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were blank. The names were then drawn at succession in our times to the peculiar apostolic random, and also the other pieces, and this deter- office. They were to be witnesses of the work mined the case. The casting of a lot is deter- of Christ. For this they were sent forth. And mined by laws of nature, as regularly as any when the desired effect resulting from such a witthing else. There is properly no chance in it. Dessing was accomplished, the office itself would We do not know how a die may turn up; but cease. Hence there is no record that after this this does not imply that it will turn up without the church even pretended to appoint successors any regard to rule, or at haphazard. We cannot to the apostles to discharge their peculiar work. trace the influences which may determine either And hence no ministers of the gospel can now this or that side to come up; but still it is done pretend to be their successors in the peculiar and by regular and proper laws, and according to the original design of the appointment of the apostles. circumstances of position, force, &c. in which it (4.) The only other apostle mentioned in the is cast. Still although it does not imply any spe- | New Testament is the apostle Paul, not appointcial or miraculous interposition of Providence; ed as the successor of the others, not with any though it may not be absolutely wrong, in cases peculiar design except to be an apostle to the which cannot otherwise be determined, to use the Gentiles, as the others were to the Jews, and aplot, yet it does not follow that it is proper often pointed for the same end, to testify that Jesus to make this appeal. Almost all cases of doubt Christ was alive, and that he had seen him after can be determined more satisfactorily in some he rose. (1 Cor. xv. 8; ix. 1. Acts xxii. 8, 9, 14, other way than by the lot. The habit of appeal- 15; ix. 15 ; xxvi. 17, 18.) The ministers of reing to it engenders the love of hazards and of ligion, therefore, are successors of the apostles, games ; leads to heart-burnings, to jealousies, to not in their peculiar office as witnesses, but as envy, to strife, and to dishonesty. Still less does preachers of the word, and as appointed to estathe example of the apostles authorize games of blish, to organize, and to edity and rule the hazard, or lotteries, which are positively evil, and churches. The peculiar work of the apostleship attended with ruinous consequences, apart from ceased with their death. The ordinary work of any inquiry about the lawfulness of the lot. They the ministry, which they held in common with either originate in, or promote, covetousness, all others who preach the gospel, will continue neglect of regular industry, envy, jealousy, dis to the end of time. appointment, dissipation, bankruptcy, falsehood, and despair. What is gained hy one is lost by another, and both the gain and the loss promote some of the worst passions of man; boasting, triumph, self-confidence, indolence, dissipation,

CHAPTER II. on the one hand; and envy, disappointment, sullenness, desire of revenge, remorse, and ruin, on the other. God intended that man should live

Ver. 1. And when the day of Pentecoste was by sober toil. All departures from this great law fully come, they were all with one accord in of our social existence lead to ruin. Their lots.

one place. The lots which were to decide their case. They

a Lev. xxiii. 15. 6 Chap. i. 14. are called theirs, because they were to determine which of them should be called to the apostolic And when the day of Pentecost. The word office. The lot fell.This is an expression ap Pentecost is a Greek word, signifying the fiftieth plicable to casting lots, not to voting. He was part of a thing; or the fiftieth in order. Among numbered.-By the casting of the lot. ov/kata the Jews it was applied to one of their three Angioin. This word is from Unpoç, “a calculus, great feasts which began on the fiftieth day after or pebble,” by which votes were given, or lots the Passover. This feast was reckoned from the were cast. It means, that by the result of the lot, sixteenth day of the month A BiB, or April, or he was reckoned as an apostle. Nothing further the second day of the Passover. The paschal is related of Matthias in the New Testament. lamb was slain on the fourteenth of the month, Where he laboured, and when and where he died, at even. (Lev. xxiii. 5.) On the fifteenth of the is unknown, nor is there any tradition on which month was a holy convocation—the proper bereliance is to be placed. The election of Mat ginning of the feast; on the sixteenth was the thias throws some light on the organization of offering of the first-fruits of harvest, and from the church. (1.) He was chosen to fill the place that day they were to reckon seven weeks, i. e. vacated by Judas, and for a specific purpose, to forty-nine days to the feast called the feast of be a witness of the resurrection of Christ. There | Pentecost, so that it occurred fifty days after the is no mention of any other design. It was not first day of the feast of the Passover. This feast to ordain men exclusively, or to rule over the was also called the feast of weeks, from the churches, but to be a witness to an important fact. circumstance that it followed a succession of (2.) There is no intimation here that it was de- weeks. (Ex. xxxiv. 22. Num. xxviii. 26. Deut. signed that there should be successors to the xvi. 10.) It was also a harvest festival, and was apostles in the peculiar duties of the apostlic of accordingly called the feast of harvest. And it fice. The election was for a definite object, and was for this reasou that two loaves, made of new was therefore temporary. It was to fill up the meal, were offered on this occasion as first-fruits. number originally appointed by Christ. When (Lev. xxiii. 17, 20. Num. xxviii. 27,31.) Was the purpose for which he was appointed was ac- fully come.- When the day had arrived. The complished, the peculiar part of the apostolic word means here simply, had come. Comp. work ceased of course. (3.) There could be no Mark i. 15. Luke i. 57. This fact is men

tioned, that the time of the Pentecost had come, ing and sensible manner, so as to convince their or fully arrived, to account for what is related own minds that the promise was fulfilled, and so afterwards, that there were so many strangers as deeply to impress others with the greatness and foreigners present. The promised influences and importance of the event. There came a of the Spirit were withheld until the greatest sound,-xos. This word is applied to any noise possible number of Jews should be present at or report. Heb. xii, 19, “ The sound of a trumJerusalem at the same time, and thus an oppor pet.”* Luke iv. 37, “ The fame of him," &c. tunity be afforded of preaching the gospel to Comp. Mark i. 28. From heaven.— Appearing vast multitudes in the very place where the Lord to rush down from the sky. It was fitted, thereJesus was crucified, and also an opportunity be fore, to attract their attention no less from the afforded of sending the gospel by them into dis direction from which it came, than on account tant parts of the earth. They were all.-Pro of its suddenness and violence. Tempests blow bably not only the apostles, but also the one commonly horizontally. This appeared to come hundred and twenty mentioned in chap. i. 15. from above; and this is all that is meant by the With one accord.—See chap. i. 14. It is probable expression “from heaven.” As of a rushing they had continued together until this time, and mighty wind.—Literally, “as of a violent wind given themselves entirely to the business of de or gale," borne along, (pepouévnc,) sweeping votion. In one place. Where this was, cannot along like a tempest. Such a wird is sometimes be known. Commentators have been much di borne along so violently, and with such a noise, vided in their conjectures about it. Some have as to make it difficult even to hear the thunder supposed it was in the upper room mentioned in the gale. Such appears to have been the chap. i. 13; others, that it was a room in the sound of this remarkable phenomenon. It does temple; others, that it was in a synagogue; | not appear that there was any wind; all might others, that it was in the promiscuous multitude have been still; but the sudden sound was like that assembled for devotion in the courts of the such a sweeping tempest. It may be remarked, temple. See ver. 2. It has by many been sup however, that the wind in the sacred Scriptures posed that this took place on the first day of the is often put as an emblem of the divine influence. week, that is, on the Christian Sabbath. But It is invisible, yet mighty; and thus represents there is a difficulty in establishing this. There the agency of the Holy Spirit. The same word was probably a difference among the Jews them- in Hebrew, (rin) and in Greek, (TT vevua,) is selves on this subject. The law said that they used to denote both. The mighty power of God should reckon seven sabbaths, that is, seven may be denoted also by the violence of a mighty weeks from the morrow after the sabbath. (Lev. tempest. (1 Kings xix. 11. Ps. xxix. civ. 3; xxiii. 15.) By this sabbath the Pharisees un | xviii. 10.) And thus Jesus, by his breath, indiderstood the second day of the Passover, on cated to the apostles the conferring of the Holy whatever day of the week it occurred, which Ghost. (John xx. 22.) In this place, the sound was kept as a holy assembly, and might be called as of a gale was emblematic of the mighty power a sabbath. But the Caraite Jews, or those who of the Spirit, and of the great effects which his insisted on a literal interpretation of the Scrip- coming would accomplish among men. And it tures, maintained that by the sabbath here was filled.-Not the wind filled, but the sound. This meant the usual sabbath, the seventh day of the is evident, (1.) Because there is no affirmation week. Consequently, with them, the day of Pente- that there was any wind. (2.) The grammatical cost always occurred on the first day of the week; structure of the sentence will admit no other and if the apostles fell in with their views, the construction. The word “ filled” has no nomiday was fully come on what is now the Chris- native case but “the sound.” And suddenly tian sabbath. But if the views of the Pharisees there was a sound as of a wind, and the sound) were followed, and the Lord Jesus had with filled the house. In the Greek, the word "wind' them kept the Passover on Thursday, as many is in the genitive or possessive case. It may be have supposed, then the day of Pentecost would remarked here, that this miracle was really far have occurred on the Jewish sabbath, that is on more striking than the common supposition Saturday.--Kuinöel. Lightfoot. It is impossible makes it to have been. A tempest might have to determine the truth on this subject. Nor is it been terrific. A mighty wind might have of much importance. The day of Pentecost was alarmed them. But there would have been kept by the Jews also as a festival to commemo nothing unusual or remarkable in it. Such rate the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. things often occurred; and the thoughts would

have been directed of course to the storm as an VER. 2. And suddenly there came a sound from

ordinary, though perhaps alarming occurrence.

But when all was still ; when there was no storm, heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it

no wind, no rain, no thunder, such a rushing filled all the house where they were sitting. sound must have arrested their attention, and c Chap. iv. 31,

directed all minds to so unusual and unaccount

able an occurrence. All the house. -Some have And suddenly.-It burst upon them at once. supposed that this was a room in or near the Though they were waiting for the descent of the temple. But as the temple is not expressly Spirit, yet it is not probable that they expected | mentioned, this is improbable. It was probably it in this manner. As this was an important the private dwelling mentioned in chap. i. 31. event, and one on which the welfare of the If it be said that such a dwelling could not conchurch depended, it was proper that the gift oftain so large a multitude as soon assembled, it the Holy Spirit should take place in some strik- may be replied that their houses had large central courts, (see note, Matt. ix. 2;) and that it is nings, and smoke, and fire, striking emblems of . not affirmed that the transaction recorded in this his presence and power. See also Gen, xv. 17. chapter occurred in the room which they occu- Thus, (Deut. iv. 24.) God is said to be “a conpied. It is probable that it took place in the suming fire." Comp. Heb. xii. 29. See Ezek. court and around the house.

i. 4. Psa. xviii. 12–14. The classic reader will

also instantly recall the beautiful description in VER. 3. And there appeared unto them cloven

Virgil. (Æneid, b. ii. 680—691.) Other in

stances of a similar prodigy are also recorded in ! tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of

profane writers. (Pliny, H. N. 2, 37. Liry, i. them.

39.) These appearances to the apostles were

emblematic, doubtless, (1.) Of the promised Holy And there appeared unto them. There were Spirit, as a spirit of purity and of power. The seen by them, or they saw. They were first prediction of John the Baptist, “ He shall baptize seen by them in the room before they rested on with the Holy Ghost and with fire,” (Matt. iii. the heads of the disciples. Perhaps the fire ap- || 11,) would probably be recalled at once to their peared at first as scintillations or corruscations, memory. (2.) The peculiar appearance, that of until it became fixed on their heads. Tonques. tongues, was an emblem of the diversity of lanywooat. The word “tongue" occurs often in the guages which they were about to be able to utter. Scriptures to denote the member which is the Any form of fire would have denoted the preinstrument of taste and speech, and also to sence and power of God ; but a form was adopted denote language or speech itself. It is also used, expressive of the case. Thus any appearance at as with us, to denote that which in shape resem- the baptism of Jesus might have denoted the bles the tongue. Thus Josh. vii. 21, 24, (in presence and approbation of God; but the form Hebrew,) “a tongue of gold,” i. e. a wedge of chosen was that of a dove descending; expresgold. Josh. xv. 5 ; xviii. 19. Isa. xi. 15, “The sive of the mild and gentle virtues with which tongue of the sea,” i, e. a bay or gulf. Thus he was to be imbued. So in Ezek. i. 4, any form also we say, a tongue of land. The phrase of flame might have expressed the presence of “ tongue of fire” occurs once, and once only, in God; but the appearance actually was emblethe Old Testament, Isa. v. 24, “ 'Therefore as matical of his providence. In the same way, the fire devoureth the stubble, (Heb. tongue of the appearence here, expressed their peculiar fire,) and the flame consumeth,” &c. In this endowments for entering on their great workplace the name tongue is given from the resem- | the ability to speak powerfully with new tongues. blance of a pointed flame to the human tongue. Any thing long, narrow, and tending to a point, Ver. 4. And they were all filled d with the Holy is thus in the Hebrew called a tongue. The

Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, word here means, therefore, slender and pointed appearances of flame; perhaps at first moving

as the Spirit gave them utterance. • irregularly around the room. Cloven.--Divided,

d Chap. i. 5. e Mark xvi. 17; chap. x. 46. separated: drajepisópevai, from the verb to divide, or distribute into parts. Matt. xxvii. 35, “ They Were all filled with the Holy Ghost.-Were enparted his garments.” Luke xxii. 17, “ Take tirely under his sacred influence and power. See this, (the cup,) and divide it among yourselves.” Note, Luke i. 41, 67. To be filled with any Probably the common opinion is, that these thing, is a phrase denoting that all the faculties tongues or flames were, each one of them, split, are pervaded by it, engaged in it, or under its or forked, or cloven. But this is not the sense influence. Acts iii. 10, “ Were filled with wonof the expression. It means that they were der and amazement." v. 17, “ Filled with inseparated or divided one from another; not one dignation,” xiii. 45, “Filled with envy.” Ver. great flame, but broken up, or cloven into many 52, “ Filled with joy and the Holy Ghost." Beparts; and probably moving without order in gan to speak with other tongues. In other lanthe room. In the Syriac it is, “ And there ap guages than their native tongue. The languages peared unto them tongues which divided thein- which they spoke are specified in ver. 8-11. selves, like fire, and sat upon each of them." As the Spirit gave them utterance.-As the Spirit The old Ethiopic version reads it, “ And fire, as I gave them power to speak. This language im- ! it were, appeared to them, and sat on them.” | plies plainly that they were now endued with a And sat upon each of them.-Or rested, in the faculty of speaking languages which they had form of a lambent or gentle flame, upon the not before learned. Their native tongue was head of each one. This evinced that the pro- that of Galilee, a somewhat barbarous dialect of digy was directed to them, and was a very sig- | the common language used in Judea, the Syronificant emblem of the promised descent of the Chaldaic. It is possible that some of them Holy Spirit. After the rushing sound, and the might have been partially acquainted with the appearance of the flames, they could not doubt Greek and Latin, as both of them were spoken that here was some remarkable interposition of among the Jews to some extent; but there is God. The appearance of fire, or flame, has not the slightest evidence that they were acalways been regarded as a most striking emblem quainted with the languages of the different of the Divinity. Thus, (Exod. iii. 2, 3,) God is nations afterwards specified. Various attempts said to have manifested himself to Moses in a have been made to account for this remarkable bush which was burning, yet not consumed. | phenomenon, without supposing it to be a miraThus, (Exod. xix. 16--20,) God descended on c!e. But the natural and obvious meaning of Mount Sinai in the midst of thunders, and light- | the passage is, that they were endowed by the

miraculous power of the Holy Ghost, with rassments and difficulties. (Gen. xi.) It is not ability to speak foreign languages, and languages to be regarded as wonderful, if one of the effects to them before unknown. It does not appear of the plan of recovering men, should be to that each one had the power of speaking all the show the power of God over all evil; and thus languages which are specified, (ver. 9-11,) but to furnish striking evidence that the gospel could that this ability was among them, and that to meet all the crimes and calamities of men. And gether they could speak these languages; pro- we may add, (8.) That from this we see the nebably some one, and some another. The following cessity now of training men who are to be misremarks may perhaps throw some light on this sionaries to other lands. The gift of miracles is remarkable occurrence, (1.) This ability was withdrawn. The apostles, by that miracle, simpredicted in the Old Testament. Isa. xxviii. 11, ply were empowered to speak other languages. “ With... another tongue will he speak unto this That power must still be had, if the gospel is to people.” Comp. 1 Cor. xiv. 21, where this pas. be preached. But it is now to be obtained, not sage is expressly applied to the power of speaking by miracle, but by slow and careful study and foreign languages under the gospel. (2.) It was toil. If possessed, men must be taught it. They predicted by the Lord Jesus that they should must labour for it. And as the church is bound hare this power. Mark xvi. 17, “These signs (Matt. xxviii. 19) to send the gospel to all nashall follow them that believe... they shall speak tions, so it is bound to provide that the teachers with new tongues.” (3.) The ability to do it who shall be sent forth, shall be qualified for existed extensively and long in the church. 1 their work. Hence one of the reasons of the Cor. xii. 10, 11, ** To another divers kinds of importance of training men for the holy ministry. tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: all these worketh that one and the self-same

VER. 5. And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Spirit.” Ver. 28, “ God hath set in the church ... diversities of tongues.” 30; xiv. 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, Jews, devout men, out of every nation under 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 27, 39. From this it ap heaven, pears that the power was well known in the church, and was not confined to the apostles, There were dwelling at Jerusalem. The word renThis also may show that in the case in the Acts, dered “ dwelling," KATOLKOŪVTEC, properly means the power was conferred on other members of to have a fixed and permanent habitation, in disthe church as well as the apostles. (4.) It was tinction from another word, it apo KOŪVTEC, which very important that they should be endowed means to have a temporary and transient resiwith this power in their great work. They dence in a place. But it is not always confined were going forth to preach to all nations; and to this signification; and it is not improbable though the Greek and Roman tongues were ex- | that many wealthy foreign Jews had a pertensively spoken, yet their use was not universal; manent residence in Jerusalem, for the connor is it known that the apostles were skilled invenience of being near the temple. This was those languages. To preach to all nations, it was the more probable, as about that time the Mesindispensable that they should be able to under- | siah was expected to appear. (Matt. ii.) Jews. stand their language. And it was necessary that -Jews by birth; of Jewish descent and relithey should be endowed with ability to speak gion. Devout men, ävopeç kúl apeic.-Literally, them, without the slow process of being com- men of cautious and circumspect lives, who lived pelled to learn them. (5.) One design was to in a prudent manner. The term is applied to establish the gospel by means of miracles. Yet men who were cautious about offending God; no miracle could be more striking than the who were careful to observe his commandments. power of conveying their sentiments at once into It hence is a general expression to denote pious all the languages of the earth. When it is re- or religious men. Acts viii. 2, “ And devout membered what a slow and toilsome process it is men carried Stephen to his burial.” Luke ii. 25, to learn a foreign tongue, this would be regarded " And the same man (Simeon) was just, and by the heathen as one of the most striking devout.” The word “devout” means,“ yielding a miracles which were ever wrought in the esta- | solemn and reverential attention to God in reliblishment of the Christian faith. (1 Cor. xiv. gious exercises, particularly in prayer, pious, 22, 24, 25.) (6.) The reality and certainty of sincere, solemn,” (Webster,) and very well exthis miracle is strongly attested by the early presses the force of the original. Out of every triumpbs of the gospel. That the gospel was nation under heaven.-A general expression, early spread over all the world, and that too by meaning from all parts of the earth. The the apostles of Jesus Christ, by men of Galilee, countries from which they came are more paris the clear testimony of all history. They ticularly specified in ver. 9–11. The Jews at preached it in Arabia, Greece, Syria, Asia, Per- that time were scattered into almost all nations, sia, Africa, and Rome. Yet how could this have and in all places had synagogues. See Note, been effected without a miraculous power of John vii. 35. Still they would naturally desire speaking the languages used in all those places? | to be present, as often as possible, at the great Now, it requires the toil of many years to speak feasts of the nation in Jerusalem. Many would in foreign languages; and the recorded success seek a residence there for the convenience of of the gospel is one of the most striking attesta- | being present at the religious solemnities. Many tions to the fact of the miracle, that could be who came up to the feast of the Passover, would conceived. (7.) The corruption of language was remain to the feast of the Pentecost. And the one of the most decided effects of sin, of pride consequence was, that on such occasions the city and ambition, and the source of endless embar- would be full of strangers. We are told, that when Titus besieged Jerusalem at about the feast verbially barbarous and corrupt. (Mark xiv. 70. of the Passover, there were no less than three Matt. xxvi. 73.) They were regarded as an outmillions of people in the city, and this great | landish people, unacquainted with other nations multitude greatly deepened the calamities arising | and languages, and hence the amazement that from the siege. Josephus also mentions an in- | they could address them in the refined language stance where great multitudes of Jews, from of other people. Their native ignorance was other nations, were present at the feast of Pen the occasion of making the miracle more striktecost. (Jewish War, b. ii. chap. iii. $ 1.)

ing. The native weakness and inability of

Christian ministers, makes the grace and glory VER. 6. Nows when this was noised abroad, the of God more remarkable in the success of the multitude came together, and were confound gospel. “We have this treasure in earthen ed, because that every man heard them speak

vessels, that the excellency of the power may be

of God, and not of us." (2 Cor. iv. 7.) The in his own language.

success which God often grants to those who are / When this voice was made. g Or, troubled in mind. of slender endowments and of little learning, When this was noised abroad. When the ru

though blessed with a humble and pious heart, is

often amazing to the men of the world. God mour of this remarkable transaction was spread,

has chosen the foolish things of the world to as it naturally would be, without delay. Were

confound the wise. (1 Cor. i. 27.) This should confounded,-ouveyújn. Were violently moved

teach us that no talent or attainment is too humand agitated; were amazed and astonished at the

ble to be employed for mighty purposes, in its remarkable occurrence. Every man heard them

proper sphere, in the kingdom of Christ, and speak, &c.— Though the multitude spoke different

that pious effort may accomplish much, may awe tongues, yet they now beard Galileans use the

and amaze the world, and then burn in heaven language which they had learned in foreign na

with increasing lustre for ever; while pride, and tions. His own language.--- His own dialect,

learning, and talent, may blaze uselessly among cial ékry. His own idiom, whether it was a foreign language, or whether it was a modifica

men, or kindle up the worst passions of our

nature, and then be extinguished in eternal night. tion of the Hebrew. The word may mean either; but it is probable that the foreign Jews

VER. 8. And how hear we every man in our own would greatly modify the Hebrew, or conform almost entirely to the language spoken in the tongue, wherein we were born? country where they lived. We may remark here, Wherein we were born.- That is, as we say, in that this effect on the first descent of the Holy

our native language, that which is spoken, where Ghost, was not peculiar to that time. A work of

we were born. grace on the hearts of men, in a revival of religion, will always be noised abroad. A multitude

VER, 9. Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, will come together, and God often, as he did here, makes use of this motive to bring them

and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, under the influence of religion. Curiosity was and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, the motive here, and it was the occasion of their being brought under the influence of the truth,

Parthians, &c.—To show the surprising extent and of their conversion. In thousands of cases,

and power of this miracle, Luke enumerates the this has occurred since. The effect of what they

different nations that were represented then at Jesaw was to confound them. They made no com

rusalem. In this way, the number of languages plaint at first of the irregularity of what was

which the apostles spoke, and the extent of the done, but were all amazed and overwhelmed.

miracle, can be ascertained. The enumeration of So the effect of a revival of religion is often to

these nations begins at the east, and proceeds to convince the multitude that it is indeed a work of

the west. Parthians mean those Jews, or prothe Holy One ; to amaze them by the display of

selytes, who dwelt in Parthia. This country was his power; and to silence opposition and cavil

a part of Persia, and was situated between the by the manifest presence and the power of God.

Persian Gulf and the Tigris on the west, and the A few afterwards began to cavil, (ver. 13,) as

river Indus on the east. To the south, it was some will always do in a revival; but the mass

bounded by the desert of Caramania, and it had were convinced, as will be the case always, that

Media on the north. Their empire lasted about this was a mighty display of the power of God.

four hundred years, and they were much distin

guished for their manner of fighting. They VER. 7. And they were all amazed and mar

usually fought on horseback, and when appearing

to retreat, discharged their arrows with great velled, saying one to another, Behold, are not

execution behind them. They were a part of all these which speak Galileans ? A

the vast Scythian horde of Asia, and disputed h Chap. i. 11.

the empire of the east with the Romans. "The

language spoken there was that of Persia, and in Galilcans.--Inhabitants of Galilee. It was ancient writers, Parthia and Persia often mean remarkable that they should speak in this man- | the same country. Medes.-Inhabitants of Mener, because, (1.) They were proverbially igno- | dia. This country was situated north of Parthia, rant, rude, and uncivilized. (John i. 46.) Hence and south of the Caspian sea. It was about the the term Galilean was used as an expression of size of Spain, and was one of the richest parts the deepest reproach and contempt. (Mark xiv. of Asia. In the Scriptures it is called Madai. 70. John vii. 52.) (2.) Their dialect was pro- (Gen. x. 2.) The Medes are often mentioned,

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