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frequently in connexion with the Persians, with position. This is one of the many instances in whom they were often connected under the same which commentators have perplexed themselves government. (2 Kings xvii. 6; xviii. 11. Esther to very little purpose. Luke recorded this as i. 19. Jer. XXV. 25. Dap. v. 28; vi. 8; ix. 1. any other historian would have done. In runEsther i. 3, 14, 18. Dan. viii. 20.) The language ning over the languages which they spoke, he spoken here was also that of Persia. In this enumerated this as a matter of course; not that whole region many Jews remained after the it was remarkable simply that they should speak Babylonish captivity, who chose not to return the language of Judea, but that they should speak with their brethren to the land of their fathers. so many, meaning about the same by it as if he From the descendants of these probably were had said they spoke every language in the world. those who were now assembled from those places at Just as if a similar miracle were to occur at this Jerusalem. Elamites.-Elam is often mentioned time among an assembly of native Englishmen
in the Old Testament. The nation was de- and foreigners. In describing it, nothing would | scended from Elam the son of Shem. (Gen. x. | be more natural, than to say, they spoke French,
22.) It is mentioned as being in alliance with and German, and Spanish, and English, and Amraphel, the king of Shinar, and Arioch, king Italian, &c. In this there would be nothing reof Ellasar, and Tidal, king of nations. (Gen.markable, except that they spoke so many lanxiv. 1.) Of these nations in alliance, Chedor-guages. Cappadocia.- This was a region of laomer, king of Elam, was the chief. (Ver. 4. Asia Minor, and was bounded on the east by See also Ezra ïi. 7; viii. 7. Neh. xii. 34. Isa. Armenia, on the north by Pontus and the Euxine xi. 11; xxi. 2; xxii. 6, &c.) They are men- sea, west by Lycaonia, and south by Cilicia. The tioned as a part of the Persian empire, and Daniel language which was spoken here is not certainly is said to have resided “at Shushan, which is in known. It was probably, however, a mixed the province of Elam.” (Dan. viii, 2.) The dialect made up of Greek and Syriac, perhaps Greeks and Romans gave to this country the the same as their neighbours, the Lycaonians. Dame of Elymais. It is now called Kusistan. (Acts xiv. 11.) This place was formerly celeIt was bounded by Persia on the east; by Media | brated for iniquity, and is mentioned in Greek on the north; by Babylonia on the west ; and by writers as one of the three eminently wicked the Persian Gulf on the south. The Elamites places, whose name began with C. The others were a warlike people, and celebrated for the use were Crete, (Comp. Titus i. 12,) and Cilicia. of the bow. (Isa. xxii. 6. Jer. xlix. 35.) The After its conversion to the Christian religion, language of the people was of course the Persian. however, it produced many eminent men, among Its capital Shusan, called by the Greeks Susa, whom were Gregory Nyssen, and Basil the Great. was much celebrated. It is said to have been It was one of the places to which Peter directed fifteen miles in circumference; and was adorned an epistle. (1 Pet. i. 1.) In Pontus.—This was with the celebrated palace of Ahasuerus. The another province of Asia Minor, and was situated inhabitants still pretend to show there the tomb of north of Cappadocia, and was bounded west by the prophet Daniel. Mesopotamia.—This name, Paphlagonia. Pontus and Cappadocia under the which is Greek, signifies between the rivers; that Romans constituted one province. This was one is, the region lying between the rivers Euphrates of the places to which the apostle Peter directed and Tigris. In Hebrew it was called Aram- his epistle. (1 Pet. i. 1.) This was the birthNaharaim; that is, Aram, or Syria of the two place of Aquila, one of the companions of Paul. rivers. It was also called Padan Aram, the plain (Acts xviii. 2, 18, 26. Rom. xvi. 3. 1 Cor. of Syria. In this region were situated some im- | xvi. 19. 2 Tim. iv. 19.) And Asia.-Pontus, portant places mentioned in the Bible :-Ur, of and Cappadocia, &c., were parts of Asia. But the Chaldees, the birth-place of Abraham, (Gen. the word Asia is doubtless used here to denote xi. 27, 28;) Haran, where Terah stopped on his the regions or provinces west of these, which are journey and died, (Gen. xi. 31, 32;) Carchemish, not particularly enumerated. Thus it is used (2 Chron. xxxv. 20 ;) Hena, (2 Kings six. 13 ;) Acts vi. 9; xvi. 6; xx. 16. The capital of this Sepbarvaim, (2 Kings xvii. 24.) This region, region was Ephesus. See also 1 Pet. i. 1. This known as Mesopotamia, extended between the region was frequently called Ionia, and was aftertwo rivers from their sources to Babylon on the wards the seat of the seven churches in Asia. south. It had on the north Armenia, on the west (Rev. i. 4.) Syria, on the east Persia, and on the south Babylonia. It was an extensive, level, and fertile | VER. 10. Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, country. The language spoken here was proba and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and bly the Syriac, with perhaps a mixture of the
strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes, Chaldee. In Judea.-This expression has greatly perplexed commentators. It has been thought
Phrygia, and Pamphylia. These were also two difficult to see why Judea should be mentioned, provinces of Asia Minor. Phrygia was suras if it were a matter of surprise that they could
r of surprise that they could rounded by Galatia, Cappadocia, and Pisidia. speak in this language. Some have supposed an Pamphylia was on the Mediterranean, and was error in the manuscripts, and have proposed to bounded north by Pisidia. The language of all read Armenia, or India, or Lydia, or Idumea, &c. these places was doubtless the Greek, more or Bat all this has been without any authority. less pure. In Egypt.- This was that extensive Others have supposed that the language of Gali- | country, well known, on the south of the Medi. lee was so different from that of the other parts terranean, watered by the Nile. It extends 600 of Judea, as to render it remarkable that they miles from north to south, and from 100 to 120 could speak that dialect. But this is an idle sup- east and west. The language used there was the Coptic. At present the Arabic is spoken. Vast | Acts as the place touched at by Paul. (Acts xxvi. numbers of Jews dwelt in Egypt; and many 7,8,13.) This was the residence of Titus, who was from that country would be present at the great left there by Paul to “set in order the things that feasts at Jerusalem. In this country the first were wanting,” &c. (Titus i. 5.) The Cretans translation of the Old Testament was made, which among the Greeks were famous for deceit and is now called the Septuagint. In the parts of falsehood. (Titus i. 12, 13.) The language spoken Libya.-Libya is a general name for Africa. It there was probably the Greek. Arabians.- Arabia properly denoted the region which was near to is the great peninsula which is bounded north by Egypt; but the Greeks gave the name to all part of Syria, east by the Euphrates and the Persian Africa. About Cyrene.-- This was a region about ' gulf, south by the Indian ocean, and west by the 500 miles west of Alexandria in Egypt. It was Red sea. It is often mentioned in the Scriptures, also called Pentapolis, because there were in it and there were doubtless there many Jews. The five celebrated cities. This country now belongs language spoken there was the Arabic. In our to Tripoli. Great numbers of Jews resided here. | tongues.-The languages spoken by the apostles A Jew of this place, Simon by name, was com- | could not have been less than seven or eight, bepelled to bear our Saviour's cross after him to sides different dialects of the same languages. It the place of crucifixion. (Matt. xxvii. 32. Luke is not certain that the Jews present from foreign xxiii. 26.) Some of the Cyrenians are mentioned | nations spoke those laguages perfectly ; but they among the earliest Christians. (Acts xi. 20; | had doubtless so used them as to make them the xii. l.) The language which they spoke is not common tongue in which they conversed. No certainly known. Strangers of Rome.—This lite- miracle could be more decided than this. There rally means, “ Romans dwelling, or tarrying,” i. e. was no way in which the apostles could impose : at Jerusalem. It may mean either that they on them, and make them suppose they spoke were permanently fixed, or only tarrying at Je- foreign languages, if they really did not ; for rusalem, oi non MOŪVTEC 'Pwpaior. They were these foreigners were abundantly able to deterdoubtless Jews who had taken up their residence mine that. It may be remarked that this miracle in Italy, and had come to Jerusalem to attend the had most important effects besides that witnessed great feasts. The language which they spoke on the day of Pentecost. The gospel would be was the Latin. Great numbers of Jews were at carried by those who were converted to all these that time dwelling in Rome. Josephus says that places ; and the way would be prepared for the there were eight synagogues there. The Jews labours of the apostles there. Accordingly, most are often mentioned by the Roman writers. There of these places became afterwards celebrated by was a Jewish colony across the Tiber from the establishment of Christian churches, and the Rome. When Judea was conquered, about sixty conversion of great multitudes to the Christian years before Christ, vast numbers of Jews were faith. The wonderful works of God,- Tà payataken captive, and carried to Rome. But they leia Toù Osoð. The great things of God; that had much difficulty in managing them as slaves. is, the great things that God had done in the gift They pertinaciously adhered to their religion, of his Son; in his raising him from the dead; in observed the sabbath, and refused to join in his miracles, ascension, &c. Comp. Luke i. 49. the idolatrous rites of the Romans. Hence they Psa. lxxi. 19 ; xxvi. 7; lxvi. 3; xcii. 5; civ. 24, &c. were freed, and lived by themselves across the Tiber. Jews.-Native born Jews, or descend Ver. 12. And they were all amazed, and were ants of Jewish families. Proselytes.— Those who
in doubt, saying one to another, What meanhad been converted to the Jewish religion from
eth this? among the Gentiles. The great zeal of the Jews to make proselytes is mentioned by our Saviour
a Chap. xvii. 20. as one of the peculiar characteristics of the Pha Were in doubt.—This expression, ontópovy, risees. (Matt. xxiii. 15.) Some have supposed | denotes a state of hesitancy or anxiety about an that the expression Jews and proselytes refers event. It is applied to those who are travelling to the Romans only. But it it more probable that and are ignorant of the way, or who hesitate reference is made to all those that are mentioned. about the road. They were all astonished at It has the appearance of a hurried enumeration ; ! this: they did not know how to understand it or and the writer evidently mentioned them as they explain it, until some of them supposed it was occurred to his mind, just as we would in giving | merely the effect of new wine. a rapid account of so many different nations.
VER. 13. Others mocking said, These men are VER. 11. Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them
full of new wine. speak in our tongues : the wonderful works of God.
Others, mocking, said.— The word rendered $ I Cor. xii. 10, 28.
“ mocking” means, to cavil, to deride. It occurs
in the New Testament, but in one other place. Cretes.--Crete, now called Candia, is an island Acts xvii. 32 : “And when they heard of the in the Mediterranean, about 200 miles in length resurrection of the dead, some mocked." This and 50 in breadth, about 500 miles south-west of was an effect that was not confined to the day of Constantinople, and about the same distance west | Pentecost. There has been seldom a revival of of Syria or Palestine. The climate is mild and de- | religion, a remarkable manifestation of the power lightful, the sky unclouded and serene. By some of the Holy Spirit, that has not given occasion this island is supposed to be the Caphtor of the for profane mockery and merriment. One chaHebrews. (Gen. x. 14.) It is mentioned in the racteristic of wicked men is to deride those things
which are done to promote their own welfare. part in the discourse. Possibly Peter began to Hence the Saviour himself was mocked; and the discourse, and either all spoke together in differefforts of Christians to save others have been the ent languages, or one succeeded another. Ye subject of derision. Derision, and mockery, and men of Judea.—Men who are Jews; that is, a jeer, have been far more effectual in deterring Jews by birth. The original does not mean that men from becoming Christians than any attempts they were permanent dwellers in Judea, but that at sober argument. God will treat men as they they were Jews, of Jewish families. Literally, treat him. (Psal. xviii. 26.) And hence he says “men, Jews." And all ye that dwell, &c.-All to the wicked, “Because I have called and ye others besides native-born Jews, whether proserefused.... but ye have set at nought my counsel, lytes or strangers, who were abiding at Jerusalem. I also will laugh at your calamity, I will mock This comprised, of course, the whole assembly, when your fear cometh.” (Prov. i. 24–26.) and was a respectful and conciliatory introduction These men are full of new wine.—These men are to his discourse. Though they had mocked them, drunk. In such times men will have some way yet he treated them with respect, and did not of accounting for the effects of the gospel; and render railing for railing, (1 Pet. iii. 9,) but sought the way is commonly about as wise and rational | to convince them of their error. Be this known, as this. “To escape the absurdity of acknow- \ &c.—Peter did not intimate that this was a doubtledging their own ignorance, they adopted the ful matter, or one that could not be explained. theory that strong drink can teach languages.”— His address was respectful, yet firm. He proceeded Dr. McLelland. In modern times it has been calmly to show them their error. When the eneusual to denominate such scenes fanaticism, or mies of religion deride us or the gospel, we should wildfire, or enthusiasm. When men fail in argu- answer them kindly and respectfully, yet firmly. ment, it is common to attempt to confute a doc- We should reason with them coolly, and contrine or bring reproach upon a transaction by vince them of their error. (Prov. xv. 1.). In * giving it an ill name.” Hence the names Pu-l this case. Peter acted on the principle which he ritan, Quaker, Methodist, &c. were at first given afterwards enjoined on all i Pet. iii. 15, “ Be in derision, to account for some remarkable effect ready always to give an answer to every man of religion on the world. Comp. Matt. xi. 19. that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you, John vü. 20; viii. 48. And thus men endeavour | with meekness and fear.” The design of Peter to trace revivals to ungoverned and heated pas- was to vindicate the conduct of the apostles from sions ; and they are regarded by many as the the reproach of intoxication, to show that this mere offspring of fanaticism. The friends of could be no other than the work of God; and to revivals should not be discouraged by this; but make an application of the truth to his hearers. should remember that the very first revival of This he did, (1.) By showing that this could not religion was by many supposed to be the effect be reasonably supposed to be the effect of new of a drunken frolic. New wine, yeúroug:- This wine, (ver. 15.) (2.) That it had been expressly word properly means the juice of the grape predicted in the writings of the Jewish prophets, which distils before a pressure is applied, and (ver. 16–21.) (3.) By a calm argument, provcalled “must.” It was sweet wine; and hence the ing the resurrection and ascension of Christ, and word in Greek meaning sweet was given to it. showing that this also was in accordance with The ancients, it is said, had the art of preserving the Jewish Scriptures, (ver. 22–35.) We are their new wine with the peculiar flavour before not to suppose that this was the whole of Peter's fermentation for a considerable time, and were discourse, but that these were the topics on which in the habit of drinking it in the morning. See he insisted, and the main points of his argument. Horace, Sat. b. ii. iv. Sweet wine, which was probably the same as that mentioned here, is also | VER. 15. For these are not drunken, as ye supmentioned in the Old Testament. (Isa. xlix. 26. pose, seeing k it is but the third hour of the Amos ix. 13.)
k 1 Thess. v. 7. VER. 14. But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them, Ye
For these are not drunken, &c.—The word
| “these,” here includes Peter himself, as well as men of Judea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusa- | the others. The charge doubtless extended to lem, be this known unto you, and hearken to all. The third hour of the day. The Jews di my words:
vided their day into twelve equal parts, reckoning
from sunrise to sunset. Of course the hours But Peter. This was in accordance with the were longer in the summer than in the winter. natural temperament of Peter. He was bold, The third hour would answer to our nine forward, ardent; and he rose now to defend the o'clock in the morning. The reasons why it apostles of Jesus Christ, and Christ himself, from was so improbable that they should be drunk an injurious charge. Not daunted by ridicule or at that time were the following: (1.) It was opposition, he felt that now was the time for the hour of morning worship, or sacrifice. It preaching the gospel to the crowd that had been was highly improbable, that at that early hour assembled by curiosity. No ridicule should deter they would be intoxicated. (2.) It was not Christians from an honest avowal of their opinions, usual for even drunkards to become drunk in and a defence of the operations of the Holy Spirit. the day-time. 1 Thess. v. 7, “ They that be With the eleven. Matthias was now one of the drunken, are drunken in the night.” (3.) The apostles, and now appeared as one of the witnesses charge was, that they had become drunk with for the truth. They probably all arose, and took wine. Ardent spirits, or alcohol, that curse of
our times, was unknown. It was very impro- in the coming ages, the great, glorious, and bable that so much of the weak wine commonly crowning scene in all that vast futurity, the used in Judea, should have been taken at that phrase came to be regarded as properly expresearly hour as to produce intoxication. (4.) It sive of that. And they spoke of future times was a regular practice with the Jews, not to eat and of the last times, as the glad period which or drink any thing until after the third hour of should be crowned and honoured with the prethe day, especially on the sabbath and on all sence and triumphs of the Messiah. It stood in festival occasions. Sometimes this abstinence opposition to the usual denomination of earlier was maintained until noon. So universal was times. It was a phrase in contrast with the days this custom, that the apostle could appeal to it of the patriarchs, the kings, the prophets, &c. with confidence, as a full refutation of the charge The last days, or the closing period of the world, of drunkenness at that hour. Even the intem-were the days of the Messiah. It does not apperate were not accustomed to drink before that pear from this, and it certainly is not implied in hour. The following testimonies on this subject the expression, that they supposed the world from Jewish writers, are from Lightfoot. “This would then come to an end. Their views were was the custom of pious people in ancient times, I just the contrary. They anticipated a long and that each one should offer his morning prayers glorious time, under the dominion of the Mes. with additions in the synagogue, and then re- siah, and to this expectation they were led by turn home and take refreshment.”—Maimonides, the promise that his kingdom should be for Shabb. Chap. 30. “ They remained in the ever; that of the increase of his government synagogue until the sixth hour and a half, and there should be no end, &c. This expression then each one offered the prayer of the Mincha, / was understood by the writers of the New Tesbefore he returned home, and then he ate.” “ The tament, as referring undoubtedly to the times of fourth is the hour of repast, when all eat.” One the gospel. And hence they often used it as deof the Jewish writers says, that the difference | noting that the time of the expected Messiah had between thieves and honest men, might be known come, but not to imply that the world was drawing by the fact that the former might be seen in the near to an end. Heb. i. 2, “ God hath spoken in morning at the fourth hour, eating and sleeping, these last days by his Son.” i Pet. i. 20, “ Was and holding a cup in his hand. But for those manifested in these last times for you.” (2 Pet. who made pretensions to religion, as the apostles ii. 3. 1 Pet. i. 5.) 1 John ii, 18, “ Little children. did, such a thing was altogether improbable. it is the last time," &c. (Jude 18.) The expres
sion “the last day," is applied by our Saviour to VER. 16. But this is that which was 'spoken by the resurrection and the day of judgment. (John
vi. 39, 40, 44, 45; xi. 24 ; xii. 48.) Here the the prophet Joel ;
expression means simply in those future times, I Joel ii. 28–32.
when the Messiah shall have come. I will pour This is that.--This is the fulfilment of that, or | out of my Spirit.--The expression in Hebrew is. this was predicted. This was the second part of “I will pour out my Spirit.” The word " pour" Peter's argument, to show that this was in ac- | is generally applied to water, or to blood, to pour cordance with the predictions in their own Scrip- it out, or to shed it, (Isa. lvii. 6 ;) to tears, to tures. By the prophet Joel.-Joel ü. 28--32. pour them out, i. e. to weep, &c. (Psa. xlii. 4. This is not quoted literally, either from the
i Sam. i. 15.) It is applied to water, to wine, or Hebrew or the Septuagint. The substance, how-|
to blood, in the New Testament. (Matt. ix. 17. ever, is preserved.
Rev. xvi. 1.) Acts xxii. 20, “ The blood of
thy martyr Stephen was shed.” It conveys also Ver. 17. And it shall come to pass in the last days,
the idea of communicating largely, or freely, as saith God, I will pour out mof my Spirit upon
water is poured freely from a fountain. Titus
ii. 5, 6, “ The renewing of the Holy Ghost, all flesh: and your sons and your daughters which he shed on us abundantly." Thus Job, shall prophesy, and your young men shall see xxxvi. 27, “ They (the clouds) pour down rain, visions, and your old men shall dream dreams : according to the vapour thereof." Isa. xliv. 3,
“ I will pour water on him that is thirsty." m Isa. xliv. 3. Ezek. xxxi. 27.
xlv. 8, “Let the skies pour down righteousness." It shall come to pass.--It shall happen, or shall | Mal. iii. 10, “I will pour you out a blessing." occur. In the last days.- Heb. Chaldee, Syriac, | It is also applied to fury and anger, when God and Arabic, “after these things, or afterwards.” | | intends to say that he will not spare, but will sig. The expression, “the last days," however, oc nally punish. (Psa. Ixix. 24. Jer. x. 25.) It is not curs frequently in the Old Testament. Gen. | unfrequently applied to the Spirit. (Prov. i. 23. xlix. 1, Jacob called his sons, that he might | Isa. xliv. 3. Zech. xii. 10.) And then it means tell them what should happen to them “in the that he will bestow large measures of spiritual last days," i. e. in future times. Heb. “in after | influences. As the Spirit renews and sanctifies times.” Micah iv. 1, “ In the last days, (Heb. “in | men, so to pour out the Spirit is to grant freely after times,") the mountain of the Lord's house," his influences to renew and sanctify the soul. &c. Isa. ii. 2, “ In the last days the moun My Spirit.— The Spirit here denotes the third tain of the Lord's house shall be established | person of the Trinity, promised by the Saviour, in the tops of the mountains," &c. The expres and sent to finish his work, and apply it to sion then properly denoted the future times in men. The Holy Spirit is regarded as the source, general. But as the coming of the Messiah was, or conveyer of all the blessings which Christians to the eye of a Jew, the most important event experience. Hence he renews the heart. (John üi. 5, 6.) He is the source of all proper feelings was by visions; and hence one of the most usual and principles in Christians, or he produces the names of the prophets was seers. The name Christian graces. (Gal. v. 22-25. Titus iii. seer was first given to that class of men, and was 5-7.) The spread and success of the gospel is superseded by the name prophet. 1 Sam. ix. 9, attributed to him. (Isa. xxxii. 15, 16.) Miracu- “ He that is now called prophet, was before time lous gifts are traced to him ; especially the called a seer.” (ix. 17, 18, 19. 2 Sam. xxiv. 11; various gifts with which the early Christians xxix. 29, &c.) This name was given from the were endowed. (1 Cor. xii. 4-10.) The pro- manner in which the divine will was communimise that he would pour out his Spirit, means cated, which seems to have been by throwing the that he would, in the time of the Messiah, impart prophet into an ecstacy, and then by causing the a large measure of those influences, which it was vision, or the appearance of the objects or events, his peculiar province to communicate to men. A to pass before the mind. The prophet looked part of them were communicated on the day of upon the passing scene, the often splendid dioPentecost, in the miraculous endowment of the rama, as it actually occurred, and recorded it as power of speaking foreign languages, in the wis- it appeared to his mind. Hence he recorded dom of the apostles, and in the conversion of the rather the succession of images than the times in three thousand. Upon all flesh. The word flesh which they would occur. These visions occurred here means persons, or men. See Note, Rom. sometimes when they were asleep, and sometimes i. 3. The word “all," here, does not mean every during a prophetic ecstacy. (Dan. ii. 28; vii. individual, but every class or rank of men. It is 1, 2, 15; viii. 2. Ezek. xi. 24. Gen. xv. 1. to be limited to the cases specified immediately. Num. xii. 6. Job iv. 13; vii. 14. Ezek. i. 1; The influences were not to be confined to any viii. 3.) Often the prophet seemed to be transclass, but to be communicated to all kinds of | ferred, or translated to another place from where persons, old men, youth, servants, &c. Comp. he was; and the scene in a distant land or age 1 Tim. ii. 1-4. And your sons and your daugh- | passed before the mind. (Ezek. viii. 3: xl. 2; ters.-Your children. It would seem, however, xi. 24. Dan. viii. 2.) In this case the distant that females shared in the remarkable influences scene or time passed before the prophet, and he of the Holy Spirit. Philip, the Evangelist, had recorded it as it appeared to him. That this did four daughters which did prophesy. (Acts xxi. 9.) | not cease before the times of the gospel is eviIt is probable also that the females of the church dent. Acts ix, 10, “ To Ananias said the Lord of Corinth partook of this gift, though they were in a vision," &c. ; 12, “ And hath seen (i. e. Paul) forbidden to exercise it in public. (1 Cor. xiv. in a vision, a man named Ananias," &c. i. e. Paul 34.) The office of prophesying, whatever was hath seen Ananias represented to him, though meant by that, was not confined to the men absent; he has had an image of him coming in to among the Jews. Exod. xv. 20, “ Miriam, the him. Acts x. 3, Cornelius "saw in a vision, prophetess, took a timbrel,” &c. Judg. iv. 4, evidently an angel of God coming to him,” &c. * Deborah, a prophetess, judged Israel.” (2 Kings This was one of the modes by which in former xxü. 14.) See also Luke ii. 36, “ There was one times God made known his will ; and the lanAnna, a prophetess," &c. Shall prophesy.—The guage of the Jews came to express a reveword “prophesy” is used in a great variety of lation in this manner. Though there were senses. (1.) It means to predict, or foretell future strictly no visions on the day of Pentecost, yet events. (Matt. xi. 13 ; xv. 7.) (2.) To divine, to that was one scene under the great economy conjecture, to declare as a prophet might. Matt. of the Messiah, under which God would make Xxxi. 68, “ Prophesy who smote thee.” (3.) To known his will in a manner as clear as he did to celebrate the praises of God, being under a divine the ancient Jews. Your old men shall dream influence. (Luke i. 67.) This seems to have dreams.—The will of God in former times was been a considerable part of the employment in the made known often in this manner; and there are ancient schools of the prophets. (1 Sam. x. 5; / several instances recorded in which it was done xix. 20 ; xxx. 15.) (4.) To teach—as no small under the gospel. God informed Abimelech in part of the office of the prophets was to teach a dream, that Sarah was the wife of Abraham. the doctrines of religion. Matt. vii. 22, “Have (Gen. xx. 3.) He spoke to Jacob in a dream, (Gen. we not prophesied in thy name?” (5.) It denotes xxxi. 11 ;) to Laban, (xxxi. 24 ;) to Joseph, then, in general, to speak under a divine influ- (xxxvii. 5;) to the butler and baker, (xl. 5;) to ence, whether in foretelling future events; in Pharaoh, (xli. 1–7 ;) to Solomon, (1 Kings ii. 5 ;) celebrating the praises of God; in instructing to Daniel. (Dan. ii. 3 ; vii. 1.) It was prophesied others in the duties of religion, or in speaking | hy Moses, that in this way God would make known foreign languages under that influence. In this his will. (Num. xii. 6.) It occurred even in the
last sense, the word is used in the New Testament, time of the gospel. (Matt. i. 20.) Joseph was i to denote those who were miraculously endowed warned in a dream. (ii. 12, 13, 19, 22.) Pilate's
with the power of speaking foreign languages. wife was also troubled in this manner about the (Acts xix. 6.) The word is also used to denote conduct of the Jews to Christ. (Matt. xxvii. 19.) teaching, or speaking in intelligible language, in As this was one way in which the will of God opposition to speaking a foreign tongue. (1 Cor. | was made known formerly to men, so the expresxiv. 1-5.) In this place it means that they sion here denotes simply that his will should be should speak under a divine influence, and is made known ; that it should be one characteristic specially applied to the power of speaking in a of the times of the gospel that God would reveal foreigo tongue. Your young men shall see visions. himself to man. The ancients probably had
-The will of God in former times was commu- some mode of determining whether their dreams nicated to the prophets in various ways. One were divine communications, or whether they