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cxvi. 3, “ The sorrows of death compassed me, | Testament. Always before my face.As being and the pains of hell (hades or sheol, the cords or always present to help me, and to deliver me out pains that were binding me down to the grave) of all my troubles. He is on my right hand.- To gat hold on me." We are not to infer from this be at hand is to be near to afford help. The that our Lord suffered any thing after death. It right hand is mentioned because that was the means simply that he could not be held by the place of dignity and honour. And David did not grare, but that God loosed the bonds which had design simply to say that he was near to help him, held him there, and that he now set him free who but that he had the place of honour, the highest had been encompassed by these pains or bonds, place in his affections. (Psa. cix. 31.) In our until they had brought him down to the grave. dependence on God we should exalt him. We Pain, mighty pain, will encompass us all like the should not merely regard him as our help, but constrictions and bindings of a cord which we should at the same time give him the highest cannot loose, and will fasten our limbs and bodies place in our affections. That I should not be in the grave. Those bands begin to be thrown moved.—That is, that po great evil or calamity around us in early life, and they are drawn closer should happen to me, that I may stand firm. The and closer, until we lie panting under the stric phrase denotes to sink into calamities, or to fall ture on a bed of pain, and then are still and im into the power of enemies. (Psa. Ixii. 2, 6; xlvi. moveable in the grave; subulued in a manner not 6.) This expresses the confidence of one who is a little resembling the mortal agonies of the tiger | in danger of great calamities and who puts his in the convolutions of the boa constrictor; or trust in the help of God alone. like Laocoon and his sons in the folds of the serpents from the island of Tenedos. It was not VER. 26. Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my possible.—This does not refer to any natural im
tongue was glad ; moreover also my flesh shall possibility, or to any inherent efficacy or power in the body of Jesus itself; but simply ineans
rest ja hope. that in the circumstances of the case such an Therefore.-Peter ascribes these expressions to erent could not be. Why it could not be, he the Messiah. The reason why he would exult proceeds at once to show. It could not be con- | or rejoice was, that he would be preserved amidst sistently with the promises of the Scriptures. | the sorrows that were coming on him, and could Jesus was the Prince of life (Acts iii. 15,) and I look forward to the triumph that awaited him. had life in himself (John i. 4; v. 26,) and had Thus Paul says (Heb. xii. 2,) that “Jesus .... power to lay down his life, and to take it for the joy that was set before him, endured the again (John X. 18;) and it was indispensable that cross, despising the shame," &c. And throughou he should rise. He came, also, that through the New Testament, the shame and sorrow of death he might destroy him that had the power his sufferings were regarded as connected with of death, that is, the devil (Heb. ii. 14;) and as his glory and his triumph. (Luke xxiv, 26. Phil. it was his purpose to gain this victory, he couldü. 6, 9. Eph. i. 20, 21.) In this, our Saviour not be defeated in it by being confined to the has left us an example, that we should walk in grave.
his steps. The prospect of future glory and
triumph should sustain us amid all afilictions, and VER. 25. For David speaketh' concerning him, make us ready, like him, to lie down amid even
I foresaw the Lord always before my face, the corruptions of the grave. Did my heart refor he is on my right hand, that I should not |
joice.-- In the Hebrew this is in the present tense,
“my heart rejoices." The word “heart” here exbe moved :
presses the person, and is the same as saying I c Psa. xvi. 8, 11.
rejoice. The Hebrews used the different mem
bers to express the person. And thus we say, For David speaketh, &c.—This doctrine that | “every soul perished; the vessel had forty hands; the Messiah must rise from the dead, Peter pro wise heads do not think so: hearts of steel will ceeds to prove by a quotation from the Old Tes- not flinch,” &c.-Prof. Stuart on the xvth Psalm. tament. This passage is taken from Psa. xvi. 8, | The meaning is, because God is near me in time 11. It is made from the Greek version of the of calamity, and will support and deliver me, I Septuagint, with only one slight and unimportant will not be agitated or fear, but will exult in the change. Nor is there any material change, as prospect of the future, in view of the “joy that is will be seen, from the Hebrew. In what sense set before me.” My tongue was glad.--Hebrew, this Psalm can be applied to Christ will be seen My glory, or my honour exults. The word is after we have examined the expressions which used to denote majesty, splendour, dignity, hoPeter alleges. I foresaw the Lord.—This is an nour. It is also used to express the heart or
unhappy translation. To foresee the Lord al-soul, either because that is the chief source of I ways before us conveys no idea, though it may man's dignity, or because the word is also ex
be a literal translation of the passage. The word pressive of the liver, regarded by the Hebrews as means to foresee, and then to see before us, that the seat of the affections. Gen. xlix. 6, “ Unto is, as present with us, to regard as being near. | their assembly, mine honour," i.e. my soul, or It thus implies to put confidence in one; to rely | myself, “ be not thou united.” Psa. Ivii. 8, "Awake on him, or expect assistance from him. This is up, my glory,” &c. Psa. cviii. 1, “I will sing .... its meaning here. The Hebrew is, I expected, even with my glory.” This word the Septuagint or waited for. It thus expresses the petition of translated tongue.' The Arabic and Latin Vulone who is helpless and dependent, who waits for gate have also done the same. Why they thus belp from God. It is often thus used in the Old use the word is not clear. It may be because the 38
tongue, or the gift of speech, was that which by no means expresses the force of the original; chiefly contributes to the honour of man, or dis-, and if with this idea we read a passage like the tinguishes him from the brutal creation. The one before us, it would convey an erroneous meanword “glory” is used expressly for tongue in Psa. ing altogether; although formerly the English xxx. 12, “To the end that my glory may sing word perhaps expressed no more than the originpraise to thee, and not be silent.” Moreover also. | al. The Greek word hades means literally --Truly; in addition to this. My flesh.---My place devoid of light; a dark, obscure abode; and body. See ver. 31. I Cor. v. 5. It means here in Greek writers was applied to the dark and properly the body separate from the soul; the obscure regions where disembodied spirits were dead body. Shall rest.--Shall rest or repose in supposed to dwell. It occurs but eleven times in the grave, free from corruption. In hope.-In the New Testament. In this place it is the transconfident expectation of a resurrection. The lation of the Hebrew, sheol. In Rev. xx. 13, 14, Hebrew word rather expresses confidence than it is connected with death. “And death and hell hope. The passage means, “ My body will I (hades) delivered up the dead which were in commit to the grave, with a confident expectation them.” “And death and hell (hades) were cast of the future, that is, with a firm belief that it into the lake of fire.” See also Rev. vi. 8 ; i. 18, will not see corruption, but will be raised up." "I have the keys of hell and of death." In 1 Cor. It thus expresses the feelings of the dying Mes- | xv. 55, it means the grave. “O grave (hades) siah ; the assured confidence which he had that where is thy victory?” In Matt. xi. 23, it means his repose in the grave would not be long, and a deep, profound place, opposed to an exalted one; would certainly come to an end. The death of | a condition of calamity and degradation opposed Christians is also in the New Testament repre- to former great prosperity. “Thou, Capernaum, sented as a sleep, and as repose, (Acts vii. 60. which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down
1 Cor. xv. 6, 18. 1 Thess. iv. 13, 15. 2 Pet. iii. to hell " (hades). In Luke xvi. 23, it is applied | 4 ;) and they may also, after the example of their to the place where the rich man was after death, Lord, commit their bodies to the dust, in hope. in a state of punishment. “In hell (hades) he They shall lie in the grave under the assurance lifted up his eyes being in torments." In this of a happy resurrection ; and though their bodies, place it is connected with the idea of suffering; unlike his, shall moulder to their native dust, yet and undoubtedly denotes a place of punishment. this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and The Septuagint has used this word commonly to this mortal shall put on immortality. (1 Cor. translate the word sheol. Once it is used as a xv. 53.)
translation of the phrase “the stones of the pit,"
(Isa. xiv. 19 ;) twice to express silence, partico
| larly the silence of the grave, (Psa. xciv. 17; cxv. VER. 27. Because thou wilt not leave my soul in
17 ;) once to express the Hebrew for “the shahell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One dow of death," (Job xxxviii. 17;) and sixty times to see corruption.
to translate the word sheol. It is remarkable that
it is never used in the Old Testament to denote Thou wilt not leave my soul.—The word "soul,” | the word keber, 127, which properly denotes a with us, means the thinking, the immortal part grave or sepulchre. The idea which was conof man, and is applied to it whether existing in | veyed by the word sheol, or hades, was not proconnexion with the body, or whether separate perly a grave or sepulchre, but that dark, unfrom it. The Hebrew word translated soul, here, known state, including the grave, which consti"wa, naphshi, however, may mean, my spirit, | tuted the dominions of the dead. What idea the my mind, my life; and may denote here nothing Hebrews had of the future world, it is now diffimore than me, or myself. It means, properly, | cult to explain, and is not necessary in the case i breath; then life, or the vital principle, a living before us. The word originally denoting simply being; then the soul, the spirit, the thinking part. | the state of the dead, the insatiable demands of Instances where it is put for the individual him- the grave, came at last to be extended in its mean. self, meaning “me” or “myself” may be seen in / ing, in proportion as they received new revelaPsa. xi. 1 ; XXXV. 3, 7. Job ix. 21. There is tions or formed new opinions about the future no clear instance in which it is applied to the world. Perhaps the following may be the prosoul in its separate state, or disjoined from the cess of thought by which the word came to have body. In this place it must be explained in part | the peculiar meanings which it is found to have by the meaning of the word hell. If that means in the Old Testament. (1.) The word death and grave, then this word probably means “me;" the grave, keber, would express the abode of a thou wilt not leave me in the grave. The mean deceased body in the earth. (2.) Man has a soul, . ing probably is, “ Thou wilt not leave me in sheol, / a thinking principle; and the inquiry must arise. neither," &c. The word “leave” here means, / what will be its state? Will it die also ? The “Thou wilt not resign me to, or wilt not give me
to, or wilt not give me | Hebrews never appear to have believed that. over to it, to be held under its power.” In hell, cic Will it ascend to heaven at once ? On that subadov. The word “hell,” in English, now common- | Lject they had at first no knowledge. Will it go jy denotes the place of the future eternal punish- at once to a place of torment? Of that also they ment of the wicked. This sense it has acquired / had no information at first. Yet they suppos by long usage. It is a Saxon word derived from it would live : and the word sheol expressed inst
8 usage belon to cover and denotes literally, a covered this state-the dark, unknown regions of the or deep place ( Webster ;) then the dark and dis- / dead; the abode of spirits, whether good or bad. mal abode of departed spirits; and then the place the residence of departed men, whether fixed in of torment. As the word is used now by us, it a permanent habitation, or whether wanderina
about. As they were ignorant of the size and were at an end. All suppositions of any toils or spherical structure of the earth, they seem to pains after his death are fables, and without the have supposed this region to be situated in the slightest warrant in the New Testament. Thine earth, far below us ; and hence it is put in oppo- | Holy One.-The word in the Hebrew which is sition to heaven. Psa. cxxxix. 8, “If I ascend to translated here "holy one," properly denotes one heaven, thou art there; if I make my bed in hell, who is tenderly and piously devoted to another; (sheol,) thou art there.” (Amos ix. 2.) The and answers to the expression used in the New most common meaning of the word is, therefore, Testament, “ my beloved Son.” It is also used to express those dark regions, the lower world, as it is here by the Septuagint, and by Peter, to the region of ghosts, &c. Instances of this, al- denote one that is holy, that is set apart to God. most without number, might be given. See a | In this sense it is applied to Christ, either as most striking and sublime instance of this in Isa. | being set apart to this office, or as so pure as to xiv. 9, “ Heil from beneath is moved to meet make it proper to designate him by way of emithee." &c.: where the assembled dead are repre- | nence the Holy One, or the Holy One of God. It sented as being agitated in all their vast regions is several times used as the well-known designaat the death of the king of Babylon. (3.) The tion of the Messiah. Mark i. 24, "I know thee, inquiry could not but arise, whether all these who thou art, the Holy One of God.” Luke iv. beings were happy? This point revelation de- 34. Acts iii. 14, “ But ye denied the holy One, cided ; and it was decided in the Old Testament and the just,” &c. See also Luke i. 35, “ That Yet this word would better express the state of holy thing that is born of thee shall be called the the wicked dead, than the righteous. It conveyed Son of God.” To see corruption.--To see corrupthe idea of darkness, gloom, wandering; the idea tion is to experience it, to be made partakers of of a sad and unfixed abode, unlike heaven. Hence it. The Hebrews often expressed the idea of exthe word sometimes expresses the idea of a place periencing any thing by the use of words per
of punishment. Psa. ix. 17, “ The wicked shall | taining to the senses; as, to taste of death, to see i be turned into hell,” &c. (Prov. xv. 11; xxiii. death, &c. Corruption here means putrefaction
14 ; xxvii. 20. Job xxvi. 6.) While, therefore, in the grave. The word which is used in the the word does not mean properly a grave or a Psalm, now, shahath, is thus used in Job xvi. Sepulchre, yet it does mean often the state of the 14, “I have said to corruption, thou art my 1 dead, without designating whether in happiness father," &c. The Greek word thus used proor wo, but implying the continued existence of perly denotes this. Thus it is used in Acts xiii. the soul. In this sense it is often used in the Old 34–37. This meaning would be properly sug. Testament, where the Hebrew word is sheol, and gested by the Hebrew word; and thus the anthe Greek hades. Gen. xxxvii. 35, “I will go cient versions understood it. The meaning imdown into the grave, unto my son, mourning.” plied in the expression is, that he of whom the I will go down to the dead, to death, to my son, Psalm was written should be restored to life again; still there existing. xlii. 38; xliv. 29, “ He shall and this meaning Peter proceeds to show that the bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the words must have. grave.” (Num. xvi. 30, 33. 1 Kings ii. 6, 9, &c. &c.) In the place before us, therefore, the
VER. 28. Thou hast made known to me the meaning is simply, thou wilt not leave me among the dead. This conveys all the idea. It does ways of life; thou shalt make me full of joy not mean literally the grave or the sepulchre; that with thy countenance. relates only to the body. This expression refers to the deceased Messiah. Thou wilt not leave Thou hast made known, &c.-The Hebrew is, kim arnong the dead ; thou wilt raise him up. It “ Thou wilt make known to me,” &c. In relation is from this passage, perhaps, aided by two others to the Messiah, it means, Thou wilt restore me (Rom. x. 7, and 1 Pet. ii. 19,) that the doctrine | to life. The way of life.--This properly means originated, that Christ “ descended," as it is ex- the path to life; as we say, the road to preferpressed in the creed, “into hell ;” and many have | ment or honour; the path to happiness; the invented strange opinions about his going among highway to ruin, &c. See Prov. vii. 26, 27. It last spirits. The doctrine of the Roman Catholic means, thou wilt make known to me life itself, ehurch has been, that he went to purgatory, to i. e. thou wilt restore me to life. The expressions deliver the spirits confined there. But if the in- in the Psalm are capable of this interpretation terpretation now given be correct, then it will without doing any violence to the text; and if follow, (1.) That nothing is affirmed here about the preceding verses refer to the death and burial the destination of the human soul of Christ after of the Messiah, then the natural and proper his death. That he went to the region of the meaning of this is, that he would be restored to dead is implied, but nothing further. (2.) It may life again. Thou hast made me full of joy. This be remarked, that the Scriptures affirm nothing expresses the feelings of the Messiah in view of about the state of his soul in that time which in- | the favour that would thus be showed him; the crvened between his death and resurrection. resurrection from the dead, and the elevation to The only intimation which occurs on the subject the right hand of God. It was this which is reis such as to leave us to suppose that he was in a presented as sustaining him--the prospect of the state of happiness. To the dying thief Jesus said, joy that was before him, in heaven. (Heb. xii. ** This day shalt thou be with me in paradise.” 2. Eph. i. 20--22.) With thy countenance.(Lake xxiii. 43.) When Jesus died he said, “ It Literally, “with thy face,” that is, in thy pre
is finished;" and he doubtless meant by that, that sence. The words countenance and presence I his sufferings and toils for man's redemption mean the same thing; and denote favour, or the honour and happiness provided by being admitted royal family, and implies Peter's intention not to to the presence of God. The prospect of the say any thing disrespectful of such a king; at honour that would be bestowed on the Messiah, the same time that he freely canvassed a passage was that which sustained him. And this proves of Scripture which had been supposed to refer to that the person contemplated in the Psalm ex- him. Dead and buried. The record of that pected to be raised from the dead, and exalted to fact they had in the Old Testament. There had the presence of God. That expectation is now been no pretence that he had risen, and therefore fulfilled ; and the Messiah is now filled with joy the Psalm could not apply to him. His sepulchre in his exaltation to the throne of the universe. | is with us.- Is in the city of Jerusalem. SepulHe has “ascended to his Father and our Father;" | chres were commonly situated without the walls he is "seated at the right hand of God;" he has of cities and the limits of villages. The custom entered on that “joy which was set before him;" | of burying in towns was not commonly practised. he is “crowned with glory and honour;" and This was true of other ancient nations as well as “all things are put under his feet.” In view of the Hebrews, and is still in eastern countries, exthis, we may remark, (1.) That the Messiah had cept in the case of kings and very distinguished full and confident expectation that he would rise men, whose ashes are permitted to repose within from the dead. This the Lord Jesus always the walls of a city. i Sam. xxviii. 3, “Samuel evinced, and often declared it to his disciples. was dead ... ...and Israel.... buried him in Ra(2.) If the Saviour rejoiced in view of the glo- mah, in his own city.” 2 Kings xxi. 18, “ Maries before him, we should also. We should an- nasseh...... was buried in the garden of his own ticipate with joy an everlasting dwelling in the house.” 2 Chron. xvi. 14, * Asa was buried presence of God, and the high honour of sitting in the city of David.” (2 Kings xiv. 20.) The “ with him on his throne, as he overcame, and is sepulchres of the Hebrew kings were on Mount set down with the Father on his throne.” (3.) | Zion. (2 Chron. xxi. 20; xxiv. 25 ; xxviii. 27; The prospect of this should sustain us, as it did | xxxii. 33 ; xxiv. 16. 2 Kings xiv. 20.) Davil him, in the midst of persecution, calamity, and was buried in the city of David, (1 Kings ii. 10,) trials. They will soon be ended ; and if we are with his fathers, i. e. on Mount Zion, where he his friends, we shall “ overcome," as he did, and built a city called after his name. (2 Sam. v. 7.) be admitted to the “fulness of joy" above, and to Of what form the tombs of the kings were made the "right hand” of God, “where are pleasures is not certainly known. It is almost certain, for evermore.
however, that they would be constructed in a
magnificent manner. The tombs were commonly VER. 29. Men and brethren, y let me freely I excavations from rocks, or natural caves; and
speak unto you of the patriarch David, that sepulchres cut out of the solid rock, of vast exhe is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre tent, are known to have existed. The following is with us unto this day.
account of the tomb called “the sepulchre of the
kings," is abridged from Maundrell. “The apy or, I may.
proach is through an entrance cut out of a solid Men and brethren.– This passage of the Psalms | rock, which admits you into an open court about Peter now proves could not relate to David, but forty paces square, cut down into the rock. On must have reference to the Messiah. He begins the south side is a portico nine paces long and his argument in a respectful manner, addressing four broad, hewn likewise out of the solid rock. them as his brethren, though they had just | At the end of the portico is the descent to the charged him and the others with intoxication. | sepulchres. The descent is into a room about Christians should use the usual respectful forms seven or eight yards square, cut out of the natuof salutation, whatever contempt and reproaches ral rock. From this room there are passages into they may meet with from opposers. Let me six more, all of the same fabric with the first. freely speak.—That is, “It is lawful or proper to In every one of these rooms, except the first, speak with boldness, or openly, respecting David.' were coffins placed in niches in the sides of Though he was eminently a pious man; though the chamber," &c.-Maundrell's Travels, p. 76. venerated by us all as a king; yet it is proper to If the tombs of the kings were of this form, it is say of him, that he is dead, and has returned to clear that they were works of great labour and corruption. This was a delicate way of express- expense. Probably also there were, as there are ing high respect for the monarch whom they all now, costly and splendid monuments erected to honoured ; and yet evincing boldness in examin- | the meniory of the mighty dead. Unto this day. ing a passage of Scripture which probably many -That the sepulchre of David was well koown supposed to have reference solely to him. Of the and honoured, is clear from Josephus. (Antiq. patriarch David.--The word "patriarch” properly b. vii. c. xv. $ 3.) “He (David) was buried by means the head or ruler of a family; and then his son Solomon in Jerusalem with great magnithe founder of a family, or an illustrious ances ficence, and with all the other funeral pomps tor. It was commonly applied to Abraham, with which kings used to be buried. Moreover, Isaac, and Jacob, &c. by way of eminence; the he had immense wealth buried with him: for a illustrious founders of the Jewish nation. (Heb. thousand and three hundred years afterwards, vii. 4. Acts vii. 8, 9.) It was also applied to Hyrcanus the high-priest, when he was besieged the heads of the families, or the chief men of the | by Antiochus, and was desirous of giving him tribes of Israel. (1 Chron. xxiv. 31. 2 Chron. money to raise the siege, opened one room of xix. 8, &c.) It was thus a title of honour, de- | David's sepulchre, and took out three thousand noting high respect. Applied to David, it means talents. Herod, many years afterward, opened that he was the illustrious head or founder of the another room, and took away a great deal of money," &c. See also Antig. b. xii. c. viii. $ ) throw some light on the subject. The kingdom 4. The tomb of a monarch like David would which was promised to David was to have no end; be well known and had in reverence. Peter it was to be established for ever. Yet his descendmight, then, confidently appeal to their own be- | ants died, and his kingdom, like all other king. lief and knowledge, that David had not been doms, changed. The promise likewise stood by raised from the dead. No Jew believed or sup- | itself; it was not made to any other of the posed it. All, by their care of his sepulchre, Jewish kings ; nor were similar declarations made and by the honour with which they regarded his of surrounding kingdoms and nations. It came, grave, believed that he had returned to corrup- therefore, gradually to be applied to that future tion. The Psalm, therefore, could not apply to King and kingdom which was the hope of the him.
nation, and their eyes were anxiously fixed on VER. 30. Therefore being a prophet, and know
the long-expected Messiah. At the time that he
came, it had become the settled doctrine of the ing that God had sworn with an oath to him, | Jews that he was to descerd from David, and that of the fruit of his loins, according to the that his kingdom was to be perpetual. On this flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his belief of the prophecy the aposiles argued; and throne;
the opinions of the Jews furnished a strong point
by which they could convince them that Jesus : 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. a 2 Sam. vii. 12. 13. Psa. cxxxii. 11. was the Messiah. Peter affirms that David was 6 Heb. vi, 17.
aware of this, and that he so understood the proTherefore.- As David was dead and buried, it mise as referring not only to Solomon, but in a was clear that he could not have referred to him- i far more important sense to the Messiah. Hapself in this remarkable declaration. It followed pily, we have a commentary of David himself that he must have had reference to some other | also, as expressing his own views of that promise. one. Being a prophet.---One who foretold future That comment is found particularly in the jid, events. That David was inspired, is clear. (2 | xxiid, Ixixth, and xvith Psalms. In ihese Psalms Sam. xxii. 2.) Many of the prophecies relating there can be no doubt that David looked forward to the Messiah are found in the Psalms of David. / to the coming of the Messiah ; and there can be
(Psa. xxii. 1.) Comp. Matt. xxvii. 46. Luke as little that he regarded the promise made to | xxiv. 44. Psa. xxi. 18. Comp. Matt. xxvii. him as extending to his coming and his reign.
35. Psa. Ixix. 21. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 34, 48. It may be remarked, that there are some imPsa. lxix. 25. Comp. Acts i. 20. And knowing. portant variations in the manuscripts in regard - Knowing by what God had said to him re- | to this verse. The expression “according to the specting his posterity. Had sworn with an oath. flesh” is omitted in many MSS. and is now left - The places which speak of God as having out by Griesbach in his New Testament. It is sworn to David are found in Psa. Ixxxix. 3, 4. | | omitted also by the ancient Syriac and Ethiopic ** I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have versions, and by the Latin Vulgate. To sit on Sworn unto David my servant, Thy seed will I his throne.-To be his successor in his kingdom. establish," &c. And, Psa. cxxxii. 11, “The Saul was the first of the kings of Israel. The Lord hath sworn in truth unto David, he will not kingdom was taken away from him and his turn from it, Of the fruit of thy body will I set | posterity, and conferred on David and his deapon my throne.” (Psa. Ixxxix. 35, 36.) The | scendants. It was determined that it should promise to which reference is made in all these be continued in the family of David, and no places is in 2 Sam. vii. 11-16. Of the fruit of more go out of his family, as it had from the his loins.-Of his descendants. See 2 Sam. vii. | family of Saul. The peculiar characteristic of 12. Gen. xxxv. 11; xlvi. 26. 1 Kings viii. 19, David as king, or that which distinguished
According to the flesh. That is so far as him from the other kings of the earth, was. the human nature of the Messiah was concerned, that he reigned over the people of God. Israel he would be descended from David. Expressions was his chosen people; and the kingdom was like these are very remarkable. If the Messiah over that nation. Hence he that should reign was only a man, they would be unmeaning. They over the people of God, though in a manner are never used in relation to a mere man; and somewhat different from David, would be re
ey imply that the speaker or writer supposed garded as occupying his throne, and as being his that there pertained to the Messiah a nature successor. The form of the administration might which was not according to the flesh. See Rom. be varied, but it would still retain its prime cha
i. 3, 4. He woull raise up Christ.-That is, the racteristic, as being a reign over the people of 1 Messiah. To raise up seed, or descendants, is to God. In this sense the Messiah sits on the
give them to him. The promises made to David throne of David. He is his descendant and sucin all these places had immediate reference to cessor. He has an empire over all the friends of Solomon, and to his descendants. But it is clear the Most High. And as that kingdom is destined that the New Testament writers understood them to fill the earth, and to be eternal in the heavens, as referring to the Messiah. And it is no less so it may be said that it is a kingdom which shall elear that the Jews understood that the Messiah have no end. It is spiritual, but not the less was to be descended from David. (Matt. xii. 23; real ; defended not with carnal weapons, but not xxi. 3 ; xxii. 42, 45. Mark xi. 10. John vii. 42, the less really defended ; advanced not by the dc.) In what way these promises that were made sword and the din of arms, but not the
sword and the din of arms, but not the less really to David were understood as applying to the Mes- advanced against principalities and powers, and siah, it may not be easy to determine. The fact, spiritual wickedness in high places; not under a however, is clear. The following remarks may visible head and earthly monarch, but not less