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tion. Every one shall have his own, i. e. proper sceptic on this subject, we would ask, whether, if body-a body which shall belong to him, and be there had been a revelation of the changes which fitted to him. The wicked shall not rise with the a caterpillar might undergo before it became a body of the just, or with a body adapted to hea butterfly—a new species of existence adapted to ven; nor shall the saint rise with a body adapted a new element, requiring new food, and associated to perdition. There shall be a fitness or appro- with new and other beings—if he had never seen priateness in the new body to the character of such a transformation, would it not be attended him who is raised. The argument here is de- | with all the difficulty which now encompasses signed to meet the inquiry, how should the body the doctrine of the resurrection? The sceptic be raised ? and it is, that there is nothing more would no more have believed it on the authority remarkable and impossible in the doctrine of the of revelation than he will believe the doctrine of resurrection, than in the fact constantly before the resurrection of the dead. And no infidel can us, that grain that seems to rot sends up a shoot | prove that the one is attended with any more or stalk, and is reproduced in a wonderful and difficulty or absurdity than the other. beautiful manner. 'In a manner similar to this, the body will be raised ; and the illustration of
VER. 40. There are also celestial bodies, and Paul meets all the difficulties about the fact of bodies terrestrial; but the glory of the celesthe resurrection. It cannot be shown that one
tial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is is more difficult than the other; and as the facts of vegetation are constantly passing before our
1 Gen. i. 16. eyes, we ought not to deem it strange if similar facts shall take place hereafter in regard to the There are also celestial bodies. The planets; resurrection of the dead.
the stars; the host of heaven. See ver. 41. And
bodies terrestrial.-On earth; earthly. He refers VER. 39. All flesh is not the same flesh : but
here to the bodies of men, beasts, birds, &c.; there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh perhaps, also, of trees and vegetables. The sense of beasts, another of fishes, and another of is, “ There is a great variety of bodies. Look birds.
upon the heavens, and see the splendour of the
sun, the moon, and the stars. And then look All flesh is not the same flesh. - This verse upon the earth, and see the bodies there the and the following are designed to answer the bodies of men, and brutes, and insects. You see question, (ver. 35,) “ with what bodies do they here two entire classes of bodies. You see how come ?" And the argument here is, that there they differ. Can it be deemed strange if there are many kinds of bodies; that all are not alike; should be a difference between our bodies when that while they are bodies, yet they partake of on earth and when in heaven? Do we not, in different qualities, forms, and properties; and fact, see a vast difference between what strikes that, therefore, it is not absurd to suppose that our eye here on earth and in the sky? And God may transform the human body into a dif why should we deem it strange that between ferent form, and cause it to be raised up with bodies adapted to live here, and bodies adapted somewhat different properties in the future world. to live in heaven, there should be a difference, Why, the argument is, why should it be regarded like that which is seen between the objects which as impossible? Why is it to be held that the appear on earth and those which appear in the hnman body may not undergo a transformation, sky? The argument is a popular one ; but it is or that it will be absurd to suppose that it may striking, and meets the object which he has in be different in some respects from what it is now? view. The glory of the celestial is one.—The Is it not a matter of fact that there is a great va splendour, beauty, dignity, magnificence of the riety of bodies even on the earth? The word heavenly bodies differs much from those on earth. “flesh” here is used to denote hody, as it often That is one thing ; the beauty of earthly objects is. (1 Cor. v. 5. 2 Cor. iv. 11; vii. 1. Phil. i. is another and different thing. Beautiful as may 22, 24. Col. ii. 5. 1 Pet. iv, 6.) The idea here be the human frame; beautiful as may be the is, that although all the bodies of animals may be plumage of birds ; beautiful as may be the flower, composed essentially of the same elements, yet the fossil, the mineral, the topaz, or the diamond; God has produced a wonderful variety in their yet they differ from the heavenly bodies, and are organization, strength, beauty, colour, and places not to be compared with them. Why should we of abode, as the air, earth, and water. It is not deem it strange that there may be a similar difnecessary, therefore, to suppose that the body ference between the body, as adapted to its resithat shall be raised shall be precisely like that dence here, and as adapted to its residence in which we have here. It is certainly possible that heaven? there may be as great a difference between that and our present body, as between the most per VER. 41. There is one glory of the sun, " and fect form of the human frame here and the low another glory of the moon, and another glory est reptile. It would still be a body, and there would be no absurdity in the transformation.
of the stars : for one star differeth from another The body of the worm, the chrysalis, and the
star in glory. butterfly, is the same : it is the same animal
u Ps. xix. 4, 5. still. Yet how different the gaudy and gay but There is one glory of the sun, &c.— The sun terfly from the creeping and offensive caterpillar! has one degree of splendour, and the moon
So there may be a similar change in the body of another, and so also the stars. They differ from | the believer, and yet be still the same. Of a each other in magnitude, in brightness, in beauty. The idea is this verse differs from that in the It is niet in dishonour.-In the grase, where it former. In that, (rer. 40.) Paul says, that there is shut out fror. buscan view; burried away from was a difference between the different classes of the sight of friends; loathsome and offensive as bodies ; between those in heaven and those on & mass turning to decay. There is, moreover, earth. He here says, that in the former class, in a kind of disgrace and ignominy attending it the heavenly bodies themselres, there was a dif- here. as under the curse of God, and, on account ference. They not only differed from those on of sin, sentenced to the offensiveness of the grare, earth, but they differed from each other. The It is raised in glory.-In honour ; in heauty : bosun was more splendid than the moon, and one poured by God by the remoral of the curse, and star more beautiful than another. The idea here I in a form and manner that shall be glorious. This
is, therefore, not only that the bodies of the saints | refers to the fact that every thing like dishonour, i in hearen shall differ from those on earth, but vileness, ignomins, which attends it here, shall be i
that they shall differ among themselves, in a sense removed there, and that the body shall bear a resomewhat like the difference of the splendour of , semblance to the glorified body of Jesus Christ. the sun, the moon, and the different stars. Though (Eph. iii. 21.) It shall be adapted to a world of all shall be unlike what they were on earth, and glory; and every thing which here rendered it all shall be glorious, yet there may be a difference vile, alueless, cumbersome, offensive, or dein that splendour and glory. The arguneat is. 'graded, shall be there removed. Of course, i since we see so great differences in fact in the every idea which we can get from this is cbiety works of God, why should we doubt that he is | Degatire, and consists in dearing that the bods able to make the human body different from what will have there the qualities which here redder i it is now, and to epdow it with immortai and eter- vile or loathsome. The word glory (coža) meads : nal perfection?
dignitr, splendour, honour, excellence, perfection; !
and is here used as denoting the combination of VER. 42. So also is the resurrection of the dead. all those things which shall rescue it froin ig. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incor
pomins and disgrace. It is sourn in reaknes —
Weak, feeble, liable to decay. Here disease pros. ! ruption.
trates the strength, takes away its power, coo- ' So also is the resurrection. In a manner simi- signs it to the dust. It denotes the many reak; lar to the grain that is sown, and to the different, nesses, frailties, and liabilities to sickness to degrees of splendour and magnificence in the which we are here exposed. Its feeble porers!' bodies in the sky and on the earth. The dead, are soon prostrate ; its vital functions soon cease shall be raised in a manner analogous to the in death. It is raised in porer.-This does not springing up of grain ; and there shall be a dif- depote pover like that of God, nor like the anference between the bods here and the body in geis. It does not affirm that it shall be endged the resurrection. It is ourn. In death. As we | with remarkable and enormous physical streagth. SOW or plant the kernel in the earth. In corrid- or that it shall have the power of performing tron.- In the grave; in a place where it shall be what would now be regarded as miraculous. It i corrupt ; in a forin terding to putrefaction, dise is to be regarded as the opposite of the wond organization, and dust. It is raised in incurrup- * weakness," and means that it shall be no lontior.-It will be so raised. In the previous ger liable to disease; no more orercome by tbe ! verses (36—41) he had reasoped from analogy, attacks of sickness; no more subject to the infirand had demonstrated that it was possible that mities and weaknesses which it here e the dead should rise, or that there was no greater It shall not be prostrate by sickness, nor overdifficulty attending it than actually occurred in come by fatigue. It shall be capable of the ser the events which were in fact constantly taking | rice of God without weariness and langour: it place. He here states positirely what would be, shall Deed no rest as it does here. (see Rey, Tii.! and affirms that it was not onis possible, but that i 15; comp. xxii. 5 :) but it shall be in a world such a resurrection would actually occur. The | where there shall be po fatigue, lassitude, disease : bodr would be raised in incorruption," "ancor- but where there shall be ample power to engage ruptible," (ver. 52 ;) that is, no more liable to de- | in the service of God for ever. There is, bowcas, sickness, disorganization, and putrefaction. erer, do improbability in supposing that the phr. This is one characteristic of tbe bodr that shall sical powers of man, as well as his intellectual be raised, that it sball be no more liable, as here, mar be greatly angmented in bearen. But on to wasting sickness, to disease, and to the loath this point there is no revelation. some corruption of the grave. That God can form a body of that kind, no one can doabt: that VER. 44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised he actually will, the apostle positiveir afirms a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and' That such will he the bodies of the saints is one
there is a spiritual - body. of the most cheering prospects that can be presented to those who are here wasted awar br
Luke xxiv. 31. Jobin xx. 19-26. sickness, and who look with dread and borror on the loathsome putrefaction of the tomb.
It is an a natural body. (owpa Vryudy.
This word. * Datural," denotes properly that 1. VER. 43. It is sown in dishonour; it is raised which is endowed with animal life, having breath. in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised
or vitality. The word from which it is derived, !!
Turyn, decotes properly the breath; vital breath: 1 in power.
the soul, as the vital principle; the animal sol. • Dan. xi. 3. Matt. ria. 45. PRIL. il 21. as the rital spirit; the soul, as the seat of the
sertient desires, passions, and propensities; and spirit, a body that shall be pure, &c., whatever then a living thing, an animal. It may be ap- | may be its truth, is not sustained by this passage. plied to any animal, or any living thing, whether It will be a body without the vital functions of brutes or men. It is distinguished from the soul the animal economy; a body sustained in the or spirit (7 vsüpa), inasmuch as that more com manner in which we conceive the spirit to be. monly denotes the rational spirit, the immortal There is a natural body.—This seems to be added soal, that which thinks, reasons, reflects, &c. | by Paul in the way of strong affirmation arising The word "natural" here, therefore, means that from earnestness, and from a desire to prevent which has anima! life; which breathes and acts | misconception. The affirmation is, that there is by the laws of the animal economy; that which a natural body; that is apparent; it is every draws in the breath of life; which is endowed where seen. No one can doubt it. So, with with senses, and which has need of the supports equal certainty, says Paul, there is a spiritual of animal life, and of the refreshments derived | body. It is just as certain and indisputable. from food, exercise, sleep, &c. The apostle here, | This assertion is made, not because the evidence by affirming that the body will be spiritual, in of both is the same, but is made on his apostolic tends to deny that it will need that which is now authority, and is to be received on that authority. necessary to the support of the animal functions ; That there was an animal body was apparent to it will not be sustained in that way; it will lay all; that there was a spiritual body was a position aside these peculiar animal organizations, and will which he affirmed to be as certain as the other. cease to convey the idea which we now attach to The only proof which he alleges is in ver. 45, the word animal, or to possess that which we now | which is the proof arising from revelation. include under the name of vital functions. Here the body of man is endowed simply with animal
VER. 45. And so it is written, " The first man functions. It is the dwelling-place, indeed, of an
Adam was made a living soul; the y last Adam immortal mind; but as a body it has the properties of animal life, and is subject to the same laws
was made a quickening spirit. and inconveniences as the bodies of other ani
& Gen. ii. 7.
y John v. 21 ; vi. 33, 40. mals. It is sustained by breath, and food, and sleep; it is endowed with the organs of sense, And so it is written.-Gen. ii. 7. It is only the the eye, the ear, the smell, the touch, by which first part of the verse which is quoted. The first alone the soul can hold communication with the man Adam was made a living soul.-- This is quoted external world; it is liable to disease, languor, exactly from the translation by the LXX, exdecay, death. These animal or vital functions cept that the apostle has added the words “ first" will cease in heaven, and the body be raised in a and “Adam.” This is done to designate whom different mode of being, and where all the incon- he meant. The meaning of the phrase "was | Feniences of this mere animal life shall be laid | made a living soul” (éyéveto eic yuxiv Sügav—in | aside. It is raised a spiritual body.—Not a mere Hebrew, 7'n w53,) is, became a living, animated spirit, for then it would not be a body. The being; a being endowed with life. The use of word spiritual (avevpatikov) here stands op- the word “soul" in our translation, for yux) and posed to the word natural, or animal. It will was (nephesh,) does not quite convey the idea. not be a body that is subject to the laws of the We apply the word soul, usually, to the intellivital functions, or organized or sustained in that gent and the immortal part of man ; that which way. It will still be a “body,” (owua,) but it reasons, thinks, remembers, is conscious, is rewill have so far the nature of spirit as to be with- sponsible, &c. The Greek and Hebrew words, out the vital functions which here control the | however, more properly denote that which is body. This is all that the word here means. It alive, which is animated, which breathes, which does not mean refined, sublimated, or transcen- has an animal nature. Note on ver. 44. And | dental ; it does not mean that it will be without this is precisely the idea which Paul uses here, shape or form; it does not mean that it will not that the first man was made an animated being be properly a body. The idea of Paul seems to by having breathed into him the breath of life, be this : “We conceive of soul or spirit as not (Gen. ii. 7,) and that it is the image of this anisubject to the laws of vital or animal agency. It mated or vital being which we bear. (Ver. 48.) is independent of them. It is not sustained or Neither Moses nor Paul deny that in addition to nourished by the functions of the animal organ- | this, man was endowed with a rational soul, an ization. It has an economy of its own; living immortal nature ; but that is not the idea which without nourishment; not subject to decay; not | they present in the passage in Genesis which liable to sickness, pain, or death. So will be the | Paul quotes. The last Adam.—The second Adam, body in the resurrection. It will not be subject or the “second man.” (Ver. 47.) That Christ to the laws of the vital organization. It will be is here intended is apparent, and has been usually so much like a spirit as to be continued without | admitted by commentators. Christ here seems food or nutriment; to be destitute of the peculiar to be called Adam, because he stands in contraphysical organization of flesh, and blood, and distinction from the first Adam; or, because, as bones; of veins, and arteries, and nerves, as here, we derive our animal and dying nature from the (ver. 50 ;) and it will live in the manner in which one, so we derive our immortal and undying We conceive spirits to live ; sustained, and exer bodies from the other. From the one we derive cising its powers, without waste, weariness, decay, an animal or vital existence; from the other we of the necessity of having its powers recruited derive our immortal existence, and resurrection by food and sleep.” All, therefore, that has been | from the grave. The one stands at the head of said about a refined body, a body that shall be all those who have an existence represented by
the words, “a living soul;" the other, of all those impure by the pure; the vile and degraded by who shall have a spiritual body in heaven. He the precious and the glorious. The idea is, that is called “the last Adam ;” meaning that there there is a tendency towards perfection, and tbat shall be no other after him who shall affect the God observes the proper order by which that destiny of man in the same way, or who shall / which is most glorious shall be secured. It was stand at the head of the race in a manner similar | not his plan that all things in the beginning to what had been done by him and the first fa- should be perfect : but that perfection should be ther of the human family. They sustain pecu- | the work of time, and should be secured in an liar relations to the race; and in this respect they appropriate order of events. The design of Paul were “the first” and “the last” in the peculiar in this verse seems to be to vindicate the stateeconomy. The name “ Adam" is not elsewhere ment which he had made, by showing that it was given to the Messiah, though a comparison is se in accordance with what was every where obveral times instituted between him and Adam.served, that the proper order should be maintained. See Rom. v. 12—19. A quickening spirit, (xic This idea is carried through the following verses. πνευμα ζωοποιούν.)- A vivifying spirit; a spirit giving or imparting life. Not a being VER. 47. The first man is of the earth, earthy: having mere vital functions, or an animated nature, but a being who has the power of imparting
the second man is the Lord from heaven. life. This is not a quotation from any part of
John iii. 13, 31. the Scriptures, but seems to be used by Paul either as affirming what was true on his own
The first man.--Adam. Is of the earth.-Was a postolic authority, or as conveying the substance | made of the dust. See Gen. 11. 7. Earthu. -- Parof what was revealed respecting the Messiah in
taking of the earth; he was a mass of animated the Old Testament. There may be also refer- clay, and could be appropriately called “dust." ence to what the Saviour himself taught, that he (Gen. iii. 19.) Of course, he must partake of a was the source of life that he had the power of nature that was low, mean, mortal, and corimparting life ; and that he gave life to all whom / ruptible. The second man.-Christ. See Note he pleased. See Note, John i. 4: v. 26, “ For as on ver. 45. He is called the second man, as the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given being the second who sustained a relation to med to the Son to have life in himself.” Ver. 21,
| that was materially to affect their conduct and “ For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and destiny ; the second and the last, (ver. 45,) who quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth / should sustain a peculiar headship to the race. 1 whom he will." The word “spirit,” here ap
The Lord from heaven.-Called in chap. ii. 8, the plied to Christ, is in contradistinction from “a
| “ Lord of glory.” See Note on that place.
This living being,” as applied to Adam, and seems to expression refers to the fact, that the Lord Jesus be used in the sense of spirit of life, as raising
| had a heavenly origin, in contradistinction from
had a heavenly origin, in cont the bodies of his people from the dead, and im
| Adam, who was formed from the earth. The parting life to them. He was constituted not as
Latin Vulgate renders this, "the second man having life merely, but as endowed with the
| from heaven is heavenly;" and this idea serins power of imparting life; as endowed with that
| to accord with the meaning in the former merspiritual or vital energy which was needful to im
| ber of the verse. The sense is, evidently, that, part life. All life is the creation or production
as the first man had an earthly origin, and sas of spirit, (II vevua ;) as applied to God the Father,
therefore, earthy, so the second man being from or the Son, or the Holy Spirit. Spirit is the heaven, as his proper home, would have a body source of all vitality. God is a spirit, and God adapted to that abode ; unlike that which was is the source of all life. And the idea here is. earthy, and which would be fitted to his exalted that Christ had such a spiritual existence, such nature, and to the world where he would dwell power as a spirit; that he was the source of all And while, therefore, the phrase "from heaven" life to his people. The word spirit is applied to refers to his heavenly origin, the essential idea his exalted spiritual nature, in distinction from
| is, that he would have a body that was adapted his human nature, in Rom. i. 4; 1 Tim. iii. 16;
to such an origin and such a world-a bodr un1 Pet. iii. 18. The apostle does not here affirm
like that which was earthy. That is, Christ bad that he had not a human nature, or a vital exist- a glorihed body, to which the bodies of the saints ence as a man ; but that his main characteristic must yet be made hike. in contradistinction from Adam was, that he was endowed with an elevated spiritual nature, which
VER. 48. As is the earthy, such are they also was capable of imparting vital existence to the dead. that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such
are they also that are heavenly. Ver. 46. How beit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and after
As is the earthy. Such as Adam was. Such ward that which is spiritual.
are they also, &c.—Such are all his descendants ;
all who derive their nature from him. That is, Houbeit.—There is a due order observed. (Ver. they are frail, corruptible, mortal; they live in 23.) The decaying, the dying, the weak, the an animal body as he did, and, like him, they are corruptible, in the proper order of events, was subject to corruption and decay. And as is tảe first. This order is necessary, and this is obsery- | heavenly.--As is he who was from heaven; as is ed every where. It is seen in the grain that dies 'the Lord Jesus now in his glorified body. Such in the ground, and in the resurrection of man. I are they also, &c.-Such will they be also. They The imperfect is succeeded by the perfect; the will be like him; they will have a body like bis
This idea is more fully expressed in Phil. iii. 21, | 17. The kingdom of God. -Heaven ; appro* Who shall change our vile body, that it may be | priately called his kingdom, because he shall fashioned like unto his glorious body.”
reign there in undivided and perfect glory for
ever. Neither doth corruption, &c.-Neither can VER. 49. And as we have horne the image of the that which is in its nature corruptible, and liable earthy, we shall also a bear the image of the
to decay, be adapted to a world where all is inheavenly.
corruptible. The apostle here simply states the a Rom. viii. 29.
fact. He does not tell us why it is impossible.
It may be because the mode of communication And as we have borne the image of the earthy,
there is not by the bodily senses ; it may be As, like our first father, we are froil, decaying, because such bodies as ours would not be dying; as we are so closely connected with him, fitted to relish the pure and exalted pleaas to be like him. This does not refer, mainly,
sures of an incorruptible world; it may be beto one bearing his moral character, but to the cause they would interfere with the exalted worfact that we are, like him, subject to sickness, ship, the active service, and the sleepless employfrailty, sorrow, and death. We shall also bear
ments of the heavenly world; it may be because the image of the heavenly.—The Lord Jesus such a body is constituted to derive pleasure from Christ, who was from heaven, and who is in objects which shall not be found in heaven. It is heaven. As we are so closely connected with
adapted to enjoyment in eating and drinking, Adam as to resemble him, so, by the divine and the pleasures of the eye, the ear, the taste, arrangement, and by faith in the Lord Jesus, we the touch ; in heaven the soul shall be awake to are so closely connected with him, that we shall more elevated and pure enjoyments than these, resemble him in heaven. And as he is now free
and, of course, such bodies as we here have from frailty, sickness, pain, sorrow, and death,
would impede our progress and destroy our comand as he has a pure and spiritual body, adapted forts, and be ill adapted to all the employments to a residence in heaven, so shall we be in that
and enjoyments of that heavenly world. future world. The argument here is, that the connexion which is formed between the believer VER. 51. Behold, I show you a mystery : We and the Saviour is as close as that which sub
e shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed. sisted between him and Adam ; and as that connexion with Adam involved the certainty that
c 1 Thess. iv. 15–17. he would be subjected to pain, sin, sickness, and
Behold, I show you.—This commences the third death, so the connexion with Christ involves the
subject of inquiry in the chapter,—the question, certainty that he will, like him, be free from sin,
what will become of those who are alive when sickness, pain, and death, and like him will have
the Lord Jesus shall return to raise the dead ? a body that is pure, incorruptible, and immortal.
| This was an obvious inquiry, and the answer
was, perhaps, supposed to be difficult. Paul Ver. 50. Now this I say, brethren, that flesh
answers it directly, and says that they will unand blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; dergo an instantaneous change, which will make i neither doth corruption inherit incorruption. them like the dead that shall be raised. A mys
tery.-On the meaning of this word, see Note, 6 John iii. 3, 5.
chap. ii. 7. The word here does not mean any Noo this I say, brethren.-" I make this affirma thing which was in its nature unintelligible, but tion in regard to this whole subject. I do it as that which to them had been hitherto unknown.
containing the substance of all that I have said. “I now communicate to you a trath which has ¡ I do it in order to prevent all mistake in regard not been brought into the discussion, and in re
to the nature of the bodies which shall be raised gard to which no communication has been made up.” This affirmation is made respecting all the to you." On this subject there had been no revedead and all the living, that there must be a ma lation. Though the Pharisees held that the dead terial and important change in regard to them, would rise, yet they do not seem to have made
before they can be prepared for heaven. Paul any statement in regard to the living who should · had proved, in the previous verses, that it was remain when the dead should rise. Nor, per| possible for God to give us bodies different from haps, had the subject occupied the attention of those which we now possess; he here affirms, in the apostles; nor had there been any direct comthe most positive manner, that it was indispens- | munication on it from the Lord Jesus himself. able that we should have bodies different from Paul then here says, that he was about to comwhat we now have. Flesh and blood. Bodies municate a great truth which till then had been - organized as ours now are. “ Flesh and blood ” | unknown, and to resolve a great inquiry on which
denotes such bodies as we have here,-bodies! there bad as yet been no revelation. We shall | that are fragile, weak, liable to disease, subject not all sleep.- We Christians; grouping all toge
to pain and death. They are composed of ther who then lived and should live afterwards, changing particles; to be repaired and strength for his discussion has relation to them all. The ened daily; they are subject to decay, and are following remarks may, perhaps, remove some of kasted away by sickness, and of course they the difficulty which attends the interpretation of cannot be fitted to a world where there shall be this passage. The objection which is made to it no decay and no death. Cannot inherit. is, that Paul expected to live until the Lord Jesus Cannot be admitted as heir to the kingdom of should return; that he, therefore, expected that God. The future world of glory is often repre the world would soon end, and that in this he sented as an heirship. See Note on Rom. viii. was mistaken, and could not be inspired. To