, if duly considered, are in themselves quite sufficient to decide the question. The system which he is bending all his efforts to support, stands in direct opposition to the highest display of the divine glory-and to the eternal happiness of his fellow creatures. Is it possible to adduce stronger proofs of the falsehood of any Theological system? A brief illustration of each of these positions will close what we have to offer on the present occasion.
1. The system of Socinian doctrine (or, if they like it better, that of Unitarianism) stands in direct opposition to the highest manifestation of the divine glory, that ever was, or ever will be exhibited to the view of men or angels. No doubt, all the works of the blessed God are eminently glorious. When he called the Universe into existence "the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy." Job xxxviii. 7. This was a signal display of his power, his wisdom, and his goodness, and so "the heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth forth his handy works." Ps. xix. 1. His providence, too, which, while it “ wings an angel, guides a sparrow," shews us much of the divine beneficence and care of his creatures, Matt. vi. 26-32. the earth is full of the riches of his goodness. Ps. civ. Yet we learn that it was reserved for the work of redemption (the greatest of all the divine works) to give us a full display of his character as the Just God and the Saviour-that character under which he delights to present himself to the view of guilty men. Ex. xxxiv. 6, 7. Is. xlv. 21. In this stupendous work of mercy, truth, and grace, every perfection of the Godhead shines with everlasting and resplendent lustre, and they all concentrate in and blaze forth from the cross of Christ, where, in the language of the poet, we behold "Expended Deity on human weal." His wisdom, power and goodness are herein manifested in another manner than they had ever before been. His holiness, justice and faithfulness are also manifested in the highest possible degree; but that which bears the capital figure, and which could not be discovered in creation or providence, is his sovereign love and mercy, his rich and free grace to the guilty. This is emphatically termed THE RICHES OF HIS GLORY. Rom. ix. 23. the glory of his grace, Eph. i. 6, the riches of his grace and kindness. ch. ii. 7. It is the vicarious sufferings and death of Christ in the room of us who were ungodly and without strength" that exhibits his love towards us, to the highest possible advantage, Rom. v. 8. But this is that view of the divine character which Dr. Carpenter is labouring to obscure and eclipse; and we may add, that, in so doing,
2. All his talents are exerted, not to promote, but to oppose the best interests of his fellow creatures. When the apostle Peter, from a mistaken zeal for the honour of his divine master, set himself to oppose the notion of his sufferings and death in those memorable words, "Be it far from thee Lord, this shall not happen unto thee," like the modern Unitarians, he little thought that he was actuated by a diabolical influence, to aim at frustrating the glory of God and the happiness of mankind. But it is added, "Jesus turned and said unto him, ' Get thee behind me, Satan; thou art an offence unto me; for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men." Matt. xvi. 22, 23. Paul, adverting to the spirit which actuated the unbelieving Jews in putting to death the Lord Jesus and persecuting his apostles, declares that "they pleased not God, and were contrary to all men," I Thess. ii. 15. in other words, they were enemies to God and to the eternal interests of men; for it will be found invariably to hold good, that the glory of the blessed God and the best interests of our fellow creatures, are promoted by us just so far as our minds are well affected to the gospel of divine grace and no further.
Appreciating Dr. Carpenter's labours by this touchstone, what now are we to think of them? What can we, indeed, think of a System that degrades the creator of the universe to a level with ourselves-that denies the Deity of Him" in whom dwelt
value and to love: our pursuits would, in many respects, have been similar; and our great objects, in more: our love of truth would have led us in the same direction; and it would have been cheering, in the duties of my pro. fession, to have had his co-operation. But it should be stated, that he was not the official organ of the Lewin's-Mead Society in their different communications with me. He took, indeed, an active share in the business of the congregation at that period, far beyond what the state of his mind fully authorized; and he composed the letter of invitation to me, (in which he says, "our city has been designated by an eminent writer, as the nursery and hot-bed
of English fanaticism; and the particular sentiments which distinguish us as a religious community have to encounter a proportionate degree of misrepresentation and obloquy:") but I was little acquainted with his share in those proceedings till after his change; and I had no direct communication with him whatever.
I regret that change; and believing that it was from truth to error, I regret it on his own account. If, however, in its immediate or remote influence, it shouldbe the means of bending his heart and life, more and more, to the obedience and imitation of Christ, then it must be well with him. L. CARPENTER,
all the fulness of the Godhead"-that dares to wrest those scriptures which speak of him as a propitiatory sacrifice, a ransom, a surety, dying the Just for the unjust and redeeming sinners by his blood, and in the face of such authority, would place the death of the REDEEMER upon an equality with that of any martyr suffering patiently in the cause of truth--that denies the personality of the Holy Spirit and calls all supernatural influence in the present day only the enthusiasm of fools and visionaries, thereby bereaving believers of all other assistance in working out their own Salvation than what they derive from the exertions of their own corrupt and enfeebled natures that denies the perpetuity of future punishment, and the existence of such a being in the universe as the Devil! Considered in itself, the Unitarian system teems with impiety and blasphemy; and viewed in its unhappy abettors, it exhibits a set of men sinking into the very dregs of worldly conformity, apostatizing from truths in defence of which their forefathers would have died, and retaining nothing of religion but the exterior.
Such is modern Unitarianism-it is (in the language of an eminent writer, whose name we need not quote to Dr. Carpenter)" it is an hypothesis which staggers all speculation. It is contrary to every maxim of historical evidence; and if pursued to its obvious consequences, involves the overthrow of Christianity, and renders every record of every age suspicious and uncertain. It cuts to the root of all that is distinguishing in the gospel-destroys the necessity and importance of a miraculous interposition, and gives the infidel too much reason to exclaim, that all that was extraordinary was superfluous—and that the apparatus was too expensive and too splendid for the purpose to which it was applied."
Should Dr. Carpenter or any of his associates, who may be differently minded from us on the subject, think these animadversions deserving of a reply, the press is fairly open to them and they are at full liberty to proceed. We must however entreat them, under these circumstances, not to content themselves with carping at trifles, nor to disregard the texts of scripture by which our sentiments are supported throughout these Notes. It is doing nothing to waste their time in quibbling about words-let them attend to the principles on which the controversy turns, and if they can defend their own and refute ours, let them do so. We seek no dispute with any man, much less with Dr. C. whom, for old acquaintance sake we would gladly have spared; but we cannot forget who hath said, "Earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints." Elated by his translation from Liverpool to Exeter, and from Exeter " to the See of Bristol," it was very natural for him to wish to give his new constituents a proof of his zeal and of his talents, and had he contented himself with confining his "Remarks" to his own immediate circle, he should have found no opponent in us; but his claim to have them conveyed to our readers through the medium of our Magazine, was actually throwing down the gauntlet, and he has no pretence to blame us, if in our own defence we have taken
SOME ACCOUNT OF MR. HUT
Hutchinson became steward to a gentleman in Yorkshire, and when he quitted that station he visited the Earl of Scarborough who would gladly have retained him in his employ; but his determination to serve the Duke of Somerset prein-vented his compliance, and he accordingly removed soon after into his Grace's household, where he distinguished himself in such a manner as to obtain the chief stewardship, and the particular favour of that nobleman.
About the year 1700, Mr. Hutchinson visited London, and during his residence in town, formed an acquaintance with Dr. Woodward, author of the "Natural History of the Earth." This publication seems to have attracted the particular attention of Mr. H. and to have directed his thoughts towards the study of natural history. His situation calling him into different parts of England and Wales, he began to make useful observations in his journeys-to collect fossils, &c. and soon after published a small pamphlet entitled "Observations made by J. H, mostly in the year 1706." Pursuing his researches, he in a course of years had formed a Collection of fossils, which he committed to the care of Dr. Woodward, intending them as materials for a work the object of which was to prove the truth of the Mosaic account of the first formation of the
CHINSON AND HIS WRITINGS. JOHN HUTCHINSON, the founder of Hutchinsonianism, was born at the village of Spennythorn in Yorkshire, in the year 1674. His father possessed a small estate of forty pounds a year, and, tending to qualify his son for the office of Steward to some Gentleman or Nobleman, he gave him the best education which the neighbourhood afforded, purposing to put him, at a proper age, under the finishing hand of some abler master. In the mean time, however, a favourable opportunity offered for his further improvement at home, by the assistance of a gentleman who came to board at his father's house, and who, on being made acquainted with his intentions concerning his son, offered to instruct him in every branch of learning proper for the station he was designed to fill, on condition the father would entertain him in his house, during his stay in those parts; which he promised not to leave until he had perfected his son's education. These conditions were accepted, and the Gentleman punctually fulfilled his engagements. Young Hutchinson was initiated in such branches of the mathematics as were more immediately connected with his destined employment, with a competent knowledge also of the most celebrated writings of antiquity. It is a remarkable cir-earth at the creation, and the recumstance, that it does not appear formation of it after the deluge, to have been ever known to Mr. to occular demonstration. Dr. Hutchinson's family, who the Gen- Woodward had engaged to draw tleman was, to whom the subject up and publish a treatise on this of this Memoir was indebted for subject, partly from our author's his education: he industriously materials and partly from his own; concealed every incident relative but neglecting to perform his. proto his own history, and so effectu-mise, Mr. H. began to suspect ally, that no discovery could be made; for having fulfilled his engagement he retired from the neighbourhood, and does not appear to have been heard of more.
At the age of nineteen, young
that he did not seriously intend to fulfil it, and therefore formed the resolution of trusting to his own pen for effecting what he in vain expected from the pen of another. lle consequently prepared for the
undertaking; and that he might | especially in Mechanics, for which
be more at leisure to prosecute his studies he begged permission to quit the service of the Duke of Somerset. The request at first piqued the pride of that nobleman; but when he understood that Mr. H. did not intend to serve any other master and was informed of the reasons of his request, he not only complied with it, but made him his Riding Purveyor, his Grace being at that time Master of the Horse to King George I. As this place is a sinecure with a fixed Salary of £200 a year, and a good house in the little Mews attached to it, the appointment was extremely agreeable to our author, who, from this time gave himself up to a studious and sedantary life.
The first fruits of his retirement were presented to the public in 1724, in a work entitled Moses's Principia," in which he ridiculed Dr. Woodward's Natural History of the Earth-and daringly adventured to oppose the principle of gravitation espoused by Sir Isaac Newton. In 1727, the second part of this work appeared, and in it may be found the sum and substance of what he calls the Scripture philosophy. From this time he continued publishing a volume every year or every other year, till his death, which happened on the 28th of August 1737, in his sixty
he had a particular genius. whatever may have been his sagacity or penetration, his temper seems to have unfitted him for the office of investigating truth. A furious vindictive spirit is con spicuous in most of his produc tions, where it breaks out in indecent language, and betrays a strong propensity towards persecution. See Dr. Towers's Brit. Biog. Vol. ix. p. 67. et seq.
According to the Hutchinsonian system, the Father of Lights has given in the Hebrew Scriptures, all true philosophy as well as theology; that it is, therefore, necessary to examine into the radical idea of the words he has employed; that, in order to this, we must discard the vowel points, which are a modern, if not a diabolical device, to conceal, rather than convey, the contents of the Bible; that when the Mosaic history is understood, it confutes all other systems of the universe, not excepting the Newtonian, with its doctrines of gravity, attraction, and repulsion; that the world is a machine of limited extent, of which the sun is the main-spring, at the centre, the most dense state of air forming a wall at the extremity, and all the planets revolving upon mechanical principles; that the deluge was an exhibition of the Creator's power to reduce the earth to its first principles, and That he was a person of a very form it again; that the visible singular turn of mind is sufficiently creation was intended to be an evident from the following con- image of the Creator, his attributes densed view of his tenets which and relations towards his creatures; are collected from the twelve that the heavens, or celestial fluid, octavo volumes of his printed composed of fire, light, and air, works. He seems to have wanted are designed to teach the Trinity neither parts nor learning; but it of Father, Son, and Spirit; that may well be questioned whether the Deity imparted a knowledge he did not want judgment to apply of all these mysteries to the first them properly. His talents, how-parents of the human race, who ever, were not confined to the subjects of which he chiefly treated in his writings; he was curious and inquisitive in other matters,
were placed, not in the paradise of Epicurus, but in a kind of observatory, or school of philosophy; that, after the fall, visible repre
See Bogue and Bennet's History of Dissenters, Vol. IV. p. 44, 45. Note.
REMARKS ON I COR. xiv. 30. "If any thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace." &c.
sentations of the Trinity in unity tinguished scholars, and cherished were given in the cherubim, on by some of the most devout bethe east of Eden, placed in a taber-lievers in Revelation, as an antinacle, similar to that of Moses, dote to what they deem the atheiswhere our fallen parents wor- tic tendency of the Newtonian shipped, being taught the rite of philosophy. It has, indeed, been sacrificing, circumcision, and other rendered ridiculous by some insymbolic ceremonies; that, from judicious friends, among whom thence, a revelation may be said may be ranked Mr. Romaine; to have been given to the whole but the pious manner of bishop human race, without which, man Horne will insinuate its principles could know nothing of God or into the devout, the erudition of religion that the idolatry of the Parkhurst recommend it to the heathen was only an apostacy studious, and the cultivated taste from the true philosophy, by of Mr. Jones may procure it worshipping the works, instead of admirers among the lovers of learning from them the author of elegant learning. nature; that to recover the true philosophico-theology, the Mosaic economy was given, representing in its tabernacle and utensils, the structure of the universe, as well as pre-figuring a Saviour, who should be the Creator tabernacling among his own works, to make expiation for sin by a sacrifice of which all nations have retained the aboriginal tradition; that the temple of Solomon was a figure of Christ's humanity, as the Saviour himself declared, in which, as a temple, dwelt all the fulness of the godhead bodily, while it was also a grand monument to the creative honours of the Deity; and finally, that the figurative language of Scripture is not mere allusion or embellishment, but an application of the material world to its true design of teaching spiritual and divine doctrine.* If this sketch of Hutchinsonianism, hasty and compendious as it is, be thought disproportionably protracted, let it be remembered that the system has founded a school in religion and philosophy, has been warmly espoused by bishops and their clergy, taught by the most dis
THE forwardness of the Corinthian church to display the extraordinary gift of teaching, which they had received, under the pretext of being impelled by the Spirit of God, produced confusion in their assemblies. Instead of considering the revelations, which they received in the church, as subject to their discretion, in regard to the time of delivering them, one began to speak before the preceding speaker had finished his discourse ; the consequence was, indecency, disorder, and confusion.
To correct this, the apostle tells them that if any thing should be revealed to him who was sitting by, he should let the first speaker finish his discourse, before he proceeded; for, (as if he had said,) there is time and opportunity for you all to prophecy, not two or three at
*To give the reader a single specimen of the whimsical things contained in the writings of this philosopher, take the following. DR. HOADLY, Bishop of Winchester, was one of his cotemporaries and being the leader of the low church party at that period he became the but of Mr. Hutchinson's malignity, which he vented by turning his name into Hebrew letters which sounded Hodli-this term he found was used in the Bible to denote a naughty or vain person, or some reproachful epithet, and thus bishop Hoadly was condemned by revelation!!