« PreviousContinue »
and thus met at once all the objections which idle, false. It would be false to afirm that the i could be urged against the doctrine. It would Christian system was from heaven; it would be have been most in accordance with the philo- | useless to proclaim such a system, as it could sophy of the Greeks to have gone into a meta- save no one. And your faith is also rain. It is physical discussion to show that it was not im- | useless to believe: it can be of no advantage. If possible or absurd, and this might have been Christ was not raised, he was an impostor, since! done. It was most in accordance with the prin- he repeatedly declared that he would rise, (Matt. ciples of true philosophy, however, to establish xvi. 21 ; xviii. 22, 23. Luke ix. 22,) and since the fact at once, and to argue from that, and the whole of his religion depended on that. The thus to meet all the difficulties at once. The system could not be true unless Christ had been doctrine of the resurrection, therefore, does not raised, as he said he would be; and to believe a rest on a metaphysical subtlety ; it does not de- | false system could be of no use to any man. The pend on human reasoning; it does not depend on argument here is one addressed to all their feelanalogy; it rests, just as the sciences of astro- ings, their hopes, and their belief. It is drawn nomy, chemistry, anatomy, botany, and natural | from all their convictions that the system was philosophy do, on well ascertained facts; and it true. Were they, could they be prepared to adis now a well understood principle of all true mit a doctrine which involved the consequence science, that no difficulty, no obstacle, no meta- that all the evidences which they had, tbat the physical subtlety; no embarrassment about being apostles preached the truth, were delasive, and able to see how it is, is to be allowed to destroy that all the evidences of the truth of Christianity the conviction in the mind which the facts are which had affected their minds and won their fitted to produce.
hearts were false and deceptive? If they were
not prepared for this, then it followed that thes VER. 13. But if there be no resurrection of I should not abandon or doubt the doctrine of the the dead, then is Christ not risen :
resurrection of the dead. q 1 Thess. iv. 14.
Ver. 15. Yea, and we are found false witnesses But if there be no resurrection of the dead.- If of God; because we have testified of God that the whole subject is held to be impossible and
he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, absurd, then it must follow that Christ is not
if so be that the dead rise not. risen, since there were the same difficulties in the way of raising him up which will exist in Yea, and we are found.—We are, or we shall any case. He was dead; and was buried. He l be proved to be. It will follow, if the Lord Jehad lain in the grave three days. His hu- / sus was not raised up, that we have been false man soul had left the body. His frame had witnesses. Of God.-Respecting God. It will become cold and stiff. The blood had ceased to be found that we have affirmed that which is circulate, and the lungs to heave. In his case not true of God; or have said that he has done there was the same difficulty in raising him up to that which he has not done. Nothing could be life that there is in any other; and if it is held regarded as a greater crime than this, whatever to be impossible and absurd that the dead should might be the immediate subject under considera. ! rise, then it must follow that Christ has not been | tion. To bear false witness of a man, or to say raised. This is the first consequence which Paul | that a man has done what he has not done, is states as resulting from the denial of this doc
regarded as a grievous crime. How much more trine, and this is inevitable. Paul thus shows so to bear false testimony of God! Because ne them that the denial of the doctrine, or the have testified of God. Or rather against God maintaining the general proposition, “ that the (karà toŬ Okov.) Our evidence has been against dead would not rise," led also to the denial of the him. We have affirmed that which is not true: fact that the Lord Jesus had risen, and conse- and this is against God. It is implied bere that quently to the denial of Christianity altogether, it would be a crime to testify that God had raised and the annihilation of all their hopes. There up the Lord Jesus if he had not done it; or that, was, moreover, such a close connexion between it would be affirming that of God which would be Christ and his people, that the resurrection of against his character, or which it would be im. the Lord Jesus made their resurrection certain. proper for him to do. This would be so, (1.) See 1 Thess. iv. 14. See Note, John xiv. 19. Because it would be wrong to bear any false wit
ness of God, or to affirm that he had done wbat, Ver. 14. And if - Christ be not risen, then is ER. 14. And if Christ be not risen, then is he had not done ; (2.) Because if the Lord Jesus our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain. had not been raised up, it would prove that he r Acts xvii. 31.
was an impostor, since he had declared that be
would be raised up; and to affirm of God that he Anul if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching had raised up an impostor would be against him, vain.--Another consequence which must follow, and would be highly dishonourable to him. Ij if it be held that there was no resurrection, and the dead rise not.-If there is, and can be no reconsequently that Christ was not risen. It would I surrection. If this general proposition is true. be vain and useless to preach. The substance of that there can be no resurrection, then it will their preaching was, that Christ was raised up; I apply to Christ as well as any others, and must and all their preaching was based on that. If prove that he did not rise. The argument in this that were not true, the whole system was false, verse is this. (1.) If it was denied that Christi and Christianity was an imposition. The word was raised, it would prove that all the apostles “ vain” here seems to include the idea of useless, were false witnesses of the worst character
false witnesses against God. (2.) This the apostle risen Saviour, the dominion of sin has ben broken; seerns to have presumed they could not believe. / and every Christian is, therefore, in an importThey had had too many evidences that they ant sense, a witness of the resurrection of the spoke the truth : they had seen their uniform Lord Jesus-a living proof that a system which respect for God, and desire to bear witness of can work so great changes, and produce such
him and in his favour; they had had too conclu- | evidence that sins are forgiven, as are furnished i sive evidence that they were inspired by him, and in the conversion of sinners, must be from God;
had the power of working miracles : they were and of course that the work of the Lord Jesus was too fully convinced of their honesty, truth, and accepted, and that he was raised up from the dead. piety, ever to believe that they could be false witnesses against God. They had had ample op VER. 18. Then they also which are fallen asleep portunity to know whether God did raise up the
in Christ are perished. Lord Jesus; and they were witnesses who had no inducement to bear a false witness in the case. I Then they also, &c.—This verse contains a
statement of another consequence which must Ver. 16. For if the dead rise not, then is not
follow from the denial of the resurrection—that Christ raised:
all Christians who had died had failed of salvaFor if the dead rise not, &c.—This is a repe
tion, and were destroyed. Which are fallen asleep tition of what is said in ver. 13. It is repeated
in Christ. Which have died as Christians. Note, here, evidently, because of its importance. It
ver. 6. 1 Thess. iv. 15. Are perished.- Are dewas a great and momentous truth which would
stroyed; are not saved. They hoped to have bear repetition, that if there was no resurrec
been saved by the merits of the Lord Jesus; they tion, as some held, then it would follow that the
trusted to a risen Saviour, and fixed all their Lord Jesus was not raised up.
hopes of heaven there ; but if he did not rise, of
course the whole system was delusion, and they VER. 17. And if Christ be not raised, your faith have failed of heaven, and been destroyed. 'is vain; ye are yet in your sins.
Their bodies lie in the grave, and return to their
native dust without the prospect of a resurrecs Rom. iv. 25.
tion, and their souls are destroyed. The arguYour faith is rain. (Ver. 14.)—The meaning | ment here is mainly an appeal to their feelings : of this passage here is, that their faith was vain, “ Can you believe it possible that the good men because if Christ was not raised up, they were who have believed in the Lord Jesus are destroyset up pardoned sinners. The pardon of sin was ed? Can you believe that your best friends, connected with the belief of the resurrection of your kindred, and your fellow Christians who the Lord Jesus, and if he was not raised, they have died, have gone down to perdition? Can were still in a state of sin. Ye are yet in your you believe that they will sink to woe with
sins --Your sins are yet unpardoned. They can the impenitent, and the polluted, and abandon| be forgiven only by faith in him, and by the effi ed? If you cannot, then it must follow that
cacy of his blood. But if he was not raised, he they are saved. And then it will follow that you was an impostor ; and of course all your hopes cannot embrace a doctrine which involves this of pardon by him and through him must be vain, consequence.” And this argument is a sound The argument in this verse consists in an appeal one still. There are multitudes who are made to their Christian experience and their hopes. It good men by the gospel. They are holy, hummay be thus expressed: (1.) You have reason to ble, self-denying, and prayerful friends of God. believe that your sins are forgiven. You cherish They have become such by the belief of the death that belief on evidence that is satisfactory to you. and resurrection of the Lord Jesus. Can it be But if Christ is not raised, that cannot be true. believed that they will be destroyed; that they He was an impostor, and sins cannot be forgiven will perish with the profane, and licentious, and by him. As you are not, and cannot be prepared unprincipled ; that they will go down to dwell to admit that your sins are not forgiven, you with the polluted and the wicked ? “ Shall not
cannot admit a doctrine which involves that. (2.) | the Judge of all the earth do right?” (Gen. viji. i fou have evidence that you are not under the 25.) If it cannot be so believed, then they will
dominion of sin. You have repented of it ; | be saved ; and if saved, it follows that the sysbare forsaken it, and are leading a holy life. | tem is true which saves them, and of course that You know that, and cannot be induced to doubt the Lord Jesus rose from the dead. We may rethis fact. But all that is to be traced to the doc- mark here, that a denial of the truth of Chris
trine that the Lord Jesus rose from the dead. It tianity involves the belief that its friends will | is only by believing that, and the doctrines perish with others; that all their hopes are vain; , which are connected with it, that the power of aud that their expectations are delusive. He, sin in the heart has been destroyed. And as you therefore, who becomes an infidel, believes that cannot doubt that, under the influence of that his pious friends-his sainted father, his holy truth, you have been enabled to break off from mother, his lovely Christian sister or child, is Tour sins, so you cannot admit a doctrine which deluded and deceived ; that they will sink down would involve it as a consequence that you are to the grave to rise ne more: that their hopes vet under the condemnation and the dominion of of heaven will all vanish, and that they will be sin, You must believe, therefore, that the Lord destroyed with the profane, the impure, and the Jesus rose ; and that, if he rose, others will also. sensual. And if infidelity demands this faith of This argument is good also now, just so far as its votaries, it is a system which strikes at the there is evidence that, through the belief of a very happiness of social life, and at all our convictions of what is true and right. It is a system appointed hopes, and trials, and poverty, and that is withering and blighting to the best hopes want, and all for nought; and no condition could of men. Can it be believed that God will destroy be conceived to be more deplorable than where those who are living to his honour ; who are pure a man was looking for eternal life, and for it sobin heart, and lovely in life, and who have been jecting himself to a life of want, and poverty, made such by the Christian religion? If it can- and persecution, and tears, and should be finally not, then every man knows that Christianity is disappointed. This passage, therefore, does not not false, and that infidelity is not true.
mean that virtue and piety are not attended with
happiness; it does not mean that, even if there Ver. 19. If in this life only we have hope in
were no future state, a man would not be more Christ, we 'are of all men most miserable. happy if he walked in the paths of virtue than
if he lived a life of sin ; it does not mean that the 1 John xvi. 2. Chap. iv.13. 2 Tim. iii. 12.
Christian has no happiness in religion itself-in If in this life only we have hope in Christ. the love of God, and in prayer, and praise, and in -If our hope in Christ shall not be followed purity of life. In all this he has enjoyment; by the resurrection of the dead and future glory, and even if there were no heaven, a life of virtue and if all our hopes shall be disappointed. We are, and piety would be more happy than a life of sin., &c.-Doddridge, Macknight, Grotius, and some | But it means that the condition of the Christian 11 others, suppose that this refers to the apostles would be more deplorable than that of other men; only, and that the sense is, that if there was no re- he would be more to be pitied. All his high! surrection, they, of all men, would be most to be hopes would be disappointed. Other men hare! pitied, since they had exposed themselves to such | no such hopes to be dashed to the ground; and, a variety of dangers and trials, in which nothing of course, no other men would be such objects of could sustain them but the hope of immortality. pity and compassion. The argument ia this ver If they failed in that, they failed in every thing. ) is derived from the high hopes of the Christian. They were regarded as the most vile of the hu “ Could they believe that all their hopes were man family; they suffered more from persecution, to be frustrated? Could they subject themselves poverty, and perils, than other men ; and if, after to all these trials and privations, without believing all, they were to be deprived of all their hopes, that they would rise from the dead? Were thes' and disappointed in their expectation of the re prepared, by the denial of the doctrine of the surrection, their condition would be more deplor resurrection, to put themselves in the condition | able than that of any other men. But there is of the most miserable and wretched of the huno good reason for supposing that the word “we,” | man family-to admit that they were in a condi- , here, is to be limited to the apostles. For, (1.) | tion most to be deplored ?” Paul had not mentioned the apostles particularly in the previous verses; and, (2.) The argument
VER. 20. But now is » Christ risen from tbe ! demands that it should be understood of all Chris dead, and become the first-fruits * of them that tians, and the declaration is as true, substantially, slept. of all Christians as it was of the apostles. Of
u 1 Pet. i. 3. • Acts xxvi. 23. Col. i. 18. Rev. i 3. all men most miserable.-- More to be pitied or commiserated than any other class of men. The But now is Christ risen, &c.—This language is word here used (illetvÓTE001) means, properly, | the bursting forth of a full heart and of overmore deserving of pity, more pitiable. It may powering conviction. It would seem as if Paul mean sometimes, more wretched, or unhappy ; ) were impatient of the slow process of argument; but this is not necessarily its meaning, nor is it | weary of meeting objections, and of stating the its meaning here. It refers rather to their con- | consequences of a denial of the doctrine; and 1 dition and hopes than to their personal feeling; longing to give utterance to what he krew, that and does not mean that Christians are unhappy, Christ was risen from the dead. That was a or that their religion does not produce comfort, point on which he was certain. He had seen him but that their condition would be most deplor- | after he was risen ; and he could no more doubt able ; they would be more deserving of pity than this fact than he could any other which he had any other class of men. This would be, (1.) Be- | witnessed with his own eyes. He makes, therecause no other men had so elevated hopes, and, fore, this strong affirmation; and, in deing it, be of course, no others could experience so great at the same time affirms that the dead will als disappointment. (2.) They were subjected to rise, since he had shown (ver. 12--18) that all more trials than any other class of men. They | the objection to the doctrine of the resurrection were persecuted and reviled, and subjected to was removed by the fact that Christ bad rise, toil, and privation, and want, on account of , and had shown that his resurrection involved the their religion; and if, after all, they were to be certainty that his people also would rise. There disappointed, their condition was truly deplor- | is peculiar force in the word “pow" in this verse. able. (3.) They do not indulge in the pleasures | The meaning may be thus expressed : “I have of this life; they do not give themselves as others showed the consequences which would follos do, to the enjoyments of this world. They vo from the supposition that Christ was not raised luntarily subject themselves to trial and self-de- up. I have shown how it would destroy all nur nial ; and if they are not admitted to eternal life, hopes, plunge us into grief, annihilate our faith, they are not only disappointed in this, but they make our preaching vain, and involve us in tbe are cut off from the sources of happiness which belief that our pious friends have perished, and their fellow-men enjoy in this world.-Calvin. that we are yet in our sins. I have shown bov (4.) On the whole, therefore, there would be dis- it would produce the deepest disappointment and
| misery. But all this was more supposition. was the first-fruits? Of them that slept.-Of the i There is no reason to apprehend any such con- | pious dead. Note, ver. 6.
sequences, or to be thus alarmed. Christ is risen. į Of that there is no doubt. That is not to be
VER. 21. For " since by man came death, * by man called in question. It is established by irrefra came also the resurrection of the dead. gable testimony ; and consequently our hopes are w Rom. v. 12, 17.
& John xi. 25. not vain, our faith is not useless, our pious friends
For since by man came death.-By Adam, or have not perished, and we shall not be disap
| by means of his transgression. See ver. 22. The pointed.” And become the first-fruits.—The word rendered first-fruits (a taoxv) occurs in the New
sense is, evidently, that in consequence of the sin Testament in the following places: Rom. viii.
of Adam, all men die, or are subjected to tem
poral death. Or, in other words, man would 23, (see Note on this place ;) xi. 16 ; xvi. 5. 1 Cor. xv. 20, 23 ; xvi. 15. James i. 18. Rev. xiv.
not have died had it not been for the crime of 4. It occurs often in the LXX, as the translation
the first man. See Note on Rom. v. 12. This of an, fat, or fatness, (Num. xviii. 12, 29, 30, 32 ;)
passage may be regarded as proof that death as the translation of ', the tenth, or tithe,
would not have entered the world had it not been (Deat. xii. 6 ;) of you, iniquity, (Num. xviii. 1 ;)
for transgression; or, in other words, if man
had not sinned, he would have remained immortal of WN, the beginning, the commencement, i the first, (Ex. xxiii. 19. Lev. xxiii. 10. Num.
on the earth, or would have been translated to heaxv. 18, 19, &c.:) of an, oblation, offering;
ven, as Enoch and Elijah were, without seeing
death. The apostle here, hy “man," undoubtlifting up; of that which is lifted up or wared as
edly refers to Adam; but the particular and spethe first sheaf of the harvest, &c. Ex. xxv. 2,3 ; XXXV. 5. Num. v. 9; xviii. 8, &c. The first
cific idea which he intends to insist on is, that
as death came by human nature, or by a human fruits, or the first sheaf of ripe grain, was re
being, by a man, so it was important and proper quired to be offered to the Lord, and was waved
that immortality, or freedom from death, should bwfore him by the priest, as expressing the sense of gratitude by the husbandman, and his recognition
come in the same way, by one who was a man.
Man introduced death; man also would recover of the fact that God had a right to all that he had. (Lev. xxiii. 10–14.) The word, there
from death. The evil was introduced by one
man; the recovery would be by another. By fore, comes to have two senses, or to involve two ideas : (1.) That which is first, the beginning,
man came also.-By the Lord Jesus, the Son of
| God, in human nature. The resurrection came or that which has the priority of time; and (2.)
by him, because he first rose— first of those who That which is a part and portion of the whole
should not again die ; because he proclaimed the which is to follow, and which is the earnest or
doctrine, and placed it on a firm foundation ; pledge of that; as the first sheaf of ripe grain
and because by his power the dead will be raised was not only the first in order of time, but was
up. Thus he came to counteract the evils of the the earnest or pledge of the entire harvest which
fall, and to restore man to more than his primwas soon to succeed. In allusion to this Paul
eval dignity and honour. The resurrection uses the word here. It was not merely or mainly
through Christ will be with the assurance that that Christ was the first in order of time that
all who are raised up by him shall never die rose from the dead, for Lazarus and the widow's son had been raised before him ; but it was that
again. he was chief in regard to the dignity, value, and
V'ER. 22. For as in Adam all die, even so in importance of his rising: he was connected with
Christ shall all be made alive. all that should rise, as the first sheaf of the har: vest was with the crop ; he was a part of the For as in Adam, (iv týd’Acàp.)—By Adam ; mighty harvest of the resurrection, and his rising | by the act, or by means of Adam; as a consewas a portion of that great rising, as the sheafquence of his act. His deed was the procuring was a portion of the harvest itself; and he was cause, or the reason why all are subjected to tem80 connected with them all, and their rising so poral death. See Gen. iii. 19. It does not mean depended on his, that his resurrection was a de that all men became actually dead when he monstration that they would rise. It may also sinned, for they had not then an existence; but Le implied here, as Grotius and Schoettgen have | it must mean that the death of all can be traced remarked, that he is the first of those who were to him as the procuring cause, and that his act raised so as not to die again; and that, therefore, made it certain that all that came into the world those raised by Elisha and by the Saviour himself would be mortal. The sentence which went do not come into the account. They all died forth against him, (Gen. iii. 19,) went forth again ; but the Saviour will not die, nor will those against all ; affected all; involved all in the cerwhom he will raise up in the resurrection die any tainty of death; as the sentence that was passed more. He is, therefore, the first of those that on the serpent, (Gen. ii. 14,) made it certain thus rise, and a portion of that great host which that all serpents would be “cursed above all shall be raised to die no more. May there not cattle," and be prone upon the earth; the senbe another idea ? The first sheaf of the harvest tence that was passed upon the woman, (Gen. iii. was consecrated to God, and then all the harvest 16.) made it certain that all women would be was regarded as consecrated to him. May it not subjected to the same condition of suffering to be implied that, by the resurrection of the Lord which Eve was subjected ; and the sentence that Jesus, all those of whom he speaks are regarded was passed on man, (Gen. iii. 17,) that he should as sacred to God, and as consecrated and accepted cultivate the ground in sorrow all the days of bis by the resurrection and acceptance of him who life, that it should bring forth thistles and
thorns to him, (ver. 18,) that he should eat bread sin of Adam ; and that this evil is counteracted in the sweat of his brow, (ver. 19,) made it cer- | fully by the resurrection of Christ, and the retain that this would be the condition of all men surrection through him. And to this point the as well as of Adam. It was a blow at the head of passage should be limited. (4.) If this passage the human family, and they were subjected to means, that in Adam, or by him, all men became the same train of evils as he was himself. In like sinners, then the correspondent declaration, - all manner they were subjected to death. It was done shall be made alive," must mean that all men in Adam, or by Adam, in the same way as it was shall become righteous, or that all shall be saved. in him or by him, that they were subjected to This would be the natural and obvions interpretoil, and to the necessity of procuring food by tation; since the words “ be made alive" mast sweat of the brow. See Notes, Rom, v. 12-19. have reference to the words “ all die," and must See ver. 47, 48. All die.- All mankind are sub affirm the correlative and opposite fact. If tbe jected to temporal death, or are mortal. This phrase “ all die" there means all become sinners, passage has been often adduced to prove that all then the phrase “ all be made alive," must mean mankind became sinful in Adam, or in virtue of all shall be made holy, or be recovered froin their a covenant transaction with him ; and that they spiritual death; and thus an obvious argument is are subjected to spiritual death as a punishment furnished for the doctrine of universal salvation, for his sins. But whatever may be the truth on which it is difficult, if not impossible, to meet. It that subject, it is clear that this passage does not is not a sufficient answer to this to say, that the relate to it, and should not be adduced as a proof word “alt,” in the latter part of the sentence, text. For, (1.) The words “die” and “ dieth” | means all the elect, or all the righteous; for its obviously and usually refer to temporal death ; / most natural and obvious meaning is, that it is and they should be so understood, unless there is co-extensive with the word “ all” in the former something in the connexion which requires us to part of the verse. And although it has been held understand them in a figurative and metaphorical | by many who suppose that the passage reters only sense. But there is evidently no such necessity | to the resurrection of the dead, that it means here. (2.) The context requires us to under- that all the righteous shall be raised up, or all stand this as relating to temporal death. There who are given to Christ, yet that interpretation is not here, as there is in Rom. v., any intima- | is not the obvious one, nor is it yet sufficiently tion that men became sinners in consequence of clear to make it the basis of an argument, or to the transgression of Adam ; nor does the course | meet the strong argument which the advocate of of the apostle's argument require him to make universal salvation will derive from the former any statement on that subject. His argument interpretation of the passage. It is true, literally. has reference to the subject of temporal death, that all the dead will rise ; it is not true, literally. and the resurrection of the dead, and not to the that all who became mortal, or became sinders question in what way men became sinners. (3.) | by means of Adam, will be saved. And it must The whole of this argument relates to the resur- | be held as a great principle, that this passage is rection of the dead. That is the main, the lead- not to be so interpreted as to teach the doctrine ing, the exclusive point. He is demonstrating of the salvation of all men. At least, this may that the dead would rise. He is showing how be adopted as a principle in the argument with this would be done. It became, therefore, im- those who adduce it to prove that all men beportant for him to show in what way men were came sinners by the transgression of Adam. This subjected to temporal death. His argument, passage, therefore, should not be adduced in therefore, requires him to make a statement on proof of the doctrine of imputation, or as relatthat point, and that only ; and to show that the ing to the question how men became sinners, but resurrection by Christ was adapted to meet and should be limited to the subject that was imme overcome the evils of the death to which men diately put under discussion in the argument of were subjected by the sin of the first man. In the apostle. That object was, to show that the Rom. v., the design of Paul is to prove that the doctrine of the resurrection by Christ was such effects of the work of Christ were more than as to meet the obvious doctrine, that men became sufficient to meet all the evils introduced by the mortal by Adam ; or that the one was adapted to sin of Adam. This leads him to an examination counteract the other. Even so, (oŰTo.)- In this there of the question in what way men became manner; referring not merely to the certainty of sinners. Here the design is to show that the the event, but to the mode or manner. As the work of Christ is adapted to overcome the evils | death of all was occasioned by the sin of one, of the sin of Adam in one specific matter-the even so, in like manner, the resurrection of all matter under discussion, i, e. on the point of the shall be produced by one. His resurrection sbal} resurrection; and his argument, therefore, re meet and counteract the evils introduced by the quires him to show only that temporal death, or other, so far as the subject under discussion is conmortality, was introduced by the first man, and cerned ; that is, so far as relates to temporal death. that this has been counteracted by the second ; In Christ.-By Christ; in virtue of him ; or as the and to this specific point the interpretation of result of his death and resurrection. Many comthis passage should be confined. Nothing is mentators have supposed that the word “all“ here i more important in interpreting the Bible than to refers only to believers, meaning all who were ascertain the specific point in the argument of united to Christ, or all who were his friends; a writer to be defended or illustrated, and then all included in the covenant with him; as the to confine the interpretation to that. The argu- word “all" in the former member of the sedment of the apostle here is ample to prove that , tence means all who were included in the coreall men are subjected to temporal death by the nant with Adam; that is, all mankind. But to