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dal renders it, “is not provoked to anger.” Our VER. 6. Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth translation does not exactly convey the sense.

P in the truth. The word “easily" is not expressed in the origi

o Rom. i. 32. p Or, with. pal. The translators have inserted it to convey the idea that he who is under the influence of

Rejoiceth not in iniquity.Does not rejoice over love, though he may be provoked, that is, injured, the vices of other men ; does not take delight or though there might be incitements to anger, yet when they are guilty of crime, or when, in any that he would not be roused, or readily give way manner, they fall into sin. It does not find pleato it. The meaning of the phrase in the Greek sure in hearing others accused of sin, and in having is, that a man who is under the influence of love it proved that they have committed it. It does or religion is not prone to violent anger or ex not find a malicious pleasure in the report that asperation ; it is not his character to be hasty, they have done wrong; or in following up that excited, or passionate. He is calm, serious, pa report, and finding it established. Wicked men tient. He looks soberly at things; and though often find pleasure in this, (Rom. i. 32,) and rehe may be injured, yet he governs his passions, joice when others have fallen into sin, and have restrains his temper, subdues his feelings. This, disgraced and ruined themselves. Men of the Paul says, would be produced by love. And this world often find a malignant pleasure in the reis apparent. If we are under the influence of port and in the evidence that a member of the benevolence, or love to any one, we shall not give church has brought dishonour on his profession. way to sudden bursts of feeling. We shall look A man often rejoices when an enemy, a perse

kindly on his actions; put the best construction cutor, or a slanderer has committed some crime, 1 on his motives ; deem it possible that we have and when he has shown an improper spirit, | mistaken the nature or the reasons of his conduct ; | uttered a rash expression, or taken some step

seek or desire explanation, (Matt. v. 23, 24;) wait which shall involve him in ignominy. But love till we can look at the case in all its bearings ; and does none of these things. It does not desire suppose it possible that he may be influenced by | that an enemy, a persecutor, or a slanderer should goed motives, and that his conduct will admit a do evil, or should disgrace and ruin himself. It satisfactory explanation. That true religion is does not rejoice, but grieves, when a professor of designed to produce this, is apparent every where religion, or an enemy of religion—when a perin the New Testament, and especially from the sonal friend or foe has done any thing wrong. example of the Lord Jesus : that it actually does It neither loves the wrong, nor the fact that it produce it, is apparent from all who come under has been done. And perhaps there is no greater its influence in any proper manner. The effect triumph of the gospel than in its enabling a man of religion is nowhere else more striking and ap to rejoice that even his enemy and persecutor in parent than in changing a temper naturally quick, any respect does well; or to rejoice that he is in excitable, and irritable, to one that is calm, and any way honoured and respected among men. Hugentle, and subdued. A consciousness of the man nature, without the gospel, manifests a difpresence of God will do much to produce this ferent feeling ; and it is only as the heart is substate of mind : and if we truly loved all men, dued by the gospel, and filled with universal We should be soon angry with none. Thinketh benevolence, that it is brought to rejoice when all Roerul.—That is, puts the best possible construc- men do well. Rejoiceth in the truth.The word on on the motives and the conduct of others. | truth here stands opposed to iniquity, and means

his expression, also, is comparative. It means that | virtue, piety, goodness. It does not rejoice in the love, or that a person under the influence of love, vices, but in the virtues of others; it is pleased, is not malicious, censorious, disposed to find fault, / it rejoices, when they do well. It is pleased when onto impute improper motives to others. It is those who differ from us conduct in any manner I not only “not easily provoked,” not soon excited, in such a way as to please God, and to advance

! is not disposed to think that there was any | their own reputation and happiness. They who intention even in cases which might tend to | are under the influence of that love rejoice that

nate or exasperate us. It is not disposed to good is done, and the truth defended and advanI think the

that there was any evil in the case; or that ced, whoever may be the instrument; rejoice was done was with any improper intention that others are successful in their plans of doing design ; that is, it puts the best possible con- | good, though they do not act with us; rejoice action on the conduct of others, and supposes, that other men have a reputation wall earned for

", as can be done, that it was in consistency | virtue and purity of life, though they may differ with hon

Lonesty, truth, friendship, and love. The | from us in opinion, and may be connected with a preek word (logiketai) is that which is common | different denomination. They do not rejoice

rendered impute, and is correctly rendered when other denominations of Christians fall into were thinketh. It means, does not reckon, charge, error, or when their plars are blasted, or when

le to a man any evil intention or design. | they are calumniated, and oppressed, and reviled. sire to think well of the man whom we | By whomsoever good is done, or wheresoever, it nor will we think ill of his motives, opin- | is to them a matter of rejoicing ; and by whom

conduct, until we are compelled to do so soever evil is done, or wheresoever, it is to them nost irrefragable evidence. True re- | a matter of grief. See Phil. i. 14–18. The therefore, will prompt to charitable judg- reason of this is, that all sin, error, and vice will

Is there a more striking evidence of ultimately ruin the happiness of any one; and as ution of true religion, than a disposi- love desires their happiness, it desires that they "pute the worst motives and opinions to should walk in the ways of virtue, and is grieved

when ihey do not. What a change would the


or impute to a man We desire to think love; nor will 1ons, or conduct, un by the most irrefragab

ingi the destitution of true tion to impute the w à man.

prevalence of this feeling produce in the conduct | lieveth all things. — The whole scope of the conand happiness of mankind! How much ill-nexion and the argument here requires us to un. natured joy would it repress at the faults of others! | derstand this of the conduct of others. It cannot How much would it do to repress the pains which mean that the man who is under the influence of a man often takes to circulate reports disadvan love is a man of universal credulity; that he tageous to his adversary; to find out and estab makes no discrimination in regard to things to be lish some flaw in his character; to prove that he believed, and is as prone to believe a falsehood has said or done something disgraceful and evil! as the truth; or that he is at no pains to inquire And how much would it do even among Chris what is true and what is false, what is right and tians, in restraining them from rejoicing at the what is wrong. But it must mean, that in regard errors, mistakes, and improprieties of the friends to the conduct of others, there is a disposition to of revivals of religion, and in leading them to put the best construction on it: to believe that mourn over their errors in secret, instead of they may be actuated by good motives, and that taking a malicious pleasure in promulgating them they intend no injury; and that there is a wil. to the world! This would be a very different lingness to suppose, as far as can be, that vbat world if there were none to rejoice in iniquity ; | is done is done consistently with friendship, good and the church would be a different church if feeling, and virtue. Love produces this, because there were none in its bosom but those who re- it rejoices in the happiness and virtue of others, joiced in the truth, and in the efforts of humble and will not believe the contrary except on irreand self-denying piety.

fragable evidence. Hopeth all things.- Hopes

that all will turn out well. This must also refer VER. 7. Beareth all things, believeth 'all things, | to the conduct of others; and it means, that hopeth all things, endureth all things. however dark may be appearances ; how much

soever there may be to produce the fear that q Rom. xv. l.

Rom. viii. 24.
Ý Ps. cxix. 66. i Job xiii. 15.

others are actuated by improper motives, or are

bad men, yet that there is a hope that matters mar Beareth all things.Comp. Note, chap. ix. 12. | be explained and made clear; that the difficulties Doddridge renders this, “ covers all things.” The may be made to vanish ; and that the conduct of word here used (otéyre) properly means to cover, others may be made to appear to be fair and (from otéyn, a covering, roof. Matt. viii. 8. | pure. Love will hold on to this hope until all Luke vii. 6 ;) and then to hide, conceal, not to possibility of such a result has vanished, and it make known. If this be the sense here, then it is compelled to believe that the conduct is not means that love is disposed to hide or conceal susceptible of a fair explanation. This bope the faults and imperfections of others; not to will extend to all things-to words, and actions, promulgate or blazon them abroad, or to give any and plans; to public and to private intercourse : undue publicity to them. Benevolence to the indi- to what is said and done in our presence, and to vidual or to the public would require that these what is said and done in our absence. Love will faults and errors should be concealed. If this is do this, because it delights in the virtue and hap the sense, then it accords nearly with what is said piness of others, and will not credit any thing to in the previous verse. The word may also mean, the contrary unless compelled to do so. Eaderto forbear, bear with, endure. Thus it is used | eth all things.-Bears up under, sustains, and does in 1 Thess, iii. 1, 5. And so our translators un- not murmur. Bears up under all persecutions at derstand it here, as meaning that love is patient, the hand of man; all efforts to injure the person, long-suffering, not soon angry, not disposed to property, or reputation; and bears all that may revenge. And if this is the sense, it accords be laid upon us in the providence and by the with the expression in ver. 4, “ love suffers long." direct agency of God. Comp. Job xii. 15. "The The more usual classic meaning is the former ; connexion requires us to understand it principally the usage in the New Testament seems to demand | of our treatment at the hands of our fellow me the latter. Rosenmüller renders it, “bears all things ;” Bloomfield prefers the other interpreta

VER. 8. Charity never faileth : but whether there tion. Locke and Macknight render it " cover.” be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there The real sense of the passage is not materially be tongues, they shall cease ; whether there le varied, whichever interpretation is adopted. It means, that in regard to the errors and faults of

knowledge, it shall vanish away. others, there is a disposition not to notice or to Charity never faileth.-Paul here proceeds to revenge them. There is a willingness to conceal, | illustrate the value of love, from its permanency or to bear with them patiently. All things. This as compared with other valued endowments. It is evidently to be taken in a popular sense, and to is valuable, and is to be sought because it will be interpreted in accordance with the connexion. always abide; may be always exercised: is All universal expressions of this kind demand to adapted to all circumstances, and to all worlds in be thus limited. The meaning must be, “as far which we may be placed, or in which we mar as it can consistently or lawfully be done." There dwell. The word rendered faileth (

R TU) are offences which it is not proper or right for a denotes properly to fall out of, to fall from or man to conceal, or to suffer to pass unnoticed. off ; and may be applied to the stars of heaven Such are those where the laws of the land are falling, (Mark xiii. 25,) or to flowers that fall or violated, and a man is called on to testify, &c. fade, (James i. 11. 1 Pet. i. 24,) or to chains But the phrase here refers to private matters, falling from the hands, &c. (Acts xii. 7.) Here and indicates a disposition not to make public, or it means to fall away, to fail; to be without to avenge the faults committed by others. Be- effect, to cease to be in existence. The er. pression may mean that it will be adapted to all vanishes, or is lost in the splendours of the rising the situations of life, and is of a nature to be sun. The knowledge which we now have is always exercised; or it may mean that it will valuable, as the gift of prophecy, and the power continue to all eternity, and be exercised in hea- of speaking foreign languages is valuable, but it ven for ever. The connexion demands that the will be lost in the brighter visions of the world latter should be regarded as the true interpreta above.” That this is the sense is evident from tion. See ver. 13. The sense is, that while what Paul says in illustration of the sentiment other endowments of the Holy Spirit must soon in ver. 9, 10. Now we know in part. What cease and be valueless, love would abide, and we deem ourselves acquainted with, we imperwould always exist. The argument is, that we fectly understand. There are many obscurities ought to seek that which is of enduring value; and many difficulties. But in that future world and that, therefore, love should be preferred to we shall know distinctly and clearly ; (ver. 12 ;) those endowments of the Spirit on which so and then the knowledge which we now possess high a value had been set by the Corinthians. will appear so dim and obscure, that it will seem But whether there be prophecies.—That is, the to have vanished away and disappeared, gift of prophecy, or the power of speaking as a prophet; that is, of delivering the truth of God

"As a dim candle dies at noon." in an intelligible manner under the influence of Macknight and others understand this of the inspiration; the gift of being a public speaker, knowledge of the mysteries of the Old Testaof instrneting and edifying the church, and fore- | ment, or the inspired knowledge of the ancient telling future events. See Note, chap. xiv. 1. / revelations, which should be abolished when the

They shall fail.-The gift shall cease to be ex- | church should have attained its mature state ;” a ercised; shall be abolished, come to nought. most meagre, jejune, and frigid interpretation. There shall be no further use for this gift in the | It is true, also, that not only shall our imperfect light and glory of the world above, and it shall knowledge seem to have vanished in the superior cease. God shall be the teacher there. And as light and glory of the eternal world, but that there will be no need of confirming the truth of much of that which here passes for knowledge religion by the prediction of future events, and shall be then unknown Much of that which is no need of warning against impending dangers called science is “falsely so called ;” and much there, the gift of foretelling future events will be that is connected with literature, that has atof course unknown. In heaven, also, there will

tracted so much attention, will be unknown in he no need that the faith of God's people shall

the eternal world. It is evident that much that be encouraged, or their devotions excited, by is connected with criticism, and the knowledge such exhortations and instructions as are need- of language, with the different systems of mental ful now; and the endowment of prophecy will | philosophy which are erroneous ; perhaps much be therefore unknown. There be tongues.—The that is connected with anatomy, physiology, and power of speaking foreign languages. They shall

geology; and much of the science which now is cease. - Macknight supposes this means that they

knight supposes this means that they connected with the arts, and which is of use only shall cease in the church after the gospel shall

as tributary to the arts, will be then unknown. have been preached to all nations. But the

Other subjects may rise into importance which more natural interpretation is, to refer it to the

| are now unknown; and possibly things confuture life; since the main idea which Paul isl nected with science which are now regarded as urging here is the value of love above all other

of the least importance will then become objects endowments, from the fact that it would be

| of great moment, and ripen and expand into abiding, or permanent; an idea which is more sciences that shall contribute much to the eternal certainly and fully met by a reference to the happiness of heaven. The essential idea in this future world, than by a reference to the state of

passage is, that all the knowledge which we now things in the church on earth. If it refers to

possess shall lose its effulgence, be dimmed and heaven, it means that the power of communi

lost in the superior light of heaven. But love cating thoughts there will not be by the medium shall live there ; and we should, therefore, seek of learned and foreign tongues. What will be

that which is permanent and eternal. the mode is unknown. But as the diversity of tongues is one of the fruits of sin, (Gen. xi.,) it Ver. 9. For we know in part, “and we prophesy is evident that in those who are saved there will be deliverance from all the disadvantages which

in part;

u Chap. viii. 2. have resulted from the confusion of tongues. Yet love will not cease to be necessary; and For we know in part.-Comp. Note on chap. love will live for ever. Whether there be know- xii. 27. This expression means, “only in part;" ledge.-See Note, chap. xiv. 8. This refers, I that is, imperfectly. Our knowledge here is think, to knowledge as we now possess it. It imperfect and obscure. It may, therefore, all cannot mean that there will be no knowledge in vanish in the eternal world, amidst its superior heaven ; for there must be a vast increase of brightness; and we should not regard that as of knowledge in that world among all its inhabit- | such vast value which is imperfect and obscure. ants. The idea in the passage here, I think, is, | Comp. Note, chap. viii. 2. This idea of the * All the knowledge which we now possess, va- | obscurity and imperfection of our knowledge, as luable as it is, will be obscured and lost, and compared with heaven, the apostle illustrates, rendered comparatively valueless, in the fuller (ver. 11,) by comparing it with the knowledge splendours of the eternal world ; as the feeble which a child has, compared with that in maturer light of the stars, beautiful and valuable as it is, l years; and (ver. 12) by the knowledge which

we have in looking through a glass-an imper | --when he first began to articulate. I spake as ! fect medium — compared with that which we a child. Just beginning to articulate, in a broken have in looking closely and directly at an object and most imperfect manner. The idea here is, without any medium. And we prophesy in part. that our knowledge at present, compared with - This does not mean that we partly know the the knowledge of heaven, is like the broken and truths of religion, and partly conjecture or guess scarcely intelligible efforts of a child to speak, 1 at them; or that we know only a part of them, compared with the power of utterance in manand conjecture the remainder. But the apostle hood. I understood as a child.-My understand. is showing the imperfection of the prophetic ing was feeble and imperfect. I bad narrow and gift ; and he observes, that there is the same im- | imperfect views of things. I knew little. I fixed perfection which attends knowledge. It is only my attention on objects which I now see to be of in part; it is imperfect; it is indistinct, com- / little value. I acquired knowledge which has pared with the full view of truth in heaven; it vanished, or which has sunk in the superior inis obscure, and all that is imparted by that gift telligence of riper years. “I was affected as a will soon become dim and los

lost in the superior child. I was thrown into a transport of jov or brightness and glory of the heavenly world. I grief on the slightest occasions, which manls The argument is, that we ought not to seek sore

ot to seek so reason taught me to despise." -Doudridge anxiously that which is so imperfect and obscure, thought as u child. Marg. Reasoned.-The word and which must soon vanish away; but we should may mean either. I thought, argued, reasoned, rather seek that love which is permanent, ex- in a weak and inconclusive manner. Jy thoughts, panding, and eternal.

and plans, and argumentations were puerile, and

such as I now see to be short-sighted and erroVER. 10. But "when that which is perfect is neous. Thus it will be with our thoughts, comcome, then that which is in part shall be done pared to heaven. There will be, doubtless, as

much difference between our present knowledge, away. • 1 John iii. 2.

and plans, and views, and those which we skall

have in heaven, as there is between the plans and But when that which is perfect is come.-Does views of a child, and those of a man. Just before come; or shall come. This proposition is couched his death, Sir Isaac Newton made this remark: in a general form. It means, that when any thing I do not know what I may appear to the world; which is perfect is seen or enjoyed, then that but to myself I seem to have been only like a which is imperfect is forgotten, laid aside, or boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myvanishes. Thus, in the full and perfect light of self by now and then finding a smoother pebble, day, the imperfect and feeble light of the stars or a prettier shell, than ordinary, while the great vanishes. The sense here is, that in heaven-a ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."state of absolute perfection—that which is “in Brewster's Life of Newton, pp. 300, 301, Ed. les part," or which is imperfect, shall be lost in su York, 1832. perior brightness. All imperfection will vanish. And all that we here possess that is obscure shall | VER. 12. For now we see through a glass be lost in the superior and perfect glory of that

* darkly; y but then face to face: now I know eternal world. All our present unsatisfactory modes of obtaining knowledge shall be unknown.

in part; but then shall I know even as also I ! All shall be clear, bright, and eternal.

am known, Ver. 11. When I was a child, I spake as a child, * 2 Cor. iii. 18.

y Or, in a ridde. I understood as a child, I u thought as a child;

| For now we see through a glass.-Paul here but when I became a man, I put away childish makes use of another illustration to show the imthings.

perfection of our knowledge here. Compared w Or, reasoned.

with what it will be in the future world, it is like

the imperfect view of an object which we have in When I was a child.—The idea here is, that looking through an obscure and opaque medium, the knowledge which we now have, compared with compared with the view which we have when se that which we shall have in heaven, is like that look at it “ face to face." The word "glass which is possessed in infancy compared with that here (córpov) means properly a mirror, 3 we have in manhood; and that as, when we looking-glass. The mirrors of the ancients were advance in years, we lay aside, as unworthy of usually made of polished metal. (Exod. XXIVIL. our attention, the views, feelings, and plans which | 8. Job xxxvii. 18.) Many have supposed, ser we had in boyhood, and which we then esteemed | Doddridge, in loc. and Robinson's Lexicon, that to be of so great importance, so, when we reach the idea here is that of seeing objects by referens heaven, we shall lay aside the views, feelings, | from a mirror, which reflects only their imperiti and plans which we have in this life, and which forms. But this interpretation does not well ace we now esteem so wise and so valuable. The cord with the apostle's idea of seeing things o word "child" here (vntloc) denotes properly a scurely. The most natural idea is that of seeing babe, an infant, though without any definable objects by an imperfect medium, by looking limitation of age. It refers to the first periods of through something in contemplating them. " existence; before the period which we denomi- | therefore, probable that he refers to those that nate boyhood, or youth. Paul here refers to a parent substances which the ancients had, and period when he could speak, though evidently a which they used in their windows occasionally: period when his speech was scarcely intelligible such as thin plates of horn, transparent statica

&c. Windows were often made of the lapis spe- clear-a view that would be clear, arising from cularis described by Pliny, (xxxvi. 22,) which the fact that he would be present with them, and was pellucid, and which admitted of being split permitted to see them, instead of surveying them into thin laminæ or scales, probably the same as at a distance, and by imperfect mediums. Even mica. Humboldt mentions such kinds of stone as also I am known. - In the same manner, as being used in South America, in church win (každc,) not to the same extent. It does not dows. --Bloomfield. It is not improbable, I think, | mean that he would know God as clearly and as that even in the time of Paul the ancients had the fully as God would know him ; for his remark knowledge of glass, though it was probably at does not relate to the extent, but to the manner first very imperfect and obscure. There is some and the comparative clearness of his knowledge. Teason to believe that glass was known to the He would see things as he was now seen and Phenicians, the Tyrians, and the Egyptians. would be seen there. It would be face to face. Pliny says that it was first discovered by acci- | He would be in their presence. It would not be dent. A merchant vessel, laden with nitre or where he would be seen clearly and distinctly, fossil alkali, having been driven on shore on the and himself compelled to look upon all objects coast of Palestine, near the river Belus, the crew confusedly and obscurely, and through an im| went in search of provisions, and accidentally perfect medium. But he would be with them ;

supported the kettles on which they dressed their would see them face to face; would see them food upon pieces of fossil alkali. The river sand without any medium; would see them in the above which this operation was performed was same manner as they would see him. Disemvitrified by its union with the alkali, and thus bodied spirits, and the inhabitants of the heavenly produced glass.-See Edin. Encyc., art., have this knowledge; and when we are It is known that glass was in quite common use | there, we shall see the truths, not at a distance about the commencement of the Christian era. | and obscurely, but plainly and openly. In the reign of Tiberius, an artist had his house demolished, for making glass malleable. About

Ver. 13. And now abideth faith, - hope, charity, this time, drinking vessels were made commonly these three; but the greatest of these is charity. of glass; and glass bottles, for holding wine and

Heb. x. 35, 39. 1 Pet. i. 21. flowers, were in common use. That glass was in quite common use has been proved by the re-! And now abideth.Remains (uével.) The word mains that have been discovered in the ruins of means properly to remain, continue, abide ; and Herculaneum and Pompeii. There is, therefore, is applied to persons remaining in a place, in a no impropriety in supposing that Paul here may state or condition, in contradistinction from rehave alluded to the imperfect and discoloured | moving or changing their place, or passing away. glass which was then in extensive use ; for we | Here it must be understood to be used to denote have no reason to suppose that it was then as permanency, when the other things of which he transparent as that which is now made. It was, I had spoken had passed away; and the sense is, doubtless, an imperfect and obscure medium, that faith, hope, and love would remain when the and, therefore, well adapted to illustrate the na- | gift of tongues should cease, and the need of proture of our knowledge here, compared with what phecy, &c.; that is, these should survive them it will be in heaven. Darkly. Marg. In a riddle, all. And the connexion certainly requires us to (iv aiviyparı.)- The word means a riddle; an understand him as saying that faith, hope, and enigma; then an obscure intimation. In a riddle love would survive all those things of which he a statement is made with some resemblance to had been speaking, and must, therefore, include the truth; a puzzling question is proposed, and knowledge, (ver. 8, 9,) as well as miracles and the solution is left to conjecture. Hence it means, the other endowments of the Holy Spirit. They as here, obscurely, darkly, imperfectly. Little is would survive them all, would be valuable when koown; much is left to conjecture ;-a very ac- they should cease ; and should, therefore, be curate account of most of that which passes for mainly sought; and of these the greatest and knowledge. Compared with heaven, our know- | most important is love. Most commentators have ledge here much resembles the obscure intima- supposed that Paul is speaking here only of this tions in an enigma, compared with clear state- | life, and that he means to say, that in this life ment and manifest truth. But then.-In the these three exist : that “faith, hope, and charity suller revelations in heaven. Face to face.-- As exist in this scene only, but that in the future when one looks upon an object openly, and not world faith and hope will be done away, and through an obscure and dark medium. It here therefore the greatest of these is charity.”--Bloommeans, therefore, clearly, without obscurity. 1 field. See also Doddridge, Macknight, Rosenknow in part, (ver. 9.) But then shall I know. - muller, Clarke, &c. But to me it seems evident My knowledge shall be clear and distinct. I that Paul means to say that faith, hope, and love shall have a clear view of those objects which will survive all those other things of which he are now so indistinct and obscure. I shall be in had been speaking ; that they would vanish away, the presence of those objects about which I now or be lost in superior attainments and endowinquire ; I shall see them; I shall have a clear ments; that the time would come when they would acquaintance with the divine perfections, plans, be useless ; but that faith, hope, and love would and character. This does not mean that he then remain; but of these, for important reasons, would know every thing, or that he would be love was the most valuable. Not because it omniscient; but that, in regard to those points would endure the longest, for the apostle does not of inquiry in which he was then interested, intimate that, but because it is more important he would have a view that would be distinct and to the welfare of others, and is a more eminent


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