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d Phil. iii. 21.

God would be included, and would be subdued to ending, was indeed clearly predicted. See ? him ; as among the heathen, Jupiter is fabled to Sam. vii. 16. Psa. xlv. 6. Isa. ix. 6, 7. Dan. have expelled his father Saturn from his throne ii. 44 ; vii. 14. Luke i. 22, 23. Heb. i.d. But and from heaven. (2.) It might be to prevent these predictions may be all accomplished on the supposition, from what Paul had said of the the supposition that the peculiar mediatonal extent of the Son's dominion, that he was in any kingdom of the Messiah shall be given up to respect superior to the Father. It is implied by God, and that he shall be subject to him. For, this exception here, that when the necessity for (a) His kingdom will be perpetual, in contrathe peculiar mediatorial kingdom of the son distinction from the kingdoms of this world. should cease, there would be a resuming of the They are fuctuating, changing, short in their authority and dominion of the Father, in the duration. His shall not cease, and shall comanner in which it subsisted before the incarna- tinue to the end of time. (6) His kingdon tion. (3.) The expression may also be regarded shall be perpetual, because those who are brought as intensive or emphatic; as denoting, in the most under the laws of God by him shall remain subabsolute sense, that there was nothing in the uni- ject to those laws for ever. The sceptre deret verse, but God, which was not subject to him. shall be broken, and the kingdom shall abide o God was the only exception; and his dominion, all eternity. (c) Christ, the Son of God, in bu therefore, was absolute over all other beings and divine nature, as God, shall never cease to rage things.

As Mediator, he may resign his commission and

his peculiar office, having made an atonement, VER. 28. And when all things shall be subdued having recovered his people, having protected

d unto him, then shall the Son also himself be and guided them to heaven. Yet as one with subject unto him that put all things under age,” (Isai. ix. 6,) he shall not cease to rejeti.

the Father; as the “Father of the ererlasting him, that God may be all in all.

The functions of a peculiar office may have been e Chap. xi. 3. discharged, and delegated power laid down, and

that which appropriately belongs to him in virtue And when, &c.—In this future time, when this of his own nature and relations may be resumed shall be accomplished. This implies that the time and executed for ever ; and it shall still be true has not yet arrived, and that his dominion is now that the reign of the Son of God, in union, or exercised, and that he is carrying forward his in oneness with the Father, shall continue for plans for the subjugation of all things to God. ever. (5.) The interpretation which attirms that Shall be subdued unto him.-Shall be brought un- the Son shall then be subject to the Father in der subjection. When all his enemies shall be the sense of laying down his delegated authority, overcome and destroyed; or when the hearts of and ceasing to exercise his mediatorial reign, the redeemed shall be entirely subject to God. has been the common interpretation of all times When God's kingdom shall be fully established This remark is of value only, because in the over the universe. It shall then be seen that he interpretation of plain words, it is not probaldo is Lord of all. In the previous verses he had that men of all classes and ranks in different spoken of the promise that all things should be ages would err. The Son also himself. The subjected to God; in this, he speaks of its being term “Son of God” is applied to the Lord Jesus actually done. Then shall the Son also himself be with reference to his human nature, his incarsubject, &c.--It has been proposed to render nation by the Holy Ghost, and his resurrect.on this, “even then shall the Son," &c. ; implying, from the dead. See Note on Rom. i. t. lire that he been all along subject to God; had acted fers, I apprehend, to that in this place. It does under his authority; and that this subjection not mean that the second person in the Trinity

: would continue even then in a sense similar to as such, should be subject to the first; but it that in which it had existed ; and that Christ means the incarnate Son, the Mediator, the would then continue to exercise a delegated au- man that was born, and that was raised from the thority over his people and kingdom. See an dead, and to whom this wide dominion bad bef? article on the duration of Christ's kingdom,” given,-should resign that dominion, and that by Prof. Mills, in Bib. Rep. vol. iii. p. 748, seq. the government should be reassumed by the Di But to this interpretation there are objections. vinity as God. As man, he shall cease to exer(1.) It is not the obvious interpretation. (2.) It cise any distinct dominion. This does not meal, does not seem to comport with the design and evidently, that the union of the divine and buscope of the passage, which most evidently refers man nature will be dissolved; nor that impozant to some change, or rendering back of the authority of the Messiah; or to some resumption of union for ever; nor that the divine perfect:05

purposes may not be answered by that continued authority by the Divinity, or by God as God, in may not shine forth in some glorious was a different sense from what existed under the through the man Christ Jesus ; but tbat the per Messiah. (3.) Such a statement would be unneces

pose of government shall no longer be exercised sary and vain. Who could reasonably doubt that the Son would be as much subject to God when all shall no longer be continued, and power shall be

in that way; the mediatorial kingdom, as such things had been subdued to him as he was before? exercised by God as God. "The redeemed will (4.) It is not necessary to suppose this in order still adore their Redeemer as their incarnate to reconcile the passage with what is said of the God, and dwell upon the remembrance of his perpetuity of Christ's kingdom and his eternal work, and upon his perfections : (Rev. 1. 5, 6 reign. That he would reign ; that his kingdom v. 12 ; xi. 15;) but not as exercising the pecular would be perpetual, and that it would be un- power which he now has, and which was nedo


ful to effect their redemption. That God may be lemn argument. (c) It does not accord with all in all.That God may be supreme; that the the strain and purpose of his argument. If this Divinity, the Godhead, may rule; and that it custom had been referred to, his design would may be seen that he is the Sovereign over all have led him to say, “ What will become of them the universe. By the word “God,” (o Oros) for whom others have been baptized? Are we Whitby and Hammond, I think correctly, un- to believe that they have perished ?” (d) It is derstand the Godhead, the Divine nature, the far more probable that the custom referred to in Divinity, consisting of the three persons, with this opinion arose from an erroneous interpretaout respect to any peculiar office or kingdom. tion of this passage of Scripture, than that it

existed in the time of Paul, (5.) There remain Ver. 29. Else what shall they do which fare two other opinions, both of which are plausible,

and one of which is probably the true one. One baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at

is, that the word baptized is used here as it is in all? why are they then baptized for the dead?

Matt. xx. 22, 23 ; Mark x, 39 ; Luke xii. 50, f Rom. vi. 3, 4.

in the sense of being overwhelmed with calami

ties, trials, and sufferings; and as meaning that Else what shall they do, &c.—The apostle here the apostles and others were subjected to great resumes the argument for the resurrection which trials on account of the dead, i. e. in the hope of was interrupted at ver. 19. He goe on to state the resurrection; or with the expectation that further consequences which must follow from the dead would rise. This is the opinion of the denial of this doctrine, and thence infers that Lightfoot, Rosenmüller, Pearce, Homberg, the doctrine must be true. There is, perhaps, Krause, and of Prof. Robinson, (Lex. art. Barno passage of the New Testament in respect to cílw,) and has much that is plausible. That the which there has been a greater variety of inter- word is thus used to denote a deep sinking into pretation than this; and the views of expositors calamities, there can be no doubt. And that the now by no means harmonise in regard to its apostles and early Christians subjected themselves, meaning. It is possible that Paul may here refer or were subjected to great and overwhelming cato some practice or custom which existed in his lamities on account of the hope of the resurrection, time respecting baptism, the knowledge of which is equally clear. This interpretation, also, agrees is now lost. The various opinions which have with the general tenor of the argument; and is been entertained in regard to this passage, to- an argument for the resurrection,

And it implies gether with an examination of them, may be that this was the full and constant belief of all seen in Pool's Synopsis, Rosenmüller, and who endured these trials, that there would be a Bloomfield. It may be not useless just to refer resurrection of the dead. The argument would to some of them, that the perplexity of commen- be, that they should be slow to adopt an opinion tators may be seen. (1.) It has been held by which would imply that all their sufferings were some that by “ the dead” here is meant the Mes- endured for nought, and that God had supported siah, who was put to death, the plural being them in this in vain ; that God had plunged them used for the singular, meaning “ the dead one. into all these sorrows, and had sustained them in (2.) By others, that the word baptized here is them only to disappoint them. That this view taken in the sense of washing, cleansing, purify- is plausible, and that it suits the strain of remark ing, as in Matt. viii. 4; Heb. ix. 10 ; and that in the following verses, is evident. But there the sense is, that the dead were carefully washed are objections to it. (a) It is not the usual and and purified when buried, with the hope of the natural meaning of the word baptize. (6) A resurrection, and, as it were, preparatory to that. metaphorical use of a word should not be re(3.) By others, that to be baptized for the dead sorted to unless necessary. (c) The literal means to be baptized as dead, being baptized meaning of the word here will as well meet the into Christ, and buried with him in baptism, design of the apostle as the metaphorical. (d) and that by their immersion they were regarded This interpretation does not relieve us from any as dead. (4.) By others, that the apostle refers of the difficulties in regard to the phrase " for to a custom of vicarious baptism, or being bap- the dead ;” and (e) It is altogether more natural tized for those who were dead, referring to the to suppose that the apostle would derive his arpractice of having some person baptized in the gument from the baptism of all who were Chrisplace of one who had died without baptism. tians, than from the figurative baptism of a few This was the opinion of Grotius, Michaelis, Ter- who went into the perils of martyrdom. --The tullian, and Ambrose. Such was the estimate other opinion, therefore, is, that the apostle here which was formed, it is supposed, of the import- refers to baptism as administered to all believers. ance of baptism, that when one had died without This is the most correct opinion ; is the most

some other person was baptized simple, and best meets the design of the arguover his dead body in his place. That this cus- ment. According to this, it means that they had com prevailed in the church after the time of been baptized with the hope and expectation of a Paul, has been abundantly proved by Grotius, resurrection of the dead. They had received and is generally admitted. But the objections this as one of the leading doctrines of the gospel to this interpretation are obvious. (a) There is when they were baptized. It was a part of their no evidence that snch a custom prevailed in the full and firm belief that the dead would rise. The time of Paul. (6) It cannot be believed that argument according to this interpretation is, that Paal would give countenance to a custom so this was an essential article of the faith of a senseless and so contrary to the Scripture, or Christian ; that it was embraced by all; that it that he would make it the foundation of a so- constituted a part of their very profession; and

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being baptized,

that for any one to deny it was to deny that which ing, and denotes a strong asseveration. The entered into the very foundation of the Christian subject was important; it deeply interested his faith. If they embraced a different doctrine, if feelings; and he makes in regard to it a strong they denied the doctrine of the resurrection, they protestation. Comp. John iii. 5. “I solemnly struck a blow at the very nature of Christianity, affirm, or declare." By your rejoicing.- Vans and dashed all the hopes which had been che- MSS. here read “by our rejoicing,” but the corrished and expressed at their baptism. And rect reading is doubtless that which is in the what could they do? What would become of present Greek text, by your rejoicing. The them? What would be the destiny of all who meaning of the phrase, which is admitted by all were thus baptized ? Was it to be believed that to be obscure, is probably, “ I protest, or soleme! all their hopes at baptism were vain, and that declare by the glorying or exultation which they would all perish? As such a belief could have on your account ; by all my ground of glow not be entertained, the apostle infers that, if they rying in you; by all the confident boasting and held to Christianity at all, they must hold to this expectation which I have of your salvation." He doctrine as a part of their very profession. Ac-hoped for their salvation. He had laboured fo: cording to this view, the phrase " for the dead” | that. He had boasted of it, and confidently be means, with reference to the dead; with direct lieved that they would be saved. Regarding allusion to the condition of the dead, and their that as safe and certain, he says it was just as hopes ; with a belief that the dead will rise. It certain that he died daily on account of the hope is evident that the passage is elliptical, and this and belief of the resurrection. “By our bopies seems to be as probable as any interpretation and joys as Christians ; by our dearest expectawhich has been suggested. Mr. Locke says, tions and grounds of confidence, I swear, or sfrankly, “ What this baptizing for the dead was, lemnly declare, that I die daily." Men swear op I know not; but it seems, by the following verses, affirm by their objects of dearest affection and to be something wherein they exposed themselves desire; and the meaning here is, “So certainly to the danger of death." Tindal translates it, as I confidently expect your salvation, and so " over the dead.” Doddridge renders it, " in the certainly as we look to eternal life, so certain is room of the dead, who are just fallen in the it that I am constantly exposed to die, and suffer cause of Christ, but are yet supported by a suc- that which may be called a daily death.” Which cession of new converts, who immediately offer I have in Christ Jesus.—The rejoicing, boasting, themselves to fill up their places, as ranks of sol-glorying in regard to you which I am permitted diers that advance to the combat in the room of to cherish through the grace and favour of the their companions who have just been slain in Saviour. His boasting, or confident expectation their sight.”

in regard to the Corinthians, he enjoyed only be

the mercy of the Lord Jesus, and he delighted to VER. 30. And why stand we in 8 jeopardy every trace it to him. I die duily.Comp. Rom. viii. hour?

36. I endure so many sufferings and persæt. tions, that it may be said to be a daily dying. I

am constantly in danger of my life; and my sufAnd why stand we in jeopardy.—Why do we ferings each day are equal to the pains of death. constantly risk our lives, and encounter danger Probably Paul here referred particularly to the of every kind. This refers particularly to Paul | perils and trials which he then endured at Ephehimself and the other apostles, who were con- sus; and his object was to impress their minds stantly exposed to peril by land or by sea in the with the firmness of his belief in the certaints of arduous work of making known the gospel. The the resurrection, on account of which he suffered argument here is plain. It is, that such efforts

so much, and to show them that all their hopes would be vain, useless, foolish, unless there was rested also on this doctrine. to be a glorious resurrection. They had no other object in encountering these dangers than to Ver. 32. If ' after the manner of men I hase make known the truths connected with that glo

fought with beasts at Ephesus, what adunrious future state ; and if there were no such

tageth it me, if the dead rise not? Let us real future state, it would be wise for them to avoid these dangers. “It would not be supposed that

and drink, for to-morrow we die. we would encounter these perils constantly, 1 Or, to speak after. unless we were sustained with the hope of the resurrection, and unless we had evidence which If after the manner of men.- Marg. To spet convinced our own minds that there would be after the manner of men, (satu ár.pwzor.) Thert such a resurrection.” Every hour.-Constantly. bas been a great difference of opinion in regard Comp. 2 Cor. xv. 26. So numerous were their to the meaning of these words. The following dangers, that they might be said to occur every are some of the interpretations proposed. (1.) hour. This was particularly the case in the in- If I have fought after the manner of men, who stance to which he refers in Ephesus. (Ver. 32.) act only with reference to this life, and on the '

ordinary principles of human conduct, as men Ver. 31. I protest by a your rejoicing i which I fought with wild beasts in the amphitheatre. (2) have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I k die daily.

Or if, humanly speaking, or speaking after the manner of men, I have fought, referring to the fact that he had contended with men who sbon't

be regarded as wild beasts. (3.) Or, that I may I protest (v».)- This is a particle of swear- speak of myself as men speak, that I may freely i

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2 Cor. xi. 26.

m Eccl. ii. 24.

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i Phil. iii, 3.

k Rom. viii. 36.


record the events of my life, and speak of what he had sticking in his girdle, and thrust it as far has occurred. (4.) Or, I have fought with wild as possible into the lion's mouth; the lion then beasts as far as it was possible for man to do it let him go; the man, however, was not idle, but while life survived. (5.) Or, as much as was in cut the lion almost through with one stroke, and the power of man, who had destined me to this ; after that entirely to pieces. Upon this victory, if, so far as depended on man's will, I fought, sup- the common people began to shout, and call out, posing that the infuriated multitude demanded * Thank God, he has conquered.' But the mogul that I should be thus punished. So Chrysostom said, smiling, to this conqueror, • Thou art a understands it. (6.) Or, that Paul actually brave warrior, and hast fought admirably! But fought with wild beasts at Ephesus. (7.) Others did I not command to fight honourably only with regard this as a supposable case; on the suppo- shield and sword? But, like a thief, thou hast stosition that I had fought with wild beasts at Ephe- len the life of the lion with thy dagger.' And imsus. Amidst this variety of interpretation, it is mediately he ordered two men to rip up his belly, not easy to determine the true sense of this dif- and to place him upon an elephant, and, as an ficult passage. The following thoughts, however, example to others, to lead him about, which was may perhaps make it clear.

done on the spot. Soon after, a tiger was set loose ; (1.) Paul refers to some real occurrence at against which a tall, powerful man advanced Ephesus. This is manifest from the whole pas- with an air of defiance, as if he would cut the sage. It is not a supposable case.

tiger up. The tiger, however, was far too saga(2.) It was some one case when his life was cious and active, for, in the first attack, he seized endangered, and when it was regarded as remark- the combatant by the neck, tore his throat, and able that he escaped and survived. Comp. 2 Cor. then his whole body in pieces. This enraged ani. 8-10.

other good fellow, but little, and of mean ap(3.) It was common among the Romans, and pearance, from whom one would not have exthe ancients generally, to expose criminals to pected it. He rushed forward like one mad, and fight with wild beasts in the amphitheatre, for the tiger on his part undauntedly flew at his the amusement of the populace. In such cases, enemy; but the man at the first attack cut off it was but another form of dooming them to cer- his two fore paws, so that he fell, and the man tain death, since there was no human possibility cut his body to pieces. Upon this, the king cried, of escape. See Adam's Rom. Ant. p. 344. That • What is your name?' He answered, • this custom prevailed in the East, is apparent name is Geyby.' Soon after, one of the king's from the following extract from Rosenmüller; servants caine and brought him a piece of gold and there is no improbability in the supposition brocade, and said, “ Geyby, receive the robe of that Paul was exposed to this :-" The barbar- honour which the mogul presents you.' He ous custom of making men combat with wild took the garment with great reverence, kissed it beasts has prevailed in the East down to the most three times, pressing it each time to his eyes modern times. Jurgen Andersen, who visited and breast, then held it up, and in silence put up the states of the Great Mogul in 1646, gives an a prayer for the health of the mogul; and when account in bis Travels of such a combat with ani- he concluded it, he cried, “ May God let him bemals, which he witnessed at Agra, the residence of come as great as Tamerlane, from whom he is the Great Mogul. His description affords a lively descended. May he live seven hundred years, image of those bloody spectacles in which ancient and his house continue to eternity! Upon this, Rome took so much pleasure, and to which the he was summoned by a chamberlain to go from above words of the apostle refer. Alamardan- the garden up to the king; and when he came to chan, the governor of Cashmire, who sat among the entrance, he was received by two chans, who the chans, stood up, and exclaimed, “ It is the conducted him between them to kiss the mogul's will and desire of the great mogul, Schah Cho- feet. And when he was going to retire, the king ram, that if there are any valiant heroes who will said to him, Praised be thou, Geyby-chan, for show their bravery by combating with wild thy valiant deeds, and this name shalt thou keep beasts, armed with shield and sword, let them to eternity. I am your gracious master, and come forward; if they conquer, the mogul will thou art my slave.'"--Bush's Illustrations. load them with great favour, and clothe their (4.) It is the most natural interpretation, to countenance with gladness.' Upon this, three suppose that Paul, on some occasion, had such a persons advanced, and offered to undertake the contest with a wild beast at Ephesus. It is that combat. Alamardan-chan again cried aloud, which would occur to the great mass of the * None should have any other weapon than a readers of the New Testament, as the obvious shield and a sword; and whosoever has any breast- meaning of the passage. plate under his clothes should lay it aside, and (5.) The state of things in Ephesus when Paul fight honourably.' Hereupon a powerful lion was there, (Acts xix.,) was such as to make it was let into the garden, and one of the three nowise improbable that he would be subjected to men above mentioned advanced against him; such a trial. the lion, on seeing his enemy, ran violently up (6.) It is no objection to this supposition, that to him; the man, however, defended himself Luke has not recorded this occurrence in the bravely, and kept off the lion for a good while, Acts of the Apostles. No conclusion adverse to til his arms grew tired; the lion then seized the this supposition can be drawn from the mere shield with one paw, and with the other his an- silence of the historian. Mere silence is not a tagonist's arm, so that he was not able to use his contradiction. There is no reason to suppose wapon; the latter, seeing his life in danger, that Luke designed to record all the perils which look with his left hand his Indian dagger, which Paul endured. Indeed, we know from 2 Cor. xi.

24–27, that there must have been many dangers VER. 33. Be not deceived; evil- communications which Paul encountered, which are not referred

corrupt good manners. to by Luke. It must have happened, also, that

^ Chap. v. 6. many important events must have taken place during Paul's abode at Ephesus, which are not Be not deceived.-By your false teachers, and recorded by Luke. (Acts xix.) Nor is it any ob- by their smooth and plausible arguments. This jection to this supposition, that Paul does not, in is an exhortation. He had thus far been en2 Cor. xi. 24–27, mention particularly this cou: gaged in an argument on the subject. He nov test with a wild beast at Ephesus. His state- entreats them to beware lest they be deceivedment there is general : he does not descend into a danger to which they were very liable from particulars. Yet in 2 Cor. xi. 23, he says that their circumstances. There was, doubtless, moch he was “in deaths oft," -a statement which is in that was plausible in the objections to the doeaccordance with the supposition, that in Ephesus trine of the resurrection; there was much subtlety he may have been exposed to death in some and art in their teachers, who denied this doccruel manner.

trine ; perhaps, there was something in the cha(7.) The phrase kard å vopwmov, “as a man,” racter of their own minds, accustomed to subtle may mean, that to human appearance, or so far and abstruse inquiry, rather than to an examinaas man was concerned, had it not been for some tion of simple facts, that exposed them to this divine interposition, he would have been a prey danger. Evil communications.The word rene to the wild beasts. Had not God interposed, and dered “communications” means, properly, a kept him from harm, as in the case of the viper being together; companionship; close interat Melita, (Acts xxviii. 5,) he would have been course ; converse. It refers not to discourse put to death,

He was sentenced to this; was only, but to intercourse, or companionship. Paal thrown to the wild beasts ; had every human pro- quotes these words from Menander, (in Sentent. ! spect of dying ; it was done on account of his Comicor. Gr. p. 248, ed. Stepb.,) a Greek poet religion ; and but for the interposition of God, He thus shows that he was, in some degree at he would have died. This I take to be the fair least, familiar with the Greek writers. Comp. and obvious meaning of this passage, demanded Note, Acts xvii. 28. Menander was a celebrated alike by the language which is used, and by the comic poet of Athens, educated under Theo ! tenor of the argument in which it is found. phrastus. His writings were replete with ele

What advantageth it me?-What benefit shall gance, refined wit, and judicions observations I have? Why should I risk my life in this Of one hundred and eight comedies which he manner? See Note on ver. 19. Let us eat and wrote, nothing remains but a few fragments. He drink.— These words are taken from Isa. xxii. is said to have drowned himself, in the 52nd year

In their original application, they refer to of his age, B. C. 293, because the compositions of the Jews when besieged by Sennacherib and the his rival Philemon obtained more applause than army of the Assyrians. The prophet says, that

Paul quoted this sentiment from a instead of weeping, and fasting, and humiliation, Greek poet, perhaps, because it might have as became them in such circumstances, they had weight with the Greeks. It was a sentiment of given themselves up to feasting and revelry, and one of their own writers, and here was an occathat their language was, “ Let us eat and drink, sion in which it was exactly applicable. It is for to-morrow we shall die;” that is, there is no implied in this, that there were some persons use in offering resistance, or in calling upon God. who were endeavouring to corrupt their minds We must die; and we may as well enjoy life as from the simplicity of the gospel. The sentilong as it lasts, and give ourselves up to unre- ment of the passage is, that the intercourse strained indulgence. Paul does not quote these of evil-minded men, or that the close friendship words as having any original reference to the and conversation of those who hold erroneous subject of the resurrection, but as language ap- opinions, or who are impure in their lives, tends propriately expressing the idea, that if there is to corrupt the morals, the beart, the sentiments no future state ; if no resurrection of the dead ; of others. The particular thing to which Pan! if no happy result of toils and sufferings in the here applies it is, the subject of the resurrection. future world, it is vain and foolish to subject Such intercourse would tend to corrupt the simourselves to trials and privations here. We plicity of their faith, and pervert their views of should rather make the most of this life ; enjoy the truth of the gospel, and thus corrupt their all the pleasure we can ; and make pleasure our lives. It is always true that such intercourse chief good, rather than look for happiness in a has a pernicious effect on the mind and the heart. future state. This seems to be the language of It is done, (1.) By their direct effort to corrupt the great mass of the world. They look to no the opinions, and to lead others into sin. (2) future state. They have no prospect, no desire By the secret, silent influence of their words of heaven; and they, therefore, seek for happi- and conversation, and example. We have less ness here, and give themselves up to unrestrained horror at vice by becoming familiar with it; te enjoyment in this life. To-morrow.— Very soon. look with less alarm on error when we hear it We have no security of life ; and death is so often expressed; we become less watchful and near, that it may be said we must die to-morrow. cautious when we are constantly with the day, We die.- We must die. The idea here is, “ We

the worldly, the unprincipled, and the vicious. must die, without the prospect of living again, Hence Christ sought that there should be a pare unless the doctrine of the resurrection be true.” society, and that his people should principally

seek the friendship and conversation of each other, and withdraw from the world. It is in the


his own.

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