« PreviousContinue »
were, as they are now, the mere erratic wander- Much of the difficulty of interpreting these ings of the mind when unrestrained and un- verses, consists in fixing the proper meaning to checked by the will. At present no confidence the expression “that great and notable day of is to be put in dreams.
the Lord.” If it be limited to the day of Pente
cost, it is certain that no such events occurred at Ver. 18. And on my servants and on my hand- that time. But there is, it is believed, no promaidens I will pour out in those days of my | priety in confining it to that time. The descrid
tion here pertains to “the last days," (ver. 17,) Spirit; and " they shall prophesy :
i. e. to the whole of that period of duration, how- i Chap. xxi. 4, 9, 10. 1 Cor. xii. 10.
ever long, which was known by the prophets as
the last times. That period might be extended And on my servants.- The Hebrew in Joel is,
through many centuries ; and during that period “ upon the servants.” The Septuagint and the all these events would take place. The day of Latin Vulgate, however, render it, “on my ser- the Lord is the day when God shall manifest vants” in Joel, the prophet would seem to be himself in a peculiar manner : a day when he enumerating the different conditions and ranks shall so strikingly be seen in his wonders and of society. The influences of the Spirit would
his judgments, that it may be called his day. be confined to no class; they would descend on
Thus it is applied to the day of judgment, as old and young, and even on servants and hand
the day of the Son of man; the day in which he maids. So the Chaldee Paraphrase understood
will be the great attractive object, and will be it. But the Septuagint and Peter evidently un- signally glorified. (Luke xvii. 24. 1 Thess. v. derstood it in the sense of servants of God; as
God; as | 2. Phil. i. 6. 2 Pet. iii. 12.) If, as I suppose, the worshippers of God are often called servants
“ that notable day of the Lord” here denotes that in the Scriptures. See Rom. i. 1. It is possible,
future time when God shall manifest himself in however, that the Hebrew intended to refer to
judgment, then we are not to suppose that Peter the servants of God. It is not “ upon your ser
meant to say that these “wonders” should take vants,” &c., as in the former expression, “ your
place on the day of Pentecost, or had their fulsons,” &c. ; but the form is changed, "upon ser
filment then, but would occur under that indefivants and handmaids." The language therefore,
nite period called “the last days,” the days of the will admit the construction of the Septuagint and
Messiah, and before that period was closed by of Peter; and it was this variation in the He
the great day of the Lord. The gift of tongues brew which suggested, doubtless, the mention of
was a partial fulfilment of the general prophecy “ my servants,” &c. instead of your servants.
pertaining to those times. And as the prophecy And handmaids.-Female servants. The name
was thus partially fulfilled, it was a pledge that is several times given to pious women. (Psa.
it would be entirely; and thus there was laid a Ixxxvi. 16: cxvi. 16. Luke i. 38—48.) The
foundation for the necessity of repentance, and meaning of this verse does not materially differ
for calling on the Lord in order to be saved. from the former. In the times of the gospel,
Blood.-Blood is commonly used as an emblem those who were brought under its influence should
of slaughter, or of battle. Fire.—Fire is also an be remarkably endowed with ability to declare
image of war, or the conflagration of towns and the will of God.
dwellings in time of war. Vapour of smoke.
The word vapour, áthis, means commonly an Ver. 19. And I will show wonders in heaven
exhalation from the earth, &c. easily moved from above, and signs in the earth beneath ; blood, one place to another. Here it means (Heb. Joel) and fire, and vapour of smoke:
rising columns, or pillars of smoke; and is
another image of the calamities of war, the I will show wonders.—Literally, “I will give smoke rising from burning towns. It has almost signs," - dúow tépata. The word in the He- | always been customary in war to burn the towns brew, 'naya, mophethim, means properly prodi- | of an enemy, and to render him as helpless as gies ; wonderful occurrences ; miracles wrought | possible. Hence the calamities denoted here are by God or his messengers. (Exod. iv, 21; vii. those represented by such scenes. To what par3–9; xi. 9. Deut. iv. 34, &c.) It is the com ticular scenes there is reference here, it may be mon word to denote a miracle, in the Old Testa | impossible now, to say. It may be remarked, ment. Here it means, however, a portentous however, that scenes of this kind occurred before appearance, a prodigy, a remarkable occurrence. the destruction of Jerusalem, and there is a strikIt is commonly joined in the New Testament ing resemblance between the description in Joel, with the word signs,“ signs and wonders." and that by which our Saviour foretells the de(Matt. xxiv. 24. Mark xiii. 22. John iv. 48.) struction of Jerusalem. See Notes on Matt. In these places it does not of necessity mean xxiv. 21-24. miracles, but unusual and remarkable appearances. Here it is fixed to mean great and VER. 20. The sun shall be turned into darkstriking changes in the sky, the sun, moon, &c. ness, and the moon into blood, before that The Hebrew is, “ I will give signs in the hea
great and notable day of the Lord come: ven, and upon the earth.” Peter has quoted it according to the sense, and not according to the
o Mark xiii. 24. 2 Pet. iii. 7, 10. letter. The Septuagint is here a literal translatior of the Hebrew ; and this is one of the in
The sun shall be turned into darkness.-See stances where the New Testament writers did not Note, Matt. xxiv. 29. The same images used quote from either.
here with reference to the sun and moon, are
used also there. They occur not unfrequently. I of the Lord is the same as the Lord himself. It (Mark xii. 24. 2 Pet. iii. 7-10.) The shining is a Hebraism, signifying to call on the Lord. of the sun is an emblein of prosperity; the with- (Psa. lxxix. 6. Zech. xiii. 9.) Shall be saved.drawing, or eclipse, or setting of the sun, is an In Hebrew, shall be delivered, i. e. from im. emblem of calamity, and is often thus used in pending calamities. When they threaten, and the Scriptures. (Isa. Ix. 20. Jer. xv. 9. Ezek. God is coming forth to judge them, it shall be xxxii. 7. Amos viii. 9. Rev. vi. 12; viii. 12; that those who are characterized as those who ix. 2 : xvi. 8.) To say that the sun is darkened, call on the Lord, shall be delivered. This is or turned into darkness, is an image of calamity, equally true at all times. It is remarkable that and especially of the calamities of war, when | no Christians perished in the siege of Jerusalem. the smoke of burning cities rises to heaven, and Though more than a million of Jews perished, obscures his light. This is not, therefore, to be yet the followers of Christ who were there, taken literally, nor does it afford any indication having been warned by him, when they saw the of what will be at the end of the world in regard signs of the Romans approaching, withdrew to to the sun. The moon into blood. — The word Ælia, and were preserved. So it shall be in the ** blood ” here means that obscure, sanguinary co- day of judgment. All whose character it has lour, which the moon has when the atmosphere been that they called on God, will then be saved. is filled with smoke and vapour: and especially While the wicked shall then call on the rocks the lurid and alarming appearance which it as- and the mountains to shelter them from the Lord, sumes when smoke and flames are thrown up by | those who have invoked his favour and mercy earthquakes and fiery eruptions. (Rev. vi. 12.) shall then find deliverance. The use which * And I beheld when he had opened the sixth Peter makes of this passage, is this: Calamities seal, and lo. there was a great earthquake, and were about to come : the day of judgment was the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and approaching ; they were passing through the last the moon became as blood.” (Rev. viii. 8.) In days of the earth's history; and therefore it bethis place it denotes great calamities. The came them to call on the name of the Lord, and figures used are indicative of wars, and con- | to Outain deliverance from the dangers which flagrations, and unusual prodigies of earthquakes. limpended over the guilty. There can be little As these things are (Matt. xxiv.) applied to the doubt that Peter intended to apply this to the destruction of Jerusalem; as they actually oc- Messiah, and that, by the name of the Lord, he curred previous to that event, (see Notes, Matt. meant the Lord Jesus. See I Cor. i. 2. Paul xxiv. ;) it may be supposed that the prophecy in makes the same use of the passage, expressly Joel had an immediate reference to that. The applying it to the Lord Jesus Christ. (Rom. x. meaning of the quotation by Peter in this place, 13, 14.) In Joel, the word translated Lord is therefore, is, that what occurred on the day of JEHOVAH, the incommunicable and peculiar name Pentecost, was the beginning of the series of of God; and the use of the passage before us in wonders that was to take place during the times the New Testament, shows how the apostles reof the Messiah. It is not intimated that those garded the Lord Jesus Christ; and proves that scenes were to close, or to be exhausted in that they had no hesitation in applying to him names age. They may precede that great day of the and attributes, which could belong to no one but Lord which is yet to come in view of the whole God. earth. That great and notable day of the Lord. This verse teaches us, 1. That in prospect This is cailed the great day of the Lord, because of the judgments of God which are to come, we on that day he will be signally manifested, more should make preparation. We shall be called to impressively and strikingly than on other times. pass through the closing scene of this earth; the The word "notable,” & migavñ, means signal, illus time when the sun shall be turned into darkness, trious, distinguished. In Joel the word is terri- and the moon into blood, and when the great ble, or fearful; a word applicable to days of day of the Lord shall come. 2. It is easy to be calamity, and trial, and judgment. The Greek saved. All that God requires of us, is to call word here rendered notable, is also in the Sep- upon him, to pray to him, to ask him, and he will tus gint frequently used to denote calamity, or answer and save. If men will not do so easy times of judgment. (Deut. X. 21. 2 Sam. vii. a thing as to call on God, and ask him for salva23.) This will apply to any day in which God! tion, it is obviously proper that they should be signally manifests himself; but particularly to a cast off. The terms of salvation could not be day when he shall come forth to punish men, as made plainer or easier. The offer is wide, free, at the destruction of Jerusalem, or at the day of i universal, and there is no obstacle but what judgment. The meaning is, that those wonders exists in the heart of the sinner. And from this should take place before that distinguished day i part of Peter's vindication of the scene on the should arrive when God should come forth in day of Pentecost, we may learn also, 1. That judgment.
revivals of religion are to be expected as a part
of the history of the Christian church. He VER. 21. And it shall come to pass, that whoso- ! speaks of God's pouring out his Spirit, &c., as erer shall call on the name of the Lord shall ! what was to take place in the last days, i. e. in
the indefinite and large tract of time which was be saved.
to come under the administration of the Messiah. Psa. Ixxvi. 5. Rom. x. 13. 1 Cor. i. 2. Hleb. iv. 16.
| His remarks are by no means limited to the day
His Whosoerer shall call. In the midst of these of Pentecost: they are as applicable to future wonders and dangers, whosoever should call on' periods as to that time; and we are to expect it the Lord should be delivered, (Joel.) The name as a part of Christian history, that the Holy
Spirit will be sent down to awaken and convert Jesus himself said. John v, 36, “ The work men. 2. This will also vindicate revivals from which the Father hath given me to finish, the all the charges which have ever been brought same works that I do, bear witness of me, that against them. All the objections of irregularity, the Father hath sent me." The great works extravagance, wildfire, enthusiasm, disorder, &c., which God hath wrought in creation, as well as which have been alleged against revivals in mo in redemption, he is represented as having done dern times, might have been brought with equal | by his Son. Heb. i. 2, “ By whom also he made propriety against the scene on the day of Pente the worlds." (John i. 3. Col. i. 15–19.) In cost. Yet an apostle showed that that was in the midst of you.—In your own land. It is also accordance with the predictions of the Old Testa- | probable that many of the persons present had ment, and was an undoubted work of the Holy | been witnesses of his miracles. As ye yourselves Spirit. If that work could be vindicated, then also know.-They knew it either by having witmodern revivals may be. If that was really nessed them, or by the evidence which every liable to no objections on these accounts, then where abounded of the truth that he had wrought modern works of grace should not be objected to them. The Jews, even in the time of Christ. for the same things. And if that excited deep did not dare to call his miracles in question. interest in the apostles ; if they felt deep concern (John xv. 24.) While they admitted the mirato vindicate it from the charge brought against cle, they attempted to trace it to the influence of it, then Christians, and Christian ministers, now | Beelzebub. (Matt. ix. 34. Mark iii. 22.) So should feel similar solicitude to defend revivals, decided and numerous were the miracles of Jeand not be found among their revilers, their sus, that Peter here appeals to them as having calumniators, or their foes. There will be ene- been known by the Jews themselves to have mies enough of the work of the Holy Spirit, been performed, and with a confidence that even without the aid of professed Christians; and that they could not deny it. On this he proceeds to man possesses no enviable feelings or character, rear his argument for the truth of his Messiahship. who is found with the enemies of God and his Christ, in opposing the mighty work of the Holy | VER. 23. Him, being' delivered by the deterSpirit on the human heart.
minate counsel and foreknowledge of God,
yet have taken, and by wicked hands have VER. 22. Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God
crucified and slain : among you by miracles? and wonders and
& Luke xxii. 22; xxiv. 44. Chap. iii. 18.
t Chap. v. 30. u Matt. xxvii. signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye" yourselves also know:
Him, being delivered, korov.This word, o John xiv. 10. 11. Heb. ii. 4. John xy. 24. “delivered," is used commonly of those who are
surrendered or delivered into the hands of eneYe men of Israel.-Descendants of Israel, or mies or adversaries. It means that Jesus was Jacob, i. e. Jews. Peter proceeds now to the surrendered, or given up to his enemies, by third part of his argument, to show that Jesus those who should have been his protectors. Thus Christ had been raised up; and that the scene he was delivered to the chief priests. (Mark x. which had occurred was in accordance with his 33.) Pilate released Barabhas, and delivered promise, was proof of his resurrection, and of Jesus to their will, (Mark xv. 15. Luke xxüi. his exaltation to be the Messiah ; and that, there- | 25 ;) he was delivered unto the Gentiles, (Luke fore, they should repent for their great sin, in | xviii. 32 :) the chief priests delivered him to having put their own Messiah to death. A man Pilate, (Matt. xxvii. 2 ;) and Pilate delivered approved of God.-A man who was shown or him to be crucified. (Matt. xxvii. 26. John xix. demonstrated to have the approbation of God, or 16.) In this manner was the death of Jesus acto have been sent by him. By miracles, and complished, by being surrendered from one triwonders, and signs. The first of these words bunal to another, and one demand of his counproperly means the displays of power which trymen to another, until they succeeded in Jesus made; the second, the unusual or remark- procuring his death. It may also be implied able events which attended him ; the third, the here that he was given or surrendered by God to signs or proofs that he was from God. Together, the hands of men. Thus he is represented to they denote the array or series of remarkable have been given by God. (John ii. 16. 1 John works-raising the dead, healing the sick, &c., iv. 9, 10.) The Syriac translates this, “ Him, which showed that Jesus was sent from God. | who was destined to this by the foreknowledge The proof which they furnished that he was and will of God, you delivered into the hands of from God, was this, that God would not confer wicked men,” &c. The Arabic, “ Him, delivered such power on an impostor, and that therefore to you by the hands of the wicked, you received, he was what he pretended to be. Which God and after you had mocked him, you slew him.” did by him.—The Lord Jesus himself often traced By the determinate counsel.-The word translated his power to do these things to his commission "determinate," rõ WOLOLévy, means, properly, that from the Father; but he did it in such a way as | which is defined, marked out, or bounded ; as, to to show that he was closely united to him. (John mark out or define the boundary of a field, &c. v. 19, 30.) Peter here says that God did these / See Rom. i. I, 4. In Acts x. 42, it is translated works by Jesus Christ, to show that Jesus was “ordained" of God; denoting his purpose that it truly sent by him, and that therefore he had the should be so, i, e. that Jesus should be the Judge seal and attestation of God. The same thing of quick and dead. Luke xxii. 22, “ The Son of man goeth as it is determined of him," i. e. as naked decree. It implies that God did it acGod has purposed or determined beforehand that cording to his foresight of what would be the he should go. Acts xi. 29, “ The disciples... best time, and place, and manner of its being determined to send relief unto the brethren done. It was not the result merely of will; it which dwelt in Judea," i. e. they resolved or was will directed by a wise foreknowledge of purposed beforehand to do it. Acts xvii. 26, what would be best. And this is the case with * God...hath determined the times before ap- 1 all the decrees of God. It follows, from this, pointed and fixed," &c. In all these places there that the conduct of the Jews was foreknown. is the idea of a purpose, or intention, or plan God was not disappointed in anything respecting implying intention, and marking out or fixing their treatment of his Son. Nor will he be disthe boundaries to some future action or event. appointed in any of the doings of men. NotThe word implies that the death of Jesus was withstanding the wickedness of the world, his resolved on by God before it took place. And | counsel shall stand, and he will do all his pleasure. this truth is established by all the predictions (Isa. xlvi. 10.) Ye have taken.-See Matt. xxvi. made in the Old Testament, and by the Saviour | 57. Ye Jews have taken. It is possible that himself. God was not compelled to give up his some were present on this occasion who had been Son. There was no claim on him for it. And personally concerned in taking Jerusalem; and he had a right, therefore, to determine when and many who had joined in the cry, “Crucify him." how it should be done. The fact, moreover, that | (Luke xxiii. 18—21.) It was, at any rate, the this was predicted, shows that it was fixed or re- act of the Jewish people by which this had been solved on. No event can be foretold, evidently, done. This was a striking instance of the fidelity unless it be certain that it will take place. The of that preaching which says, as Nathan did to event, therefore, must in some way be fixed or David, “ Thou art the man!” Peter, once so resolved on beforehand. Counsel, Boudy.-This timid that he denied his Lord, now charged this word properly denotes purpose, decree, will. It atrocious crime on his countrymen, regardless of expresses the act of the mind in willing, or the their anger and his own danger. He did not purpose or design which is formed. Here it deal in general accusations, but brought the means the purpose or will of God; it was his charges home, and declared that they were the plan or decree that Jesus should be delivered. men who had been concerned in this amazing Acts iv. 28, “For to do whatsoever thy hand crime. No preaching can be successful that does and thy counsel ( Bovln cov) determined before not charge on men their personal guilt; and that to be done." Eph. i. 11, “ Who worketh all does not fearlessly proclaim their ruin and danthings after the counsel of his own will." Heb. ger. With wicked hands.-Greek, “through or vi. 17, “ God, willing...to show...the immuta | by the hands of the lawless, or wicked.” This bility of his coupsel.” See Acts xx. 27. 1 Cor. refers, doubtless, to Pilate and the Roman soliv.5. Luke xxii. 51. The word here, there- diers, through whose instrumentality this had fore, proves that Jesus was delivered by the de been done. The reasons for supposing that this liberate purpose of God; that it was according 1 is the true interpretation of the passage, are
to his previous intention and design. The reason these :-(1.) The Jews had not the power of in| why this was insisted on by Peter, was, that he flicting death themselves. (2.) The term used
might convince the Jews that Jesus was not de- here, wicked, dvouwy, is not applicable to the ! livered by weakness, or because he was unable Jews, but to the Romans. It properly means
to rescue himself. Such an opinion would have lawless, or those who had not the law, and is been inconsistent with the belief that he was the often applied to the heathen. (Rom. ii. 12. 14. Viessiah. It was important, then, to assert the I Cor. ix. 21.) (3.) The punishment which was dignity of Jesus, and to show that his death was inflicted was a Roman punishment. (4.) It was in accordance with the fixed design of God; a matter of fact, that the Jews, though they had and therefore, that it did not interfere in the condemned him, yet had not put him to death least with his claims to be the Messiah. The themselves, but had demanded it of the Romans. sane thing our Saviour has himself expressly But though they had employed the Romans to affirmed. (John xix. 10, 11; X. 18. Matt. xxvi. do it, still they were the prime movers in the 53.) Foreknowledge.- This word denotes the deed ; they had plotted, and compassed, and deseeing beforehand of an event yet to take place. manded his death; and they were therefore not It denotes, 1. Omniscience; and 2. That the the less guilty. The maxim of the common law. event is fixed and certain. To foresee a con and of common sense, is, “he who does a deed tingent event, that is, to foresee that an event by the instrumentality of another, is responsible will take place, when it may or may not take for it.” It was from no merit of the Jews that place, is an absurdity. Foreknowledge, there they had not put him to death themselves. It fure, implies that for some reason the event will was simply because the power was taken away certainly take place. What that reason is, the from them. Have crucified.---Greek, “having word itself does not determine. As, however, affixed him to the cross, ye have put him to God is represented in the Scriptures as purposing death.” Peter here charges the crime fully on or determining future events; as they could not them. Their guilt was not diminished because be foreseen by him unless he had so determined, they had employed others to do it.- From this so the word sometimes is used in the sense of we may remark, (1.) That this was one of the determining beforehand, or as synonymous with most amazing and awful crimes that could be decreeing. (Rom. viii. 29; xi. 2.) In this place charged on any men. It was malice, and treason, the word is used to denote that the delivering up and hatred, and murder combined. Nor was it of Jesus was something more than a bare or any common murder. It was their own Messiah
whom they had put to death; the hope of their | edness, when the Son of God was put to death, fathers; he who had been long promised by God, was fixed by the determinate counsel of God. and the prospect of whose coming had so long | then all the events leading to it, and the circumcheered and animated the nation. They had stances attending it, were also a part of the imbrued
d their hands in his blood, and stood decree. The one could not be determined withcharged with the awful crime of having mur out the other. (6.) If that event was determined, dered the Prince of peace. (2.) It is no mitiga- | then others may be also, consistently with human tion of guilt that we do it by the instrumentality freedom and responsibility. There can be no of others. It is often, if not always, a decpening deed of wickedness that shall surpass that of and extending of the crime. (3.) We have here crucifying the Son of God. And if the acts of a striking and clear instance of the doctrine that his murderers were a part of the wise counsel of the decrees of God do not interfere with the free God, then on the same principle are we to supagency of men. This event was certainly de- pose that all events are under his direction, and termined beforehand. Nothing is clearer than | ordered by a purpose infinitely wise and good. this. It is here expressly asserted; and it had (7.) If the Jews could not take shelter from the been foretold with undeviating certainty by the charge of wickedness, under the plea that it was prophets. God had, for wise and gracious pur- | foreordained, then no sinners can do it. This poses, purposed or decreed in his own mind that was as clear a case as can ever occur; and yet his Son should die at the time, and in the man- | the apostle did not intimate that an excuse or ner, in which he did ; for all the circumstances mitigation for their sin could be pleaded from of his death, as well as of his birth and his life, this cause. This case, therefore, meets all the were foretold. And yet, in this, the Jews and | excuses of sinners from this plea, and proves that the Romans never supposed or alleged that they those excuses will not avail them or save them were compelled or cramped in what they did. in the day of judgment. They did what they chose. If in this case the decrees of God were not inconsistent with human
| VER. 24. Whom «God hath raised up, having freedom, neither can they be in any case. Be loosed the pains of death : because it was not tween those decrees and the freedom of man
possible that he should be holden of its there is no inconsistency, unless it could be shown-what never can be—that God compels a Luke xxiv. Chap. xiii. 30, 31. 1 Cor. vi. 14. Eph. i. 20.
Col. ii. 12.
In that men to act contrary to their own will.
1 Thess. i. 10. Heb. xiii. 20. 1 Pet. i. 21.
6 John X. 18. case there could be no freedom. But that is not the case with regard to the decrees of God. An Whom God hath raised up.- This was the main act is what it is in itself; it can be contemplated point, in this part of his argument, which Peter and measured by itself. That it was foreseen, wished to establish. He could not but admit that foreknown, or purposed, does not alter its nature the Messiah had been in an ignominious manner any more than it does that it be remembered put to death. But he now shows them that God after it is performed. The memory of what we had also raised him up; had thus given his at. have done, does not destroy our freedom. Our testation to his doctrine; and had sent down his own purposes, in relation to our conduct, do not | Spirit according to the promise which the Lord destroy our freedom; nor can the purposes or Jesus made before his death. Having loosed the designs of any other being violate one free moral pains of death. The word “loosed,” Avoac, is opaction, unless he compels us to do a thing against posed to bind, and is properly applied to a cord, our will. (4.) We have here a proof that the or to any thing which is bound. See Matt. xxi. decree of God does not take away the moral 2. Mark i. 7. Hence it means to free, or to character of an action. It does not prove that , liberate. (Luke xiii. 16. 1 Cor. vii. 27.) It is an action is innocent, if it is shown that it is a used in this sense here; though the idea of unty. part of the wise plan of God to permit it. Nevering or loosing a band is retained, because the word was there a more atrocious crime than the cruci- translated "pains” ofien means a cord or band. fixion of the Son of God. And yet it was de- | The pains of deuth, -biiyaç tou Savárov. The termined on in the divine counsels. So with all / word translated “pains" denotes properly the exthe deeds of human guilt. The purpose of God | treme sufferings of parturition, and then any seto permit them, does not destroy their nature or vere or excrutiating pangs. Hence it is applied make them innocent. They are what they are also to death, as being a state of extreme sufferin themselves. The purpose of God does not ing. A very frequent meaning of the Hebrew change their character; and if it is right to word, of which this is the translation, is cord, or punish them in fact, they will be punished. If it band. This perhaps was the original idea of the is right for God to punish them, it was right to word; and the Hebrews expressed any extreme resolve to do it. And the sinner must answer | agony under the idea of bands or cords closely for his sins, not for the plans of his Maker; nor drawn, binding and constricting the limbs, and can he take shelter in the day of wrath against producing severe pain. Thus death was reprewhat he deserves, in the plea that God has deter sented under this image of a band that confined mined future events. If any men could have men ; that pressed closely on them; that predone it, it would have been those whom Peter vented escape; and produced severe suffering. addressed ; yet neither he nor they felt that their For this use of the word ban, see Psa, cxix. 61. guilt was in the least diminished, by the fact that Isa. Ixvi. 7. Jer. xxii. 23. Hos. xiii. 13. It is Jesus was “ delivered by the determinate counsel | applied to death: Psa. xviii. 5, “ The snares of and foreknowledge of God.” (5.) If this event | death prevented me;" answering to the word was predetermined; if that act of amazing wick- | sorrows in the previous part of the verse. Psa.