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(2.) That these idols could never have endowed thema, (avateua.) See Note, Acts xxiii. 14. Rom. them with such spiritual privileges as they now | ix. 3. Comp. 1 Cor. xvi. 22. Gal. i. 8, 9. The had, and consequently that their present state was word is one of execration, or cursing; and means, far preferable to their former condition. Even that no one under the influence of the Holy Spirit as ye were led.- Were led by the priests in the could curse the name of Jesus, or denounce him temples of the idols. They were under strong de as execrable and as an impostor. The effect of lusions and the arts of cunning and unprincipled the influences of the Spirit would be in all inmen. The idea is, that they had been under stances to inspire reverence for his name and a strong infatuation, and were entirely at the work. It is probable that the Jews were here control of their spiritual leaders--a description principally intended, since there is a bitterness remarkably applicable now to all forms of im- and severity in the language which accords with posture in the world. No system of paganism all their expressions of feeling towards Jesus of consults the freedom and independence of the Nazareth. It is possible, also, and indeed pro- ! mind of man; but it is every where characterized bable, that the priests and priestesses of the pagan as a system of power, and not of thought; and all gods who pretended to be under the influence of its arrangements are made to secure that power inspiration might denounce the name of Jesus, without an intelligent assent of the understanding because they would all be opposed to the purity and the heart.

of his religion. And that no mun can say, &c.

That is, that it cannot occur, or even happen, that VER. 3. Wherefore I give you to understand, any one will acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah who that no man 'speaking by the Spirit of God

is not influenced by the Holy Ghost. The mean

ing is, not that no one has physical ability to say | calleth Jesus "accursed: and " that no man

that Jesus is Lord unless aided by the Holy Ghost, can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the since all men can say this, but that no one will '! Holy Ghost.

be disposed heartily to say it; no one will acknow.

ledge him as their Lord; it can never happen that,' ( Mark ix. 39. 1 John iv. 2, 3. m Or, anathema.

n Matt. xvi. 17

any one will confess him as the true Messiah, who

has not been brought to this state by the agency Wherefore I give you to understand.-I make of the Holy Ghost. Is the Lord. Is the Messiah, known to you. The force of this expression is, or shall acknowledge him as their Lord. But be! I give you this rule to distinguish, or by which

on this rule to distinguish, or by which the Holy Ghost.--Unless he is influenced by the you may know what influences and operations | Holy Spirit. This is a very important verse, not are from God. The design of the passage is, to only in regard to the particular subject under give them some simple general guide by which consideration in the time of Paul, but also in its they could at once recognise the operations of practical bearing at present. We may learn from the Spirit of God, and determine whether they | it, (1.) That it is a proof that any man is under ; who claimed to be under that operation were the influence of the Holy Spirit, who is heartily really so. That rule was, that all who were truly | disposed to honour the name and work of Jesus influenced by the Holy Ghost would be disposed Christ. (2.) Those forms and modes of religion ; to acknowledge and to know Jesus Christ; and those religious opinions and practices, will be where this disposition existed, it was of itself a most in accordance with the designs of the Spirit clear demonstration that it was the operation of of God, which do most to honour the name an the Spirit of God. The same rule substantially work of Jesus Christ. (3.) It is true that no man is given by John, (1 John iv. 2,) by which to test will ever cherish a proper regard for Jesus Christ, the nature of the spirit by which inen profess to nor love his name and work, unless he is inflube influenced. “Hereby know ye the Spirit of enced by the Holy Ghost. No man loves the God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ name and work of the Redeemer by following is come in the flesh is of God.” Comp. also Note simply the inclinations of his own corrupt heart. to Matt. xvi. 17. That no man.Noone, (ovocis.) | In all instances of those who have been brought It may refer to a man, or to demons, or to those to a willingness to honour him, it has been bribe who pretended to be under inspiration of any agency of the Holy Ghost. (4.) If any man, in kind. And it may refer to the Jews who any way, is disposed to disparage the work of may have pretended to be under the influence of | Christ, to speak lightly of his person or his pame; God's Spirit, and who yet anathematized and / or holds doctrines that infringe on the fulness cursed the name of Jesus. Or it may be intended of the truth respecting his divine nature, his simply as a general rule; meaning that if any purity, his atonement, it is proof that he is not one, whoever he might be, should blaspheme the under the influence of the Spirit of God. Just in name of Jesus, whatever were his pretensions, proportion as he shall disparage that work or whether professing to be under the influence of name, just in that proportion does he give erithe Holy Spirit among the Jews, or to be inspired | dence that he is not influenced by the divine among the Gentiles, it was full proof that he was Spirit, but by proud reason, or by imagination. an impostor. The argument is, that the Holy | or by a heart that is not reconciled to God. (5.) Spirit in all instances would do honour to Jesus | All true religion is the production of the Holy Christ, and would prompt all who were under his Spirit ; for religion consists essentially in a wil. influence to love and reverence his name. Speak- lingness to honour, and love, and serve the Lord ing by the Spirit of God.- Under the influence of Jesus Christ; and where that exists, it is proinspiration. Calleth.-Says, or would say ; that | duced by the Holy Spirit. (6.) The infiuence of is, no such one would use the language of ana- | the Holy Spirit should be cherished. To grieve i thema in regard to him. Accursed.-Marg. Ana- away that Spirit, is to drive all proper knowledge

of the Redeemer from the soul; to do this is to the whole passage, and to render it in no small leave the heart to coldness, and darkness, and degree unmeaning. But if this refers to the barrenness, and spiritual death.

Holy Spirit, then it is an unanswerable argument

for his personality, and for his being on an equaVER. 4. Now there are diversities of gifts, but | lity with the Father and the Son. the same Spirit.

VER. 5. And there are differences of PadminisHeb. ii. 4. 1 Pet. i. 10.

trations, but the same Lord. Now there are diversities of gifts.There are

p Or, ministries. different endowments conferred on Christians. For the meaning of the word gifts, see Note, Of administrations.-Margin, ministries. The Rom. i. 11. Comp. Rom. v. 15, 16; vi. 23; xi. word properly denotes ministries ; so that there 29; xii. 6. 1 Cor. i. 7; vii. 7. But the same are different ranks and grades in the ministries Spirit.- Produced by the same Spirit, the Holy which Christ has appointed, to wit, those speciGhost. What those diversities of gifts are, the | fied in ver. 9, 10, 28. But the same Lord.- This apostle enumerates in ver. 8—11. The design | refers evidently to the Lord Jesus, by whom for which he refers to these various endowments these various orders of ministers were appointed, is evidently to show those whom he addressed, and under whose control they are. See Note, that since they are all produced by the same | Acts i. 24. Comp. Eph. iv. 5. The term Lord, Holy Spirit, have all the same divine origin, and when it stands by itself in the New Testament, are all intended to answer some important pur usually refers to the Lord Jesus, the name by pose and end in the Christian church, that, there which he was commonly known by the disciples. fore, none are to be despised ; nor is one man to See John xx. 25. The fact, also, that this stands regard himself as authorised to treat another with between the mention of the work of the Spirit, contempt. The Spirit has divided and conferred (ver. 4,) and the work of God, (ver. 6,) and the those gifts according to his sovereign will; and fact that to the Lord Jesus appertained the aphis arrangements should be regarded with sub pointment of these various grades of officers in mission, and the favours which he confers should the church, (comp. Matt. x. 1, seq., and Luke x. be received with thankfulness. That the Holy | 1, seq.,) is further proof that this refers to him. Spirit—the third person of the adorable Trinity The design of the verse is to show that all these is here intended by the word Spirit, seems to be | offices had their appointment from him ; and that manifest on the face of the passage, and has been since all were his appointment, and all were nethe received interpretation of the church until it cessary, no one should be proud of an elevated was called in question by some recent German station ; no one should be depressed, or feel himcommentators, at the head of whom was Eich self degraded, because he had been designated to horn. It is not the design of these Notes to go a more humble office. into an examination of questions of criticism, such as an inquiry like this would involve. Nor VER. 6. And there are diversities ? of operations; is it necessary. Some of the arguments by which

but it is the same God which worketh all in the common interpretation is defended are the following. (1.) It is the obvious interpreta


g Rom. xii, 6, &c. tion. It is that which occurs to the great mass of readers as the true and correct exposition. (2.) Of operations. Of works, to wit, of miracles, It accords with the usual meaning of the word such as God produces in the church, in the estabSpirit. No other intelligible sense can be given lishment and defence of his religion. There are to the word here. To say, with Eichhorn, that different operations on the mind and heart; and it means “nature," that there are the same natu- different powers given to man, or different qualiral endowments, though cultivated in various fications in building up and defending his cause. measures by art and education, makes manifest Or it may be, possibly, that Paul here refers to nonsense, and is contrary to the whole structure the works of God mainly for mere illustration, and scope of the passage. (3.) It accords with and by the word “ operations" means the works all the other statements in the New Testament, which God has performed in creation and prowhere the endowments here referred to, “ wis- | vidence. His works are various. They are not dom," " knowledge," " faith," “ working of mira- all alike, though they come from the same hand. cles," &c. are traced to the Holy Spirit, and are | The sun, the moon, the stars, the earth, are regarded as his gift. (4.) The harmony, the con- different; the trces of the forest, the beasts of the cindity of the passage is destroyed by supposing field, the fowls of the air, the inhabitants of the that it refers to any thing else than the Holy deep, are different; the flowers, and shrubs, and Spirit. In this verse the agency of the Spirit is herbs, are different from each other; yet, howrecognised, and his operations on the mind re- | ever much they may vary, they are formed by ferred to; in the next verse the agency of the the same hand, are the productions of the same Son of God (see Note on the verse) is referred God, are to be regarded as proofs of the same to; and in the following verse, the agency of God wisdom and power. The same thing should be -evidently the Father-is brought into view ; 1 expected in his church, and we should anticipate and thus the entire passage (ver. 4–6) presents that the endowments of its members would be a connected view of the operations performed by various. But it is the same God.--The same the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in the work of Father; all these operations are produced by the redemption. To deny that this verse refers to same God. They should not, therefore, be un:he Holy Spirit, is to break up the harmony of dervalued or despised ; nor should any one be

upduly elated, or pride himself on what has been a manner as shall best subserve the interests of conferred by God alone. All in all.— All these | piety and the church, and as shall tend haroperations are to be traced to him. His agency | moniously to carry on the great interests of reis every where. It is as really seen in the insect's | ligion, and further the welfare of the whole wing, as in the limbs of the mammoth ; as really Christian body. The doctrine of this verse is, in the humblest violet, as in the loftiest oak of therefore, (1.) That the Holy Spirit bestows such the forest. All, therefore, should regard them endowments on all Christians as he pleases; and, selves as under his direction, and should submit (2.) That the design is, in the best manner to to his arrangements. If men regard their en- | promote the common welfare—the peace and dowments as the gift of God, they will be thank edification of the whole church. It follows from ful for them, and they will not be disposed to this, (1.) That no Christian should be unduly despise or undervalue others who have been elated, as if he were more worthy than others, placed in a more humble condition and rank in since his endowments are the simple gift of God: the church.

(2.) That no Christian should be depressed and

disheartened, as if he occupied an inferior or unVER. 7. But the manifestation of the Spirit is

important station, since his place has also been

assigned him by God; (3.) That all should be given to every man to profit 'withal.

contented, and satisfied with their allotments in Eph. iv. 7.

the church, and should strive only to make the

best use of their talents and endowments; and, But the manifestation of the Spirit.The word (4.) That all should employ their time and talents “manifestation” (pavipwong) means properly that for the common utility ; for the furtherance of which makes manifest, conspicuous, or plain ; the common welfare, and the advancement of that which illustrates, or makes any thing seen the kingdom of Christ on earth. or known. Thus conduct manifests the state of the heart; and the actions are a manifestation, or VER. 8. For to one is given, by the Spirit, the 1! showing forth of the real feelings. The idea here

word of wisdom ;' to another the word of is, that there is given to those referred to, such

knowledge," by the same Spirit; gifts, endowments, or graces, as shall manifest the work and nature of the Spirit's operations on the s Isa. xi. 2, 3. : Chap. ii. 6, 7. # Chap. xiii. 2. mind; such endowments as the Spirit makes him

For to one is given.-In order to show what self known by to men. All that he produces in the mind is a manifestation of his character and

| endowments he refers to, the apostle here par

ticularizes the various gifts which the Holy Spirit work, in the same way as the works of God in the visible creation are a manifestation of his per

imparts in the church. By the Spirit,- By the

Holy Ghost; by his agency on the mind and fections. Is given to every man.To every man

heart. The word of wisdom.-One he has enwhose case is here under consideration. The idea is not at all that the manifestation of the Spirit is

dowed with wisdom, or has made distinguished given to all men indiscriminately, to pagans, and

for wise, and prudent, and comprehensive views infidels, and scoffers, as well as to Christians.

of the scheme of redemption, and with a faculty The apostle is discoursing only of those who are

of clearly explaining it to the apprehension of

men. It is not certain that the apostle meant to Christians, and his declaration should be confined to them alone. Whatever may be true of other

say that this was the most important or most ele

vated endowment, because he places it first in men, this statement should be confined wholly to

order. His design does not seem to be, to obChristians, and means simply that the Spirit of God gives to each Christian such graces and en

serve the order of importance and value, but to

state, as it occurred to him, the fact that these dowments as he pleases; that he distributes his

various endowments had been conferred on difgifts to all, not equally, but in a manner which he shall choose ; and that the design of this is,

ferent men in the church. The sense is, that that all Christians should use his endowments for

one man would be prominent and distinguished

as a wise man-a prudent counsellor, instructor, the common good. This passage, therefore, is

and adviser. To another the word of knowledge. very improperly adduced to prove that the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit are conferred alike

- Another would be distinguished for knowledge. on all men ; and that pagans, and sinners in ge

He would be learned ; would have a clear view neral, are under his enlightening influences. It

of the plan of salvation, and of the doctrines and

duties of religion. has no reference to any such doctrine, but should

The same variety is observed be interpreted as referring solely to Christians,

in the ministry at all times. One man is eminent and the various endowments which are conferred

as a wise man; another as a man of intelligence on them. To profit withal, (Tepòs Ovupépov.)

and knowledge; and both may be equally useful

in their place in the church. By the same Spirit Unto profit ; i. e. for utility, or use ; or to be an

- All is to be traced to the same Spirit ; all. advantage to the church; for the common good of all. This does not mean that each one must

therefore, may be really useful and necessary ; cultivate and improve his graces and gifts, how

and the one should not pride himself in his en

dowments above the other. ever true that may be, but that they are to be used for the common good of the church ; they

VER. 9. To another faith, " by the same Spirit; are bestowed for utility, or profit ; they are conferred in such measures, and in such a manner, to another the gifts of healing, by the same as are best adapted to be useful, and to do good. Spirit; They are bestowed not on all equally, but in such

1 • Eph. ii. 8. w Mark xvi. 18. James r. 14.

To another faith.—Another shall be distin- | the early Christians seem to have been regulated 1 guished for simple confidence in God; and this to a remarkable degree in accordance with the

endowment is also given by the same Spirit. rule by which ordinary endowments are conferred Many of the most useful men in the church are on men. Though all men have understanding, distinguished mainly for their simple confidence memory, imagination, bodily strength, &c., yet in the promises of God; and often accomplish | one has these in a more eminent degree than | more by prayer, and by their faith in God, than others; and one is characterised for the possesi others do who are distinguished for their wisdom sion of one of those qualities more than for anį and learning. Humble piety and reliance in the other. Yet all are bestowed by the same God. i divine promises, and that measure of ardour, So it was in regard to the extraordinary endow

fearlessness, and zeal which result from such ments conferred on the early Christians. Comp. confidence ; that belief that all obstacles must chap. xiv. especially ver. 32. be, and will be, overcome that oppose the gospel; To another prophecy.-See Note, Rom. xii. 6. and that God will secure the advancement of his To another discerning of spirits.-Comp. 1 John cause, will often do infinitely more in the pro- iv. 1. This must refer to some power of search motion of his kingdom than the most splendid | ing into the secrets of the heart; of knowing endowments of learning and talent. Indeed, if a what were a man's purposes, views, and feelings. man were disposed to do good on the widest | It may relate either to the power of determining scale possible, to do the utmost that he possibly by what spirit a man spoke who pretended to be coald in saving men, he would best accomplish | inspired, whether he was truly inspired, or wheit by seeking simple faith in God's aid and pro ther he was an impostor: or it may refer to the mises, and then, under the influence of this, en-1 power of seeing whether a man was sincere or gage with ardour in doing what he could. Faith not in his Christian profession. That the apostles is one of the highest endowments of the Christian had this power is apparent from the case of Analife ; and yet, though all may attain it, it is one nias and Sapphira, (Acts v, 1-10,) and from the of the rarest endowments. Perhaps by many it case of Elymas, (Acts xiii. 9-11.) It is eviis despised, because it may be obtained by all; dent that where the gift of prophecy and inspirbecause it is a grace in which the poor and the ation was possessed, and where it would confer humble may be as much distinguished as the man such advantages on those who possessed it, there of splendid talents and profound learning. To would be many pretenders to it; and that it would another the gifts of healing.–See Mark xvi. 18. be of vast importance to the infant church, in This was promised to the disciples of the Saviour; order to prevent imposition, that there should be and in the early church was conferred on many. a power in the church of detecting the imposture. Comp. Acts v. 12, 15, 16; xix. 12. It would seem To another divers kinds of tongues.-— The power from this passage that the gift of healing was of speaking various languages. See Acts ii. 4, conferred on some in a more eminent degree than 7-11. This passage also seems to imply that on others.

the extraordinary endowments of the Holy Spirit

were not conferred on all alike. To another the VER. 10. To another the working of miracles ; interpretation of tongues.- The power of interto another prophecy; to another discerning of

preting foreign languages; or of interpreting the

language which might be used by the prophets spirits; 'to another divers kinds of tongues;

kinds of tongues ; | in their communications. See Note, chap. xiv. y to another the interpretation of tongues : 27. This was evidently a faculty different from & 1 John iv. 1. y Acts ii. 4, 7-11.

the power of speaking a foreign language; and

yet it might be equally useful. It would appear To another the working of miracles.- Commen- possible that some might have had the power of tators have felt some perplexity in distinguishing speaking foreign languages who were not themthis from what is mentioned in ver. 9 of the gift selves apprized of the meaning, and that interof healing. It is evident that the apostle there preters were needful in order to express the sense refers to the power of working miracles in heal- | to the hearers. Or it may have been that in a ing inveterate and violent diseases. The expres- promiscuous assembly, or in an assembly made

sion here used, “working of miracles,” (évepyn- | up of those who spoke different languages, a part I para cuvauswv,) refers probably to the more ex | might have understood what was uttered, and it traordinary and unusual kinds of miracles; to was needful that an interpreter should explain it those which were regarded as in advance of the to the other portion. See Notes on chap. xiv. power of healing diseases. It is possible that it 28. may denote what the Saviour had reference to in Mark xvi. 18, where he said they should take

VER. 11. But all these worketh that one and the up serpents, and if they drank any deadly thing self-same Spirit, dividing 'to every man seveit should not hurt them; and possibly also to the rally as he will. power of raising up the dead. That this power

z Ver. 6. | was possessed by the apostles is well known; and

It is possible that it was possessed by others also But all these.-- All these various endowments. 1 of the early Christians. It is clear from all this Worketh.Produces. All these are to be traced · that there was a difference even among those who | to him. That one and the self-sume Spirit.— The

had the power of working miracles, and that this Holy Spirit. (Acts i.) They were all, though power was conferred in a more eminent degree so different in themselves, to be traced to the on some than on others. Indeed, the extraordi- | Holy Ghost, just as all the natural endowments Dary endowments conferred on the apostles and of men-their strength, memory, judgment, &c. - though so various in themselves, are to be the Holy Spirit, and that they ought to be approtraced to the same God. Dividing to every man priately cherished and prized, as being all ustful severally,--Conferring on each one as he pleases and valuable in their places. This sentiment be He confers on each one that which he sees to be now illustrates (ver. 12—27) by a beautiful simibest and most wise and proper. As he will.-- As litude taken from the mutual dependence of the he chooses; or as in his view seems best. Dr. / various parts of the human body. The human Doddridge remarks that this word does “not so body is one, and yet is composed of various much express arbitrary pleasure, as a determina members and parts that all unite harmoniously tion founded on wise counsel." It implies, how in one whole. Being many. -Or, although they ever, that he does it as a sovereign; as he sees to are many; or while they are in some respects be right and best. He distributes these favours | separate, and perform distinct and different func. 1 as to him seems hest adapted to promote the wel tions, yet they all unite harmoniously in one' fare of the whole church and to advance his | whole. So also is Christ.-- The church is reprecause. Some of the doctrines which are taught sented as the body of Christ, (ver. 27,) meaning by this verse are the following :-(1.) The Holy that it is one, and that he sustains to it the reGhost is a person. For, he acts as a person ; dis- lation of Head. Comp. Eph. i. 22, 23. As the tributes favours, confers endowments and special | head is the most important part of the body, it mercies “as he will." This proves that he is, in may be put for the whole body; and the same some respects, distinguished from the Father and “ Christ" here, the head of the church, is put for the Son. It would be absurd to say of an attri- the whole body of which he is the head ; and bute of God, that it confers favours, and distri- means here the Christian society, or the church. butes the various endowments of speaking with This figure, of a part for the whole, is one tha: tongues and raising the dead. And if so, then is common in all languages. See Note, Ron. xi. the Holy Ghost is not an attribute of God. (2.) | 4, 5. He is a sovereign. He gives to all as he pleases. In regard to spiritual endowments of the highest VER. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized order, he deals with men as he does in the common into one body, whether we be Jews or Geriendowments bestowed on men, and as he does in

tiles, whether we be bond or free; and have temporal blessings. He does not bestow the same blessings on all, nor make all alike. He dispenses his

been all made to drink into one Spirit. favours by a rule which he has not made known,

b John i. 16. Eph. iv. 5. Greeks. but which, we may be assured, is in accordance

d John vii. 37–39. with wisdom and goodness. He wrongs no one; | For by one Spirit -That is, by the agency of and he gives to all, the favours which might be

ve operation of the same Spirit, the Holy Ghost, we connected with eternal life. (3.) No man should

ld have been united into one body. The idea bere , be proud of his endowments. Whatever they lis

is the same as that presented above, (ver. 7, 11, may be, they are the gifts of God, bestowed by

1 by by which all the endowments of Christians are his sovereign will and mercy. But assuredly wel traced to the same Spirit. Paul here says, that should not be proud of that which is the mere

that Spirit had so endowed them as to fit them to , gift of another; and which has been bestowed,

constitute one body, or to be united in one, and not in consequence of any merit of ours, but ac

to perform the various duties which resulted cording to his mere sovereign will. (4.) No

from their union in the same Christian church. I man should be depressed, or should despise his

The idea of its having been done by one and the own gifts, however humble they may be. In

same Spirit, is kept up and often presented, in their own place, they may be as important as the

order that the endowments conferred on them higher endowments of others. That God has

might be duly appreciated. Are we all.-Every placed him where he is, or has given him less

member of the church, whatever may be his rank! splendid endowments than he has to others, is no fault of his.

or talents, has received his endowments from the There is no crime in it; and he should, therefore, strive to improve his “one ta

same Spirit. Baptized into one body.—Many sup

pose that there is reference here to the ordinance lent,” and to make himself useful in the rank where he is placed. And, (5.) No man should

of baptism by water. But the connexion seems despise another because he is in a more humble

rather to require us to understand it of the besp, rank, or is less favoured than himself. God has

tism of the Holy Ghost, (Matt, iii. 11;) and if made the difference, and we should respect and

so, it means that by the agency of the Holy Spl. honour his arrangements, and should show that

a rit, they had been all fitted, each to his approprio respect and honour by regarding with kindness,

| ate place, to constitute the body of Christie and treating as fellow-labourers with us, all who

church. If, however, it refers to the ordinance ,' occupy a more humble rank than we do.

of baptism, as Bloomfield, Calvin, Doddridge,

&c. suppose, then it means, that by the very pro- ! VER. 12. For as the body is one, and hath many fession of religion as made at baptism, by there members, and all the members of that one | being but one baptism, (Eph. IV. 5,) they wou body, being many, are one body; so also is

| all professedly become members of one and the

same body. The former interpretation, bowChrist.

ever, seems to me best to suit the connexion. a Ver. 27. For as the body is one.

Whether we be Jews or Gentiles. There is no

The general senti- | difference. All are on a level. ment which the apostle had been illustrating and

In regard to the

grand point, no distinction is made, whatever enforcing was, that all the endowments which may have been our former condition of life. Bused were possessed in the church were the work of or free.- It is evident that many who were slaves

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