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this world can furnish, and as if there were no- they had anticipated. But not so the Christian. thing which is unseen, or as if they ought not to He has, (1.) The promise of life. (2.) He has be influenced by the things which are unseen the assurance that sudden death cannot deprive The Christian, on the contrary, has a firm con- | him of it. It at once removes him to the object viction of the reality of the glories of heaven; of of pursuit, not from it. (3.) He has the assurthe fact that the Redeemer is there ; of the fact ance that, when obtained, it shall not disgust or that there is a crown of glory ; and he lives and satiate, or decay, but that it shall meet all the exacts as if that were all real, and as if he saw it pectations of the soul, and shall be eternal. Not all. The simple account of faith, and of living by sight.--This may mean either that we are not by faith, is, that we live and act as if these things influenced by a sight of these future glories, or were true, and suffer them to make an impression that we are not influenced by the things which on our mind according to their real nature. See | we see. The main idea is, that we are not inNote on Mark xvi. 16. It is contradistinguished fluenced and governed by the sight. We are not from living simply under the influence of things governed and controlled by the things which we that are seen. God is unseen-but the Christiansee, and we do not see those things which lives, and thinks, and acts as if there were a God, influence and control us. In both it is faith that and as if he saw him. Christ is unseen now by controls us, and not sight. the bodily eye; but the Christian lives and acts as if he were seen, i. e, as if his eye were known VER. 8. We are confident, I say, and willing to be upon us, and as if he was now exalted to
rather to be absent from the body, and to be heaven, and was the only Saviour. The Holy Spirit is unseen : but he lives and acts as if there
present with the Lord. were such a Spirit, and as if his influences were
i Phil. i. 23. needful to renew and purify the soul. Heaven is
We are confident.-(Ver. 6.) We are cheerful, unseen : but the Christian lives, and thinks, and
and and courageous, and ready to bear our trial. acts as if there were a heaven, and as if he now :.
W | Tindal renders it, “we are of good comfort." saw its glories. He has confidence in these, and And willing rather to be absent from the body. in kindred truths, and he acts as if they were | We would prefer to die. The same idea occurs real.- Could man see all these: were they visible
| in Phil. i. 23. “Having a desire to depart and to the naked eye, as they are to the eye of faith,
to be with Christ; which is far better.” The no one would doubt the propriety of living and
sense is, that Paul would have preferred to die, acting with reference to them. But if they exist,
and to go to heaven, rather than to remain in a there is no more impropriety in acting with re
world of sin and trial. To be present with the ference to them, than if they were seen. Our
Lord.--The Lord Jesus. See Note on Acts i. seeing or not seeing them does not alter their
24. Comp. Phil. i. 23: The idea of Paul is, that nature or importance, and the fact that they are the Lord Jesus would constitute the main glory not seen does not make it improper to act with
of heaven, and that to be with him was equivareference to them. There are many ways of
lent to being in a place of perfect bliss. He had being convinced of the existence and reality of
no idea of any heaven where the Lord Jesus was ohjects, besides seeing them ; and it may be as
not; and to be with him was to be in heaven. rational to be influenced by the reason, the judg
That world where the Redeemer is, is heaven. ment, or by strong confidence, as it is to be in
This also proves that the spirits of the saints, fluenced by sight. Besides, all men are influenced
when they depart, are with the Redeemer, i. e. by things which they have not seen. They hope
are at once taken to heaven. It demonstrates, for objects that are future. They aspire to hap
(1.) That they are not annihilated. (2.) That piness which they have not yet beheld. They
they do not sleep, and remain in an unconscious strive for honour and wealth which are unseen,
state, as Dr. Priestley supposes. (3.) That they and which are in the distant future. They live,
are not in some intermediate state, either in a and act-influenced by strong faith and hope
state of purgatory, as the Papists suppose, or a as if these things were attainable; and they deny
state where all the souls of the just and the unthemselves, and labour, and cross oceans and de
just are assembled in a common abode, as many serts, and breathe in pestilential air, to obtain
Protestants have supposed; but, (4.) That they those things which they have not seen, and which
dwell with Christ; they are with the Lord, ( 77 pòs to them are in the distant future. And why
Tòv Kúorov.) They abide in his presence; they should not the Christian endure like labour, and
partake of his joy and his glory; they are perbe willing to suffer in like manner, to gain the
mitted to sit with him in his throne. (Rev. iii. unseen crown which is incorruptible, and to ac
21.) The same idea the Saviour expressed to quire the unseen wealth which the moth does not the dying thief, when he said. “ To-day shalt thou corrupt?-And, further still, the men of this
be with me in paradise.” (Luke xxii. 43.) world strive for those objects which they have not beheld, without any promise or any assurance
VER. 9. Wherefore we k labour, that, whether that they shall obtain them. No being able to grant them has promised them; no one has as
present or absent, we may be accepted of him. sured them that their lives shall be lengthened
k endeavour. out to obtain them. In a moment they may be cut oft, and all their plans frustrated ; or they Wherefore, (Alò.)—In view of the facts stated may be utterly disappointed, and all their plans | above. Since we have the prospect of a resurfail; or, if they gain the object, it may be unsa rection and of future glory; since we have the tisfactory, and may furnish no pleasure such as assurance that there is a house not made with
hands, eternal in the heavens; and since God receive " the things done in his body, accordhas given to us this hope, and has granted to us
ing to that he hath done, whether it be good the earnest of the Spirit, we make it our great
or bad. object so to live as to be accepted by him. We labour.- The word here used (olloriuoúpe fa,)
: Rom. xiv. 10. a Chap. vi. 3. from pilog and touri, loving honour,) means For we must, (osi.)- It is proper, fit, necessary properly to love honour; to be ambitious. This that we should all appear there. This fact, to
its usual classical signification. In the New which Paul now refers, is another reason wby Testament, it means to be ambitious to do any it was necessary to lead a holy life, and why thing; to exert one's self; to strive, as if from a Paul gave himself with so much diligence and love or sense of honour. As in English, " to self-denial to the arduous duties of his otfilee. | make it a point of honour" to do so and so.-- Ro- There is a necessity or a fitness that we should binson, (Lex.) See Rom. xv. 20. 1 Thess. iv. II. | appear there to give up our account, for we are It means here, that Paul made it a point of con | here on trial; we are responsible moral agents; stant effort; it was his leading and constant aim we are placed here to form characters for eterto live so as to be acceptable to God, and to meet nity. Before we receive our eternal allotment, his approbation wherever he was. Whether pre- it is proper that we should render onr account of sent or absent.-Whether present with the Lord, I the manner in which we have lived, and of the (ver. 8,) or absent from him, (ver. 6 ;) that is, manner in which we have improved our ta- ! whether in this world or the next; whether | lents and privileges. In the nature of things, it! we are here, or removed to heaven. Wherever | is proper that we should undergo a trial before we are, or may be, it is and will be our main | we receive our reward, or before we are punishpurpose and object so to live as to secure his fa- | ed; and God has made it necessary and certain, vour. Paul did not wish to live on earth regard by his direct and positive appointment, that we less of his favour, or without evidence that he should stand at the bar of the final Judge. See would be accepted by him. He did not make the Rom. xiv. 10. All.-Both Jews and Gentiles; fact that he was absent from him, and that he old and young; bond and free; rich and poor; did not see him with the bodily eye, an excuse all of every class, and every age, and every dafor walking in the ways of ambition, or seeking tion. None shall escape by being unknown; his own purposes and ends. The idea is, that so none by virtue of their rank or wealth ; none befar as this point was concerned, it made no dif- cause they have a character too pure to be ference with him whether he lived or died; whe- judged. All shall be arraigned in one vast as ! ther he was on earth or in heaven; whether in semblage, and with reference to their eternal the body or out of the body; it was the great doom. See Rev. xx. 12. Rosenmüller supposes ! fixed principle of his nature so to live as to se- | that the apostle here alludes to an opinion that cure the approbation of the Lord. And this is was common among the Jews, that the Gentiles the true principle on which the Christian should only would be exposed to severe judgments in act, and will act. The fact that he is now absent the future world, and that the Jews would be from the Lord, will be to him no reason why he saved as a matter of course. But the idea seems should lead a life of sin and self-indulgence, any rather to be, that as the trial of the great day! more than he would if he were in heaven; and was the most important that man could undergo. the fact that he is soon to be with him is not the and as all must give account there, Paul and bis , main reason why he seeks to live so as to please fellow-labourers devoted themselves to uruiring him. It is because this has become the fixed diligence and fidelity, that they might be acprinciple of the soul, the very purpose of the cepted in that great day. Appear, (Paveout 11; life; and this principle and this purpose will van)--This word properly means. to make apadhere to him, and control him wherever he may parent, manifest, known; to show openly, &c.; be placed, or in whatever world he may dwell. Here it means that we must be manifest, or We may be accepted of him.- The phrase here openly shown ; i. e. we must be seen there, and used, (a vápeoTOL Elvai,) means to be well-pleas- / be publicly tried. We must not only stand there. ing; and then to be acceptable, or approved. but our character will be seen, our desert will (Rom. xii. 1 ; xiv. 8. Eph. v. 10. Phil. iv. 18. be known, our trial will be public. All will be Tit. ii. 9.) The sense here is, that Paul was brought from their graves, and from their places earnestly desirous of so living as to please God, of concealment, and will be seen at the judginent and to receive from him the tokens and marks of seat. The secret things of the heart and the life his favour. And the truth taught in this verse will all be made manifest and known. The juda 14 is, that this will be the great purpose of the ment seat of Christ. The tribunal of Christ, who Christian's life, and that it makes no difference is appointed to be the Judge of quick and dead. as to the existence and operation of this prin- | See Note on John v. 25. Acts X. 42; yrii. 31. ciple, whether a man is on earth or in heaven. Christ is appointed to judge the world; and for He will equaliy desire it, and strive for it; and this purpose he will assemble it before him, and this is one of the ways in which religion makes assign to all their eternal allotments. See Matt. a man conscientious and holy, and is a better xxv. That every one may receive.-The word guard and security for virtue than all human rendered “ may receive," (couíonrai,) means laws, and all the restraints which can be imposed properly to take care of, to provide for; and in by man.
the New Testament, to bear, to bring, (1.uke
vii. 37 ;) to acquire, to obtain, to receive. This Ver. 10. For ?we must all appear before the is the sense here. Every individual sball take,
judgment-seat of Christ ; that every one may receive, or bear away the appropriate reward for
the transactions of this life of probation. See be a subject inspiring terror and alarm to stand Eph. vi. 8. Col. iii. 25. The things. The ap- | there on that day, because, (1.) He has all power, propriate reward of the actions of this life. Done and is appointed to execute judgment; (2.) Bein his body.—Literally, “the things by or through cause all must there give a strict and impartial (C) the body.” Tindal renders it, “ the works account of all that they have done; (3.) Because of his body." The idea is, that every man shall the wrath of God will be shown in the conreceive an appropriate reward for the actions of demnation of the guilty. It will be a day of his life. Observe here, (1.) That it is the works awful wailing and alarm, when all the living and done in or through the body; not which the the dead shall be arraigned on trial, with referbody itself has done. It is the mind, the man ence to their eternal destiny; and when countless that has lived in the body, and acted by it, that | hosts of the guilty and impenitent shall be thrust is to be judged. (2.) It is to be for the deeds of down to an eternal hell. Who can describe the this life; not for what is done after death. Men amazing terror of the scene? Who can fancy the are not to be brought into judgment for what they horrors of the hosts of the guilty and the wretched do after they die. All beyond the grave is either who shall then hear that their doom is to be fixed reward or punishment: it is not probation. The for ever in a world of unspeakable woe? The destiny is to be settled for ever by what is done influence of the knowledge of the terror of the in this world of probation. (3.) It is to be for Lord on the mind of the apostle seems to have all the deeds done in the body; for all the been twofold ; first, an apprehension of it as a thoughts, plans, purposes, words, as well as for all personal concern, and a desire to escape it, which the outward actions of the man. All that has led him to constant self-denial and toil; and, been thought or done must come into review, secondly, a desire to save others from being overand man must give account for all. According to whelmed in the wrath of that dreadful day. We that he hath done. — As an exact retribution for persuade men.-- We endeavour to persuade them all that has been done. It is to be a suitable and to flee from the wrath to come; to be prepared proper recompence. The retribution is to be to stand before the judgment-seat, and to be fitted measured by what has been done in this life. to enter into heaven. Observe here the pecuRewards shall be granted to the friends, and pu- liarity of the statement. It is not, we drive men; nishments to the foes of God, just in proportion or we endeavour to alarm men; or we frighten to, or suitably to their deeds in this life. Every men; or we appeal merely to their fears; but it man shall receive just what, under all the cir- | is, we persuade men, we endeavour to induce cumstances, he ought to receive, and what will them, by all the arts of persuasion and argument, be impartial justice in the case. The judg- to flee from the wrath to come. The future ment will be such that it will be capable of being judgment, and the scenes of future woe, are not seen to be right; and such as the universe at proper topics for mere declamation. To declaim large, and as the individuals themselves will see constantly on hell-fire and perdition; to appeal ought to be rendered. Whether it be good or bad. | merely to the fears of men, is not the way in
- Whether the life has been good or evil. The which Paul and the Saviour preached the gospel. good will have no wish to escape the trial; the The knowledge that there would be a judgment, evil will not be able. No power of wickedness, and that the wicked would be sent to hell, was a however great, will be able to escape from the powerful motive for Paul to endeavour to “pertrial of that day; no crime that has been con- suade" men to escape from wrath, and was a cealed in this life will be concealed there ; no motive for the Saviour to weep over Jerusalem, transgressor of law who may have long escaped and to lament its folly, and its doom. (Luke xix. the punishment due to his sins, and who may 41.) But they who fill their sermons with the have evaded all human tribunals, will be able to denunciations of wrath ; who dwell on the words escape them.
hell, and damnation, for the purpose of rhetoric VER. 11. Knowing, therefore, the terror n of the
or declamation, to round a period, or merely to
excite alarm ; and who “ deal damnation around Lord, we persuade men ; but we are made the land ” as if they rejoiced that men were to be manifest unto God, and I trust also are made condemned, and in a tone and manner as if they manifest in your consciences.
would be pleased to execute it, have yet to learn
the true nature of the way to win men to God, * Heb. x. 31. Jude 23.
o Chap. iv. 2.
and the proper effect of those awful truths on the Knowing therefore.—We who are apostles, and mind. The true effect is, to produce tenderness, who are appointed to preach the gospel, having deep feeling, and love; to prompt to the language the fullest assurance of the terrors of the day of of persuasion and of tender entreaty; to lead men judgment, and of the wrath of God, endeavour to to weep over dying sinners, rather than to depersuade men to be prepared to meet Him, and nounce them; to pray to God to have mercy on to give up their account. The terror of the Lord. them, rather than to use the language of severity, – That is, of the Lord Jesus, who will be seated or to assume tones as if they would be pleased to on the throne of judgment, and who will decide execute the awful wrath of God. But we are the destiny of all men. (Ver. 10. Comp. Matt. made manifest unto God.—The meaning of this XXV.) The sense is, knowing how much the is, probably, that God sees that we are sincere Lord is to be feared; what an object of terror and upright in our aims and purposes. He is and alarm it will be to stand at the judgment acquainted with our hearts. All our motives are Seat ; how fearful and awful will be the conse known to him, and he sees that it is our aim to quences of the trial of that day. The Lord Jesus promote his glory, and to save the souls of men, will be an object of terror and alarm, or it will | This is probably said to counteract the charge
which might have been brought against him by quence, their talents, their external advantages ; some of the disaffected in Corinth, that he was but not in the qualities of the heart-in sincerity, influenced by improper motives and aims. To honesty, real love for souls. Their consciences meet this, Paul says, that God knew that he was would not allow them to do this; and they knew endeavouring to save souls, and that he was themselves that their boasting was mere rain actuated by a sincere desire to rescue them from pretence, and that there was no real and solid the impending terrors of the day of judgment. ground for it. The margin is, “in the face." And I trust also, &c.— And I trust also you are The meaning is, probably, that their ground of" convinced of our integrity and uprightness of aim. | boasting was external, and was such as can be The same sentiment is expressed in other words seen of men, and was not rather the secret cou- . in chap. iv. 2. It is an appeal which he makes sciousness of right, which could exist only in to them, and the expression of an earnest and the conscience and the heart. Paul, on the other confident assurance that they knew and felt that hand, gloried mainly in his sincerity, his honesty, his aim was upright, and his purpose sincere. his desire for their salvation ; in his conscious VER, 12. For p we commend not ourselves again
integrity before God; and not in any mere er
ternal advantages or professions, in his rank, unto you, but give you occasion to glory on eloquence, or talent. Accordingly all his argu- ! our behalf, that ye may have somewhat to ment here turns on his sincerity, his conscious answer them which glory in 9 appearance, and
uprightness, and his real regard for their wel
fare. And the truth taught here is, that sinnot in heart.
cerity and conscious integrity are more valuable p Chap. iii. 1. q in the face.
than any or all external advantages and endov. For we commend not ourselves again unto you. ments. This refers to what he had said in the previous Ver. 13. For whether we be beside ourselves, verse. He had there said that he had such a con
it is to God: or whether we be scber, it is for sciousness of integrity, that he could appeal to God, and that he was persuaded that the Co
your cause. rinthians also approved his course, or admitted
Chap. xi. 1, 16, 17. that he was influenced by right motives. He here For whether we be beside ourselves.-This is states the reason why he had said this. It was probably designed to meet some of the charges not to commend himself to them. It was not to which the false teachers in Corinth brought :1 boast of his own character, nor was it in order to against him, and to furnish his friends there secure their praise or favour. Some might be with a ready answer, as well as to show them! disposed to misrepresent all that Paul said of the true principles on which he acted, and his himself, and to suppose that it was said for mere real love for them. It is altogether prolable i vain-glory, or the love of praise. He tells them, that he was charged with being deranged; that therefore, that his sole aim was necessary self. | many who boasted themselves of prudence, aod defence; and in order that they might have the | soberness, and wisdom, regarded him as acting , fullest evidence that he, by whom they had been like a madman. It has not been uncommon, by converted, was a true apostle; and that he whom any means, for the cold and the prudent, for they regarded as their friend and father in the formal professors and for hypocrites, to regard gospel was a man of whom they need not be the warm-hearted and zealous friends of religion ashamed. But give you occasion.- This is a very as maniacs. Festus thought Paul was deranged i happy turn of expression. The sense is, “ You when he said, “ Paul, thou art beside thyself, have been converted under my labours. You much learning doth make thee mad ;* (Acts 1 profess to regard me as your spiritual father and xxvi. 24 ;) and the Saviour himself was regarded 1 friend. I have no reason to doubt of your at by his immediate relatives and friends as beside tachment to me. Yet you often hear my name himself. (Mark ii. 21.) And at all times there slandered, and hear me accused of wanting the have been many, both in the church and out of evidence of being an apostle, and of being vain- | it, who have regarded the friends of revirals, glorious and self-seeking. I know your desire and of missions, and all those who have evinced to vindicate my character, and to show that you any extraordinary zeal in religion, as deranged. are my friends'; I therefore say these things in The object of Paul here is to show, whaterer regard to myself, in order that you may be thus might be the appearance or the estimate which able to show your respect for me, and to vindi- | they affixed to his conduct, what were the real cate me from the false and slanderous accusations principles which actuated him. These were, of my enemies. Thus doing, you will be able | zeal for God, love to the church, and the conto answer them ; to show that the man whom straining influences of the love of Christ. (ler. you thus respect is worthy of your confidence 14, 15.) The word here rendered - he beside and esteem.” On your behalf.--For your own ourselves," (iEconnuev, from iSton) means benefit, or, as it were, in self-vindication for ad- properly, to put out of place; to be put out of hering to me, and evincing attachment to me. place; and then to put out of one's self, to asThat ye may have somewhat to answer them. tonish, to fill with wonder; (Luke xxiv, 22; That you may be furnished with a ready reply Acts viii. 9, 11 ;) and then to be out of one's when you are charged with adhering to a man mind, to be deranged. Here it means that ther who has no claims to the apostleship, or who is were charged with being deranged, or that others slandered in any other way. Which glory in esteemed, or professed to esteem Paul and his appearance. — The false teachers in Corinth. | fellow-labourers deranged. It is to God. It is
robably they boasted of their rank, their elo- | in the cause of God, and from love to him. It
is such a zeal for him ; such an absorbing in- is impossible to determine the sense with certerest in his cause; such love prompting to so tainty, and it is only by the view which shall be great self-denial, and teaching us to act so much taken of the connexion and of the argument unlike other men, as to lead them to think that which will in any way determine the meaning. we are deranged. The doctrine here is, that | Expositors differ in regard to it. It seems to me there may be such a zeal for the glory of God, that the phrase here weans the love which Christ such an active and ardent desire to promote his had toward us. Paul speaks of his dying for all, honour, as to lead others to charge us with de- as the reason why he was urged on to the course rangement. It does not prove, however, that a l of self-denial which he evinced. Christ died for man is deranged on the subject of religion be- all. All were dead. Christ evinced his great cause he is unlike others, or because he pursues love for us, and for all, by giving himself to die; a course of life that differs materially from that and it was this love which Christ had shown of other professors of religion, and from the that impelled Paul to his own acts of love and man of the world. He may be the truly sane self-denial. He gave himself to his great work, man after all; and all the madness that may impelled by that love which Christ had shown; exist may be where there is a profession of reli- by the view of the ruined condition of man which gion without zeal; a professed belief in the ex- that work furnished, and by a desire to emulate istence of God, and in the realities of eternity, the Redeemer, and to possess the same spirit that produces no difference in the conduct be- which he evinced. Constraineth us, (ouvével.) tween the professor and other men; or an utter “This word (ovvéyw) properly means, to hold unconcern about eternal realities, when a man is together, to press together, to shut up; then to walking on the brink of death and of hell. press on, urge, impel, or excite. Here it means, There are few men that become deranged by that the impelling, or exciting motive in the lareligion; there are millions who act as madmen | bours and self-denials of Paul, was the love of who have no religion. And the highest instances | Christ--the love which he had showed to the of madness in the world are those who walk children of men. Christ so loved the world as over an eternal hell without apprehension or to give himself for it. His love for the world alarm. Or whether we be sober.-Whether we was a demonstration that men were dead in sins. are sane, or of sound mind. Comp. Mark v. 15. | And we, being urged by the same love, are Tindal renders this whole passage, “For if we prompted to like acts of zeal and self-denial to be too fervent, to God we are too fervent; if we save the world from ruin. Because we thus judge. keep measure, for our cause keep we measure." -Gr. “ We judging this ;" that is, we thus de
The sense seems to be, “ if we are esteemed to termine in our own minds, or we thus decide ; be sane, and sober-minded, as we trust you will or this is our firm conviction and belief-we come adrait us to be, it is for your sake. Whatever to this conclusion. That if one died for all.may be the estimate in which we are held, we On the supposition that one died for all; or takare influenced by love to God and love to man. ing it for granted that one died for all, then it In such a cause, we cannot but evince zeal and follows that all were dead. The “one” who died self-denial which may expose us to the charge for all, here is undoubtedly the Lord Jesus. The of mental derangement; but still we trust that word “ for” (Úhip) means, in the place of, in the by you we shall be regarded as influenced by a stead of. See Phil. ii. 13, ver. 20 of this chapter. sound mind. We seek your welfare. We labour It means that Christ took the place of sinners, for you. And we trust that you will appreciate and died in their stead ; that he endured what our motives, and regard us as truly sober was an ample equivalent for all the punishment minded.”
which would be inflicted if they were to suffer
the just penalty of the law; that he endured so VER. 14. For the love of Christ constraineth
much suffering, and that God hy his great subus; because we thus judge, that if one died stituted sorrows made such an expression of his for all, then were all dead.
hatred of sin, as to answer the same end in ex
pressing his sense of the evil of sin, and in • Chap. viii. 6. Rom. v. 15; xiv. 7, 9.
restraining others from transgression, as if the For the love of Christ.-In this verse, Paul | guilty were personally to suffer the full penalty brings into view the principle which actuated of the law. If this was done, of course the him ; tbe reason of his extraordinary and disin- | guilty might be pardoned and saved, since all the terested zeal. That was, that he was influenced ends which could be accomplished by their deby the love which Christ had shown in dying struction have been accomplished by the substifor all men, and by the argument which was tuted sufferings of the Lord Jesus. See Notes on furnished by that death respecting the actual Rom. iii. 25, 26, where this subject is considered character and condition of man (in this verse); at length. The phrase "for all,” (u Tèp a ávtwy,) and of the obligation of those who professed to obviously means for all mankind, for every man. be his true friends. (Ver. 15.) The phrase This is an exceedingly important expression, in “the love of Cbrist" (àyáty TOŨ XPLOTOū) may regard to the extent of the atonement which the denote either the love which Christ bears toward | Lord Jesus made ; and while it proves that his us, and which he has manifested, or our love | death was vicarious, i, e. in the place of others, towards him. In the former sense, the phrase and for their sakes, it demonstrates also that the * the love of God” is used in Rom. v. 8; 2 Cor. atonement was general, and had, in itself consixiii. 13; and the phrase “love of Christ," in dered, no limitation, and no particular reference Eph. iii. 14. The phrase is used in the latter to any class or condition of men, and no particusense in John xv. 9, 10, and Rom. viii. 35. It lar applicability to one class more than to an