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transcendently important, that for it, they were father, mother, or brother. Christians hear their willing to endure all the afflictions and disgrace opinions abused; their names vilified; their Biwhich it might involve. (3.) They had been ble travestied ; the name of their God profaned, told to expect this; it was a part of their enter- and of their Redeemer blasphemed. Their feelprise. They hari been warned of these things, ings are often wantonly and rudely torn by the and they now rejoiced that they had this evidence cutting sarcasm, or the bitter sneer. Books and that they were engaged in the cause of truth. songs revile them; their peculiarities are made (Matt. v. 11, 12; x. 17, 22. 2 Cor. xii, 10. Phil. the occasion of indecent merriment on the stage i. 29. James i. 2.) (4.) Religion appears to a and in novels; and in this way they are still
Christian so excellent and lovely, that he is will subjected to shame for the name of Jesus. Every i ing, for its sake, to endure trial, and persecution one who becomes a Christian should remember
and death. With all this, it is infinite gain; and that this is a part of his inheritance, and should we should be willing to endure these trials, if, by not esteem it dishonourable to be treated as his them, we may gain a crown of glory. Comp. master was before him. (John xv. 18, 20. Matt. Mark x. 30. (5.) Christians are the professed | x. 25.) For his name.--For attachment to him. friends of Christ. We show attachment for friends, hy being willing to suffer for them; to | VER. 42. And daily " in the temple, and in every bear contempt and reproach on their account;
house, they ceased not to teach and preach and to share their persecntions, sorrows, and ca
Jesus Christ. i lanities. (6.) The apostles were engaged in a cause of innocence, truth, and benevolence. They
o 2 Tim. iv. 2. had done nothing of which to be ashamed ; and they rejoiced, therefore, in a conscience void of
And daily, &c.—Comp. 2 Tim. iv. 2. Notes, offence; and in the consciousness of integrity
Acts ii. 46. and benevolence. When other men disgrace themselves by harsh, or vile, or opprobrious langiage, or conduct towards us, we should not feel that the disgrace belongs to us. It is theirs; and
CHAPTER VI. we should not be ashamed or distressed, though I their rage should fall on us. See 1 Peter iv. 14, 16. Counted worthy.- Esteemed to be deserving.
VER. 1. And in those days, when the number of That is, esteemed fit for it by the sanhedrim. It the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murI does not mean that God esteemed them worthy,
muring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, but that the Jewish council judged them fit to
because their widows were neglected in the ! suffer shame in this cause. They evinced so much zeal, and determination of purpose, that
daily ministration. they were judged fit objects to be treated as the
w Chap. ix. 29; xi. 20. « Chap.iv. 35. Lord Jesus had himself been. To suffer shame.-To be dishonoured or disgraced in the estimation In those days, &c.—The first part of this chap
of the Jewish rulers. The particular disgrace to ter contains an account of the appointment of , which re erence is made here, was whipping. To deacons. It may be asked, perhaps, why the
various other kinds of shame they were also ex- apostles did not appoint these officers at the first ' posed. They were persecuted, reviled, and finally organization of the church? To this question we
put to death.-Here we may remark, that a pro may reply, that it was better to defer the appoint
fession of the Christian religion has been in all ment until an occasion should occur when it I ages esteemed by many to be a disgrace. The should appear to be manifestly necessary and Teasons are, (1.) That Jesus is himself despised ; proper. When the church was small, its alms (2.) That his precepts are opposed to the gaiety could be distributed by the apostles themselves
nd follies of the world ; (3.) That it attacks that without difficulty. But when it was greatly inon which the men of the world pride themselves, creased; when its charities would be multiplied ; į rank, wealth, fashion ; (4.) That it requires a and when the distribution might give rise to con
spirit which the world esteems mean and grovell tentions, it was necessary that this matter should | iog-meekness, humility, self-denial, patience, be intrusted to the hands of laymen, and that the
forgiveness of injuries; and (5.) That it requires ministry should be freed from all embarrassinent, duties--prayer, praise, seriousness, benevolence, and all suspicions of dishonesty and unfairness in which the men of the world despise. All these regard to pecuniary matters. It has never been things the world esteem degrading and mean; found to be wise that the temporal affairs of the and hence they endeavour to subject those who church should be intrusted in any considerable practise them to disgrace. The kinds of disgrace degree to the clergy; and they should be freed to which Christians have been subjected are too from such sources of difficulty and embarrassnumerous to be mentioned here. In former ment. Was multiplied.-By the accession of the times they were subjected to the loss of property, three thousand on the day of Pentecost, and of of reputation, and to all the shame of public pun- | those who were subsequently added. (Chap. iv. ixt ment, and to the terrors of the dungeon, the 4; v. 14.) A murmuring.- A complaintmas if take, or the rack. One main design of persecu- there had been partiality in the distribution. Of tion was, to select a kind of punishment so dis- the Grecians. There has been much diversity of gracefnl as to deter others from professing reli- opinion in regard to these persons, whether they gxD. Disgrace even yet may attend it. It may were Jews that had lived among the Gentiles, sabject one to the ridicule of friends-of even a and who spoke the Greek language, or whether
they were proselytes from the Gentiles. The ! Then the twelve. That is, the apostles. Matformer is probably the correct opinion. The thias had been added to them after the apostasy word here used is not that which is usually em of Judas, which had completed the original ployed to designate the inhabitants of Greece, number. The multitude of the disciples.-It is but it properly denotes those who imitate the not necessary to suppose that all the disciples customs and habits of the Greeks, who use the were convened, which amounted to many thouGreek language, &c. In the time when the gos- sands, but that the business was laid before a pel was first preached, there were two classes of large number; or perhaps the multitude here, Jews-those who remained in Palestine, who | means those merely who were more particularly used the Hebrew language, &c., and who were interested in the matter, and who had been enappropriately called Hebrews; and those who gaged in the complaint. It is not reason.—The were scattered among the Gentiles, who spoke original words, used here, properly denote, it is the Greek language, and who used in their syna- not pleasing or agreeable; but the meaning gogues the Greek translation of the Old Testa- evidently is, it is not fit or proper. It would be ment, called the Septuagint. These were called a departure from the design of their appointHellenists, or as it is in our translation, Gre ment, which was, to preach the gospel, and not cians. Note, John vii. 35. These were doubt to attend to the pecuniary affairs of the church. less the persons mentioned here--not those who | Leave the word of God. That we should neglect were proselyted from Gentiles, but those who | or abandon the preaching of the gospel, so much were not natives of Judea, who had come up to as would be necessary, if we attended personally Jerusalem to attend the great festivals of the to the distribution of the alms of the church. Jews. See chap. ii. 5, 9--U. Dissensions would The gospel is here called the “word of God," be very likely to arise between these two classes because it is his message; it is that which he of persons. The Jews of Palestine would pride has spoken; or which he has commanded to be themselves much on the fact that they dwelt in proclaimed to men. Serve tables. This expres. the land of the patriarchs, and the land of pro. sion properly denotes to take care of, or to promise; that they used the language which their vide for the table, or for the daily wants of the fathers spoke, and in which the oracles of God | family. It is an expression that properly applies were given; and that they were constantly near to a steward, or a servant. The word “tables" the temple, and regularly engaged in its solemni | is however sometimes used with reference to ties. On the other hand, the Jews from other | money, as being the place where money was parts of the world would be suspicious, jealous, | kept for the purpose of exchange, &c. (Matt. and envious of their brethren, and would be xxi. 12; xxv. 27.) Here the expression means, likely to charge them with partiality, or of taking | therefore, to attend to the pecuniary transactions advantage in their intercourse with them. These | of the church, and to make the proper distribuoccasions of strife would not be destroyed by tion for the wants of the poor, their conversion to Christianity, and one of them is furnished on this occasion. Because their VER. 3. Wherefore, brethren, look ? ye out among widous, &c.—The property which had been con you seven men of " honest report, full of the tributed, or thrown into common stock, was un
Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may apderstood to be designed for the equal benefit of all the poor, and particularly, it would seem, for the point over this business. poor widows. The distribution before this, seems
z Deut. i. 13. a Chap. xvi. 2. 1 Tim. iii. 7, 8, 10. to have been made by the apostles themselves-or possibly, as Mosheim conjectures, (Comm. de Look ye out.--Select, or choose. As this was rebus Christianorum ante Constantinum, p. 139, a matter pertaining to their own pecuniary af. 118,) the apostles committed the distribution of fairs, it was proper that they should be pernitted these funds to the Hebrews, and hence the Gre to choose such men as they could confide in. By cians are represented as murmuring against them, this means the apostles would be free from all and not against the apostles. In the daily minis suspicions. It could not be pretended that they tration. In the daily distribution which was were partial, nor could it ever be charged on made for their wants. Comp. chap. iv. 35. The them that they wished to embezzle a part of the property was contributed doubtless with an un funds by managing them themselves, or by inderstanding that it shouid be equally and justly trusting them to men of their own selection. It distributed to all classes of Christians that had follows from this, also, that the right of selecting need. It is clear from the Epistles that widows deacons resides in the church, and does not perwere objects of special attention in the primitive tain to the ministry. And it is evidently proper church, and that the first Christians regarded it that men, who are to be intrusted with the alıns as a matter of indispensable obligation to provide of the church, should be selected by the church for their wants. (1 Tim. v. 3, 9, 10, 16. James itself. Among you.— That is, from among the i. 27.)
Grecians and Hebrews, that there may be justice
done, and no further cause of complaint. Seren Ver. 2. Then the twelve called the multitude of men.-Seven was a sacred number among the
the disciples unto them, and said, It vis not Hebrews, but there does not appear to have been reason that we should leave the word of God,
any mystery in choosing this number. It was a
convenient number, sufficiently numerous to seand serve tables.
cure the faithful performance of the duty, and y Exod. xviii. 17–26.
not so numerous as to produce confusion and embarrassment. It does not follow, however, that the same number is now to be chosen as But we will give ourselves continually.--The deacons in a church, for the precise number is original expression here used, denotes intense not commanded. Of honest report.–Of fair re- and persevering application to a thing, or unputation ; regarded as men of integrity. Greek, wearied effort in it. See Note, Acts i. 14. It testified of, or borne witness to, i. e. whose cha means that the apostles meant to make this their racters were well known and fair. Full of the | constant and main object, undistracted by the Holy Ghost.—This evidently does not mean en cares of life, and even by attention to the temdowed with miraculous gifts, or the power of poral wants of the church. To prayer. Whespeaking foreign languages, for such gifts were ther this means private or public prayer, cannot not necessary to the discharge of their office, but be certainly determined. The passage, however, it means men who were eminently under the in would rather incline us to suppose that the latter fluence of the Holy Ghost, or who were of dis | was meant, as it is immediately connected with tinguished piety. This was all that was necessary preaching. If so, then the phrase denotes that in the case, and this is all that the words fairly they would give themselves to the duties of their imply in this place. And wisdom.-Prudence, or office, one part of which was public prayer, and skill, to make a wise and equable distribution. another preaching. Still it is to be believed that The qualifications of deacons are still further the apostles felt the need of secret prayer, and stated and illustrated in 1 Tim. iii. 8—10. In practised it, as preparatory to their public preachthis place it is seen that they must be men of ing. And to the ministry of the word.—To preacheminent piety and fair character, and that they ing the gospel ; or communicating the message of must possess prudence, or wisdom, to manage eternal life to the world. The word “ministry” the affairs connected with their office. These (drakovia) properly denotes the employment of qualifications are indispensable to a faithful dis a servant, and is given to the preachers of the charge of the duty intrusted to the officers of the gospel because they are employed in this service church. Whom we may appoint. - Whom we may as the servants of God, and of the church.- We constitute, or set over this business. The way have here a view of what the apostles thought to in which this was done, was by prayer and the be the proper work of the ministry. They were imposition of hands. (Ver. 6.) Though they set apart to this work. It was their main, their were selected by the church, yet the power of only employment. To this their lives were to be ordaining them, or setting them apart, was re- | devoted, and both by their example and their tained by the apostles. Thus the rights of both writings they have shown that it was on this were preserved, the right of the church to desig- | principle they acted. Comp. 1 Tim. iv. 15, 16. nate those who should serve them in the office of 2 Tim. iv. 2. It follows, also, that if their time deacon, and the right of the apostles to organize and talents were to be wholly devoted to this and establish the church with its appropriate work, it was reasonable that they should receive officers; on the one hand, a due regard to the competent support from the churches, and this liberty and privileges of the Christian commu reasonable claim is often urged by the apostle. nity, and on the other the security of proper See 1 Cor. ix. 7-14. Gal. vi. 6. respect for the office, as being of apostolic appointment and authority. Over this business.
VER. 5. And the saying pleased the whole mulThat is, over the distribution of the alms of the
titude. And they chose Stephen, a man full church—not to preach, or to govern the church, but solely to take care of the sacred funds of of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, cbarity, and distribute them to supply the wants and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and of the poor. The office is distinguished from
Parmenas, and · Nicolas, a proselyte of Anthat of preaching the gospel. To ihat the apos
tioch: tles were to attend. The deacons were expressly set apart to a different work, and to that work
c Chap. xi. 24. d Chap. viii. 5, 26; xxi. 8. they should be confined. In this account of their
e Rev. ii. 6, 15. original appointment, there is not the slightest
intimation that they were to preach, but the And the saying.—The word—the counsel, or | contrary is supposed in the whole transaction. command. And they chose Stephen, &c.—A man
Nor is there here the slightest intimation that who soon showed (chap. vii.) that he was every they were regarded as an order of clergy, or as way qualified for his office, and fitted to defend in any way connected with the clerical ofhce.- also the cause of the Lord Jesus. This man had In the ancient synagogues of the Jews there the distinguished honour of being the first Chriswere three men to whom was intrusted the care tian martyr. (Chap. vii.) And Nicolas.-- From of the poor. They were called by the Hebrews this man some of the Fathers (Iren. lib. i. 27. ** Parnasin," or “ Pastors.” (Lightfoot, Horæ Heb. Epipha. 1. liæres. 5.) say, that the sect of the et Talm. Matt. iv. 23.) From these officers the | Nicolaitanes, mentioned with so much disapproapostles took the idea probably of appointing bation, Rev. Ü. 6, 15, took their rise. But the deacons in the Christian church, and doubtless evidence of this is not clear. A proselyte.--A intended that their duties should be the same. proselyte is one who is converted from one religion
to another. See Note, Matt. xxiii. 15. The word VER. 4. But we will give ourselves continually does not mean here that he was a convert to to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.
Christianity--which was true-but that he had
been converted at Antioch from paganism to the 6 1 Tim. iv. 15.
| Jewish religion. As this is the only proselyte mentioned among the seven deacons, it is evident that the others were native-born Jews, though a
Ver. 7. And the word of God increased ; and part of them might have been born out of Pales
the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerutine, and have been of the denomination of Grecians, or Hellenists. Of Antioch. This city, salem greatly ; and a great company of the otten mentioned in the New Testament, (Acts priests' were obedient to the faith. xi. 19, 20, 26; xv. 22, 35. Gal. ii. 11, &c.) was situated in Syria on the river Orontes, and was
h Isa. Iv. 11. Chap. xii. 24; six. 20.
i Psa. cxxxii. 9, 16. John xii. 12. formerly called Riblath. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, but is frequently mentioned And the word of God increased. That is, the in the Apocrypha. It was built by Selencus gospel was more and more successful, or became Nicanor, B.C, 301, and was named Antioch, in more mighty and extensive in its influence. An honour of his father Antiochus. It became the instance of this success is immediately added. seat of empire of the Syrian kings of the Mace- And a great company of the priests. A great donian race, and afterwards of the Roman gover- | multitude. This is recorded justly as a remark. nors of the eastern provinces. In this place the able instance of the power of the gospel. How disciples of Christ were first called Christians. great this company was is not mentioned. But (Acts xi. 26.) Josephus says it was the third the number of the priests in Jerusalem was very city in size of the Roman provinces, being infe- / great ; and their conversion was a striking proof rior only to Seleucia and Alexandria. It was of the power of truth. It is probable that they long, indeed, the most powerful city of the East. had been opposed to the gospel with quite as ', The city was almost square, had many gates, was much hostility as any other class of the Jews. adorned with fine fountains, and possessed great | And it is now mentioned, as worthy of special li fertility of soil and commercial opulence. It was record, that the gospel was sufficiently mighty to ! subject to earthquakes, and was ofien almost de- | humble even the proud, and haughty, and seltish, !' stroyed by them. In A.D. 588, above sixty and envious priest to the foot of the cross. One thousand persons perished in it in this manner. design of the gospel, is to evince the power of In A.D. 970, an army of one hundred thousand truth in subduing all classes of men ; and hence Saracens besieged it, and took it. In 1268, it was in the New Testament we have the record of its taken possession of by the Sultan of Egypt, who having actually subdued every class to the obe. ' demolished it, and placed it under the dominion dience of faith. Some MSS. however, here in- ! of the Turk. It is now called Antakia, and till stead of priests read Jews. And this reading is the year 1822 it occupied a remote corner of the followed in the Syriac version. Were obedient ancient enclosure of its walls, its splendid build- to the faith.--- The word “faith” here is evidently ings being reduced to hovels, and its population put for the Christian religion. Faith is one of living in Turkish debasement. It contains now the main requirements of the gospel, (Mark xvi. about ten thousand inhabitants.- Robinson's Cal- | 16,) and by a figure of speech is put for the gosmet. This city should be distinguished from pel itself. To become obedient to the faith, Antiocb in Pisidia, also mentioned in the New therefore, is to obey the requirements of the gosTestament. (Acts xiii. 14.)
pel, particularly that which requires us to believe.
Comp. Rom. x. 16. By the accession of the VER. 6. Whom they set before the apostles : and “priests” also no small part of the reproach
would be taken away from the gospel, that it' when they had prayed, they6 laid their hands
made converts only among the lower classes of on them.
the people. Comp. John vii. 48. f Chap. j. 24. o Chap ix. 17; xiii. 3. I Tim. iv. 14; v. 22. 2 Tim. i. 6. | Ver. 8. And Stephen. full of faith and power. 1
And when they had prayed.-Invoking in this I did great wonders and miracles among the manner the blessing of God on them to attend people. them in the discharge of the duties of their office. They laid their hands, &c.— Among the Jews it And Stephen. The remarkable death of this i was customary to lay hands on the head of a per- first Christian martyr, which soon occurred, gave son who was set apart to any particular office. occasion to the sacred writer to give a detailed (Numb. xxvii. 18.) Comp. Acts viii. 19. This account of his character, and of the causes which was done, not to impart any power or ability, but led to his death. Hitherto the opposition of the ! to designate that they received their authority, or Jews had been confined to threats and imprisoncommission, from those who thus laid their hands ment; but it was now to burst forth with furious on them, as the act of laying hands on the sick | rage and madness, that could be satisfied only by the Saviour was an act signifying that the with blood. This was the first in a series of perpower of healing came from him. (Matt. ix. 18.) secutions against Christians that filled the church Comp. Mark xvi. 18. In this case the laying on | with blood, and that closed the lives of thousands! of the hauds conveyed of itself no healing power, | perhaps millions, in the great work of establishbut was a sign or token that the power came from ing the gospel on the earth. Full of faith.- Full the Lord Jesus. Ordination has been uniformly of contidence in God; or trusting entirely to his performed in this way. See 1 Tim. v. 22. Though promises. See Note, Mark xvi. 16. And power. the seven deacons had been chosen by the church -The power which was evinced in working to this work, yet they derived their immediate miracles. Wonders - This is one of the words commission and authority from the apostles. commonly used in the New Testament to denote
VER. 9. Then there arose certain of the syna- Jews. This city was much celebrated, and congogue, which is called The synagogue of the
tained not less than three hundred thousand free Libertines, and Cyrenians, and Alexandrians,
citizens, and as many slaves. The city was the
residence of many Jews. Josephus says that and of them of Cilicia and of Asia, disputing Alexander himself assigned to them a particular with Stephen.
quarter of the city, and allowed them equal pri
vileges with the Greeks. (Antiq. xiv. 7, 2. Then there arose. -That is, they stood up Against A pion, ii. 4.) Philo affirms that of five against him; or they opposed him. Of the syna- parts of the city, the Jews inhabited two. Acgogue.-- See Note, Matt. iv. 23. The Jews were cording to his statement, there dwelt in his time scattered in all parts of the world. In every at Alexandria and the other Egyptian cities, not place they would have synagogues. But it is less than ten hundred thousand Jews. Ainron, also probable that there would be enough foreign the general of Omar, when he took the city, said Jews residing at Jerusalem from each of those that it contained forty thousand tributary Jews. places to maintain the worship of the synagogue; At this place the famous version of the Old Tesand at the great feasts those synagogues adapted tament, called the Septuagint, or the Alexandrian to Jewish people of different nations, would be version, was made. See Robinson's Calmet. attended by those who came up to attend the Cilicia.- This was a province of Asia Minor, on great feasts. It is certain that there was a large the sea-coast, at the north of Cyprus. The ca number of synagogues at Jerusalem. The com pital of this province was Tarsus, the native place mon estimate is, that there were four hundred of Paul. (Chap. ix. 11.) And as Paul was of and eighty in the city.-Lightfoot, Vitringa. Of this place, and belonged doubtless to this synaUre Libertines.--There has been very great differ- | gogue, it is probable that he was one who wa ence of opinion about the meaning of this word. engaged in this dispute with Stephen. Comp. The chief opinions may be reduced to three. 1. chap. vii. 58. Of Asia.--See Note, chap. ii. 9. The word is Latin, and means properly a freed- | Disputing with Stephen.-Doubtless on the quesman, a man who had been a slave and was set at tion whether Jesus was the Messiah. This word liberty. And many have supposed that these does not denote angry “disputing,” but is compersons were manumitted slaves, of Roman origin, monly used to denote fair and impartial inquiry; || but which had become proselyted to the Jewish and it is probable that the discussion began in religion, and who had a synagogue in Jerusalem. this way; and when they were overcome by ar- il This opinion is not very probable; though it is gument, they resorted, as disputants are apt to do certain, from Tacitus (Annal. lib. ii. chap. 85,) | to angry criminations and violence. that there were many persons of this description a: Rome. He says that four thousand Jewish | VER. 10. And they were not able k to resist the proselytes of Roman slaves made free were sent
wisdom and the spirit by which he spake. at one time to Sardinia. 2. A second opinion is, that these persons were Jews by birth, and had
k Luke xxi. 15. benken captives by the Romans, and then set at liberty, and thus called freedmen, or libertines. To resist. That is, they were not able to anThat there were many Jews of this descriptionswer his arguments. The wisdom.- This properthere can be no doubt. Pompey the Great, when | ly refers to his knowledge of the Scriptures ; his be subjugated Judea, sent large numbers of the skill in what the Jews esteemed to be wisdom Jests to Rome. (Philo, in Legat. ad Caium.) acquaintance with their sacred writings, opinions. These Jews were set at liberty at Rome, and as- i &c. And the spirit.—This has been commonly signed a place beyond the Tiber for a residence. understood of the Holy Spirit, by which he was Se Introduction to the Epistle to the Romans. aided; but it rather means the energy, power, or These persons are by Philo called libertines, or ardour of Stephen. He evinced a spirit of zeal freeimen. (Kuinoei in loco.) Many Jews were and sincerity which they could not withstand ; also convered as captives by Ptolemy I. to which served, more than mere argument could Egypt, and obtained a residence in that country have done, to convince them that he was right. and the vicinity. But, 3. Another, and more The evidence of sincerity, honesty, and zeal in a probable opinion is, that they took their name public speaker will often go farther to convince from some place which they occupied. This the great mass of mankind, than the most able opinion is more probable from the fact that all argument if delivered in a cold and indifferent the other persons mentioned here are named from manner. the countries which they occupied. Suidas savs that this is the name of a place. And in one of Ver. 11. Then they suborned men, which said, the Fathers this passage occurs: “ Victor, bishop We have heard him speak blasphemous words of tbe Catholic church at Libertina, says, unity is there," &e. From this passage it is plain that
against Moses, and against God. there was a place called Libertina. That place 1 1 Kings xxi. 10, 13. Matt. xxvi, 59, 60. was in Africa, not far from ancient Carthage. See Bishop Pearce's Comment on this place. Then they suborred men.—To "suborn" in law Cyrenions, -Jews who dwelt at “ Cyrene” in means to procure a person to take such a fals Afnca. See Note, Matt. xxvii. 32. Alexan- | oath as constitutes perjury.- Webster. It has drans.-Inhabitants of Alexandria in Egypt. substantially this sense here. It means that they It was founded by Alexander the Great, B.C. induced them to declare that which was false, or 3-2, and was peopled by colonies of Greeks and to bring a false accusation against him. This