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is only true Christianity that leaves perfect free- esteemed to be disgraceful or reproachful. And dom. All heathens are slaves to their priests ; | his idea, it seeins to me, is this. “I have been all fanatics are slaves to some fanatical leader ; speaking of reproach or disgrace as if I was all those who einbrace error are slaves to those weak, i. e. as if I was disposed to admit as true who claim to be their guides. The papist every | all that has been said of me as reproachful or where is the slave of the priest, and the despot- disgraceful; all that has been said of my want ism there is as great as in any region of servitude of qualifications for the office, of my want of tawhatever. If a man devour you.— This is ex- | lent, or elevated rank, or honourable birth, &c. ceedingly sarcastic. The idea is, “ Though you I have not pressed my claims, but have been reaare so wise, yet you in fact tolerate men who im- | soning as if all this were true--as if all that was pose on you-no matter though they eat you up, honourable in birth and elevated in rank belonged or consume all that you have. By their exhor- / to them-all that is mean and unworthy pertained bitant demands they would consume all you have to me. But it is not so. Whatever they have I
-or, as we would say, “ eat you out of house and have. Whatever they can boast of, I can boast home.” All this they took patiently; and freely of in a more eminent degree. Whatever advangave all that they demanded. False teachers are tage there is in birth is mine; and I can tell of always rapacious. They seek the property, not toils, and trials, and sufferings in the apostolic the souls of those to whom they minister. Not office which far surpass theirs.” Paul proceeds, satisfied with a maintenance, they aim to obtain therefore, to a full statement of his advantages all, and their plans are formed to secure as much of birth, and of his labours in the cause of the as possible of those to whom they minister. If Redeemer. As though we had been weak.-- As if a man take of you.—If he take and seize upon I had no claims to urge; as if I had no just cause your possessions. If he comes and takes what of boldness, but must submit to this reproach. he pleases and bears it away as his own. If a Howbeit, (06.)—But. The sense is, if any one is man eralt himself.-If he set himself up as a disposed to boast, I am ready for hiin. I can tell ruler and claim submission. No matter how ar- also of things that have as high claims to confirogant his claims, yet you are ready to bear with dence as they can. If they are disposed to go him. You might then bear with me in the very into a comparison on the points which qualify a moderate demands which I make on your obedi man for the office of an apostle, I am ready to ence and confidence. If a man smite you on the compare myself with them. Whereinsvever (év.) face.— The word here rendered "smite,” (ceow,) --In what. Whatever they have to boast of Í means properly to skin, to flay; but in the New am prepared also to show that I am equal to Testament it means to beat, to scourge-especi- | thei. Be it pertaining to birth, rank, education, ally so as to take off the skin. (Matt. xxi. 35. Mark labours, they will find that I do not shrink from xii. 3, 5.) The idea here is, if any one treats the comparison. Any is bold, (IÇ Toluci)--Any you with contumely and scorn-since there can one dares to boast ; any one is bold. I speak be no higher expression of it than to smite a foolishiy.-Remember now that I speak as a fool. man on the face. (Matt. xxvi. 67.) It is not to | I have been charged with this folly. Just now be supposed that this occurred literally among keep that in mind; and do not forget that it is only the Corinthians; but the idea is, that the false a fool who is speaking. Just recollect that I have teachers really treated them with as little respect no claims to public confidence; that I am destias if they smote them on the face. In what way tute of all pretensions to the apostolic office : that this was done is unknown; but probably it was | I am given to a vain parade and ostentation, and by their domineering manners, and the little re- to boasting of what does not belong to me, and spect which they showed for the opinions and when you recollect this let me tell my story. · feelings of the Corinthian Christians. Paul says The whole passage is ironical in the highesi de
that as they bore this very patiently, they might gree. The sense is, “ It is doubtless all nonsense allow him to make some remarks about himself and folly for a man to boast who has only the in self-commendation.
qualifications which I have. But there is a great
deal of wisdom in their boasting who have so VER. 21. I speak as concerning reproach, as
much more elevated endowments for the apostolic
office.” I am bold also.-I can meet them on though we had been weak. Howbeit wherein their own ground, and speak of qualifications not soever any is bold, (I speak foolishly,) I am inferior to theirs. bold also.
VER. 22. Are they Hebrews ? so am I. Are I speak as concerning reproach.--I speak of dis
they Israelites? so am I. Are they the seed grace. That is, says Rosenmüller, “ I speak of your disgrace, or, as others prefer it, of the dis
of Abraham? so am I. grace of the false apostles.” Doddridge regards Are they Hebrews ?--This proves that the perit as a question. “Do I speak this by way of sons who had made the difficulty in Corinth were dishonour, from an envious desire to derogate those who were of Hebrew extraction, though it from my superiors so as to bring them down to may be that they had been born in Greece, and my own level?” But to me it seems that Paul | had been educated in the Grecian philosophy and refers to what he had been admitting respecting art of rhetoric. It is also clear that they prided himself-to what he had evinced in rudeness of themselves on being Jews -- on having a connexspeech, (ver 6,) and to his not having urged his ion with the people and land from whence the claims to the support which an apostle had a religion which the Corinthian church now proright to receive—to things in short which they fessed had emanated. Indications are apparent
everywhere in the New Testament of the supe- | posed to deny that they were true ministers of riority which the Jewish converts to Christianity Christ. But he had higher claims to the office claimed over those converted from among the than they had. He had been called to it in a heathen. Their boast would probably be that more remarkable manner, and he had shown by : they were the descendants of the patriarchs ; his labours and trials that he had more of the that the land of the prophets was theirs ; that true spirit of a minister of the Lord Jesus than they spake the language in which the oracles of they had. He therefore goes into detail to show God were given; that the true religion had pro- | what he had endured in endeavouring to diffuse ceeded from them, &c. So am 1.--I have as the knowledge of the Saviour; trials which he high claims as any of them to distinction on this bad borne probably while they had been dwellhead. Paul had all their advantages of birth. Heing in comparative ease and in a comfortable was an Israelite ; of the honoured tribe of Benja- | manner, free from suffering and persecution. In min; a Pharisee, circumcised at the usual time, | labours more abundant.- In the kind of labour (Phil. iii. 5,) and educated in the best manner at necessary in propagating the gospel. Probably the feet of one of their most eminent teachers. | he had now been engaged in the work a much (Acts xxii. 3.) Are they Israelites ? - Another | longer time than they had, and had been far name, signifying substantially the same thing. | more indefatigable in it. In stripes.--In receivThe only difference is, that the word “ Hebrew” | ing stripes; i, e. I have been more frequently, signified properly one who was from beyond, scourged. (Ver. 24.) This was a proof of his (ody from 3, to pass, to pass over-hence ap- | being a minister of Christ, because eminent deplied to Abraham, because he had come from votedness to him at that time, of necessity suba foreign land : and the word denoted properly jected a man to frequent scourging. The minisa foreigner -a man from the land or coun try is one of the very few places, perhaps it try beyond, 753) the Euphrates. The name stands alone in this, where it is proof of peculiar Israelite denoted properly one descended from | qualification for office that a man has been Israel or Jacob, and the difference between them treated with all manner of contumely, and has was, that the name Israelite, being a patrony- | even been often publicly whipped. What other mic derived from one of the founders of their office admits such a qualification as this? Abore nation, was in use among themselves; the name measure. — Exceedingly; far exceeding them. Hebrew was applied by the Canaanites to them as He had received far more than they had, and he having come from beyond the river, and was the judged, therefore, that this was one evidente current name among foreign tribes and nations. that he had been called to the ministry. In pri. See Gesenius' Lexicon on the word (730) He- sons more frequent.-Luke, in the Acts of the brew. Paul in the passage before us means to | Apostles, mentions only one imprisonment of say that he had as good a claim to the honour of | Paul before the time when this epistle was writbeing a native born descendant of Israel as could ten. That was at Philippi with Silas. (Acts be urged by any of them. Are they the seed of xvi. 23, seq.) But we are to remember that Abraham ?-Do they boast that they are descend many things were omitted by Luke. He does ed from Abraham. This with all the Jews was not profess to give an account of all that hapregarded as a distinguished honour, (see Matt. pened to Paul; and an omission is not a contraiii. 9; John viii. 39,) and no doubt the false teach-diction. For any thing that Luke says, Paul ers in Corinth boasted of it as eminently qualify- may have been imprisoned often. He mentions ! ing them to engage in the work of the ministry. his having been in prison once ; he does not ! So am 1.-Paul had the same qualification. He deny that he had been in prison many times bewas a Jew also by birth. He was of the tribe sides. See on ver. 24. In deaths oft.—That is, of Benjamin. (Phil. iii. 5.)
exposed to death ; or suffering pain equal to
death. See on chap. i. 9. No one familiar with VER. 23. Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak the bistory of Paul can doubt that he was often
as a fool) I am more; in labours "more abun in danger of death. dant, in stripes yabove measure, in prisons | VER. 24. Of the Jews five times received I forty more frequent, in deaths oft.
stripes save one. * 1 Cor. xr. 10. y Acts ix. 16; xx. 23; xxi. 11. * 1 Cor. xv. 30, 32.
a Deut. xxv. 3.
Of the Jews, &c.-On this verse and the folAre they ministers of Christ ?—— Though Jews | lowing verse it is of importance to make a few by birth, yet they claimed to be the ministers of remarks preliminary to the expianation of the the Messiah. I speak as a fool.-As if he had phrases. (1.) It is admitted that the particulars said, “ Bear in mind, in what I am now about to here referred to cannot be extracted out of the say, that he who speaks is accused of being a Acts of the Apostles. A few can be identified, fool in boasting. Let it not be deemed improper but there are many more trials referred to here that I should act in this character; and since than are specified there. (2.) This proves that you regard me as such, let me speak like a fool.” | this epistle was not framed from the history, but Ilis frequent reminding them of this charge was that they are written independently of one aneminently fitted to humble them that they had other.-- Paley. (3.) Yet they are not inconsiste ever made it, especially when they were re- ent one with the other. For there is no article minded, by an enumeration of his trials, of the in the enumeration here which is contradicted character of the man against whom the charge by the history; and the history, though silent was brought. I am more.-Paul was not dis- with respect to many of these transactions, has
left space enough to suppose that they may have in the Acts, yet the statement here by Paul has occurred. (a) There is no contradiction between | every degree of probability. We know that he the accounts. Where it is said by Paul that he often preached in their synagogues ; (Acts ix. was thrice beaten with rods, though in the Acts | 20; xiii. 5, 14, 15; xiv. 1 ; xvii. 17; xviii. 4 ;) and but one beating is mentioned, yet there is no nothing is more probable than that they would contradiction. It is only the omission to record be enraged against him, and would vent their all that occurred to Paul. But had the history, malice in every way possible. They regarded sars Paley, contained an account of four beat- | him as an apostate, and a ringleader of the Naings with rods, while Paul mentions here but zarenes, and they would not fail to inflict on three, there would have been a contradiction. him the severest punishment which they were And so of the other particulars. (6) Though permitted to. Forty stripes save one.--- The word the Acts of the Apostles be silent concerning “stripes” does not occur in the original, but is many of the instances referred to, yet that si necessarily understood. The law of Moses lence may be accounted for on the plan and de (Deut. xxv. 3) expressly limited the number of sign of the history. The date of the epistle stripes that might be inflicted to forty. In no synchronizes with the beginning of the twen case might this number be exceeded. This was tieth chapter of the Acts. The part, therefore, a humane provision, and one that was not found which precedes the twentieth chapter is the only among the heathen, who inflicted any number of place in which can be found any notice of the blows at discretion. Unhappily it is not observed transactions to which Paul here refers. And it among professedly Christian nations where the is evident from the Acts that the author of that I practice of whipping prevails, and particularly history was not with Paul until his departure in slave countries, where the master inflicts any from Troas, as related in chap. xvi. 10. See number of blows at his pleasure. In practice Note on that place. From that time Luke at- | among the Hebrews, the number of blows intended Paul in his travels. From that period to flicted was in fact limited to thirty-nine, lest by the time when this epistle was written occupies any accident in counting the criminal should but four chapters of the history; and it is here, / receive more than the number prescribed in the if any where, that we are to look for the minute law. There was another reason still for limiting account of the life of Paul. But here much it to thirty-nine. They usually made use of a may have occurred to Paul before Luke joined scourge with three thongs, and this was struck him. And as it was the design of Luke to give thirteen times. That it was usual to inflict but an account of Paul mainly after he joined him, thirty-nine lashes is apparent from Josephus, it is not to be woudered at that many things Ant. book iv. chap. viii. $ 21. may have been omitted of his previous life. (c) The period of time after the conversion of Paul VER, 25. Thrice was I beaten with rods, once to the time when Luke joined him at Troas is
was I ¢ stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a very succinctly given. That period embraced
night d and a day I have been in the deep; sixteen years, and is comprised in a few chapters. Yet in that time Paul was constantly tra 6 Acts xvi. 22. c Acts xiv. 19. d Acts xxvii. velling. He went to Arabia, returned to Damascus, went to Jerusalem, and then to Tarsus, Thrice was 1 beaten with rods.- In the Acts of and from Tarsus to Antioch, and thence to the Apostles there is mention made of his being Cyprus, and then through Asia Minor, &c. In beaten in this manner but once before the time this time he must have made many voyages, and when this epistle was written. That occurred been exposed to many perils. Yet all this is at Philippi. (Acts xvi. 22, 23.) But there is no comprised in a few chapters, and a considerable reason to doubt that it was more frequently done. portion of them is occupied with an account of This was a frequent mode of punishment among public discourses. In that period of sixteen the ancient nations, and as Paul was often peryears, therefore, there was ample opportunity for secuted, he would be naturally subjected to this all the occurrences which are here referred to shameful punishment. Once was I stoned.-by Paul. See Paley's Horæ Paulinæ on 2 Cor. | This was the usual mode of punishment among No. ix. (d) I may add, that from the account the Jews for blasphemy. The instance referred which follows the time when Luke joined him to here occurred at Lystra. (Acts xiv. 19.) Paley at Troas, (from Acts xvi. 10,) it is altogether (Horæ Paulinæ) has remarked that this, when probable that he had endured much before. confronted with the history, furnished the near
After that time there is mention of just such est approach to a contradiction without a contratransactions of scourging, stoning, &c., as are diction being actually incurred, that he ever here specified ; and it is altogether probable that had met with. The history (Acts xiv. 19) conhe had been called to suffer them before. When tains but one account of his being actually Paul says, “Of the Jews,” &c., he refers to this stoned. But prior to this (Acts xiv. 5), it menbecause this was a Jewish mode of punishment. tions that" an assault was made both of the GenIt was usual with them to inflict but thirty-nine tiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, to blows. The Gentiles were not limited by law use them despitefully and to stone them, but they in the number which they inflicted. Five times. were aware of it, and fled to Lystra and Derbe." - This was doubless in their synagogues and | “Now," Paley remarks, “had the assault been before their courts of justice. They had not completed; had the history related that a stone the power of capital punishment, but they had | was thrown, as it relates that preparations were the power of inflicting minor punishments. And made both by Jews and Gentiles to stone Paul though the instances are not specified by Luke and his companions ; or even had the account of this transaction stopped without going on to in or to hunger and want. Instances of this are ! form us that Paul and his companions were not recorded in the Acts, but no one can doubt aware of their danger and fled, a contradiction that they occurred. The idea here is, that he between the history and the epistle would have had met with constant danger whererer he was, I ensued. Truth is necessarily consistent; but it whether in the busy haunts of men or in the ! is scarcely possible that independent accounts, solitude and loneliness of the desert. In the sea. not having truth to guide them, should thus -See ver. 25. Among false brethren.- This was advance to the very brink of contradiction with the crowning danger and trial to Paul, as it is ont falling into it." Thrice I suffered shipwreck. to all others. A man can better bear danger bv -On what occasions, or where, is now unknown, land and water, among robbers and in deserts, as these instances are not referred to in the Acts than he can bear to have his confidence abused, of the Apostles. The instance of shipwreck re and to be subjected to the action and tbe arts of 1 corded there (chap. xxvii.), which occurred spies upon his conduct. Who these were he has when on his way to Rome, happened after this not informed us. He mentions it as the chief epistle was written, and should not be supposed trial to which he had been exposed, that he had to be one of the instances referred to here. Paul met those who pretended to be his friends, and made many voyages in going from Jerusalem to who yet had sought every possible opportunity Tarsus, and to Antioch, and to various parts of to expose and destroy him. Perhaps he has Asia Minor, and to Cyprus ; and shipwrecks in here a delicate reference to the danger which those seas were by no means such unusual occur- | he apprehended from the false brethren in the rences as to render this account improbable. A church at Corinth. night and a day, &c.— The word here used (vvy Brillepov) denotes a complete natural day, or | VER. 27. In weariness and painfulness, in wateh- ! twenty-four hours. In the deep.--To what this
ings foften, in hunger sand thirst, in fastiags refers we do not now certainly know. It is probable, however, that Paul refers to some period
often, in cold and nakedness. when, having been shipwrecked, he was saved
Acts xx. 31.
9 1 Cor. iv. 11. by supporting himself on a plank or fragment of the vessel until he obtained relief. Such a situ In weariness.-Resulting from trarelling, ex. ation is one of great peril, and he mentions it, posure, labour, and want. The word coros (from therefore, among the trials which he had endured. KÓTTW, to beat, to cut) means, properly, wailing The supposition of some commentators that he and grief, accompanied with beating the breast. spent his time on some rock in the deep; or of Hence the word means toil, labour, wearisome others that this means some deep dungeon ; or of effort. And painfulness.- This word (uol doc) i others that he was swallowed by a whale, like is a stronger term than the former. It implies Jonah, shows the extent to which the fancy is painful effort ; labour producing sorrow, and in often indulged in interpreting the Bible.
the New Testament is uniformly connected with
the word rendered “weariness ;" in 1 Thess. ii. 9, Ver. 26. In journeyings often, in perils of
and 2 Thess. iii. 8, it is rendered - travail. " waters, in perils of robbers, in perilse by mine
In watchings often.-In loss of sleep, arising from
abundant toils and from danger. See Note on own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in
chap. vi. 5. In hunger and thirst.-- From travelperils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, ling among strangers, and being dependent on in perils in the sea, in perils among false bre- | them and on his own personal labours. See
Note, 1 Cor. iv. 11. In fastings often.- Either thren ; e Acts xiv. 5.
voluntary or involuntary. See Note on chap.
vi. 5. In cold and nukedness.—See Note, ! Cor. In journeyings often.--Of course subject to the liv. 11. fatigue, toil, and danger which such a mode of life involves. In perils of waters.-In danger of VER. 28. Beside those things that are without, losing my life at sea, or by floods, or by crossing
that which cometh upon me daily, the care fof streams. Of robbers.-- Many of the countries, especially Arabia, through which he travelled, all the churches. were then infested, as they are now, with rob
h Acts xv. 36-40. bers. It is not impossible or improbable that he was often attacked and his life endangered. Beside those things that are without.-In adIt is still unsafe to travel in many of the places dition to these external trials, these trials perthrough which he travelled. By mine own taining to the body, I have mental trials and countrymen.—The Jews. They often scourged anxieties resulting from the necessary care of him ; laid wait for him ; and were ready to put all the churches. But on the meaning of these him to death. They had deep enmity against words commentators are not agreed. Rosenhim as an apostate, and he was in constant danger müller supposes that the phrase means “besides of being put to death by them. By the heathen. | those things that come from other sources," " that - By those who had not the true religion. Seve I may omit other things." Beza, Erasmus, ral instances of his danger from this quarter are Bloomfield, and some others suppose that the mentioned in the Acts. In the city.-- In cities, passage means those things out of the regular as in Derbe, Lystra, Philippi, Jerusalem, Ephesus, | routine of his office. Doddridge, “ beside foreign &c. In the willerness.- In the desert, where he affairs." Probably the sense is, “ Apart from the would be exposed to ambushes, or to wild beasts, things beside,” (Xwpis TWY TapektÒS ;) not to
mention other matters, or if other matters should Note on 1 Cor. ix. 22. But it seems to me probe laid aside, there is this continually rushing | bable that he uses the phrase here in a more anxiety arising from the care of all the churches." general sense, as denoting that he sympathized That is, this would be enough in itself. Laying with those who were weak and feeble in all their aside all that arises from hunger, thirst, cold, circumstances. Who is offended, (oravoalietai.) &c., this continual care occupies my mind and -Who is scandalized. The word means proweighs upon my heart. That which cometh upon | perly to cause to stumble and fall; hence to be a me daily.-- There is great force in the original stumbling-block to any one; to give or cause here. The phrase rendered,“ that which cometh offence to any one. The idea here seems to be, upon me" means properly, “that which rushes | “who is liable to be led astray ; who has temptaupon me.” The word (éalototao) means tions and trials that are likely to lead him to sin properly a concourse, a crowd, hence a tumult; or to cause him to fall, and I do not burn with and the idea here is, that these cares rushed impatience to restore him, or with indignation upon him, or pressed upon him like a crowd of against the tempter ?” In all such cases Paul men or a mob that bore all before it. This is | deeply sympathized with them, and was prompt one of Paul's most energetic expressious, and to aid them. And I burn not ?—That is, with anger denotes the incessant anxiety of mind to which or with great agitation of mind, at learning that he was subject. The care of all the churches. any one had fallen into sin. This may either The care of the numerous churches which he mean that he would burn with indignation against had established, and which needed his constant those who had led them into sin, or be deeply supervision. They were young; many of them excited in view of the disgrace which would be were feeble; many were made up of hetero thus brought on the Christian cause. In either geneous materials; many composed of Jews and case it means that his mind would be in a glow of Gentiles mingled together, with conflicting pre-emotion ; he would feel deeply; he could not judices, habits, preferences; many of them were look upon such things with indifference or withcomposed of those who had been gathered from out being deeply agitated. With all he sympathe lowest ranks of life; and questions would be thized ; and the condition of all, whether in a constantly occurring relating to their order and state of feeble faith, or feeble body, or falling into discipline in which Paul would feel a deep inter- sin, excited the deepest emotions in his mind. est, and which would naturally be referred to The truth here taught is, that Paul felt a deep him for decision. Besides this, they had many sympathy for all others who bore the Christian trials. They were persecuted, and would suffer name, and this sympathy for others greatly inmuch. In their sufferings Paul would feel deepcreased the cares and toils of the apostolic office sympathy, and would desire, as far as possible, to which he sustained. But having given this exafford them relief. In addition to the churches position, candour compels me to acknowledge which he had planted, he would feel an interest that the whole verse may mean, “ Who is feeble in all others, and doubtless many cases would be in the faith in regard to certain observances and referred to him as an eminent apostle for counsel rites and customs, (1 Cor. ix. 22,) and I do not and advice. No wonder that all this came rush- | also evince the same? I do not rouse their preing on him like a tumultuous assembly ready to judices, or wound their feelings, or alarm them, overpower him.
On the other hand, who is scandalized, or led
into sin by the example of others in regard to V'ER. 29. Who is weak, and I am not weak?
such custom ; who is led by the example of others who is offended, and I burn not?
into transgression, and I do not burn with ini 1 Cor. ix. 22.
dignation ?” In either case, however, the general
sense is, that he sympathized with all others. Who is weak, &c.-I sympathize with all. I feel where others feel, and their sorrows excite VER. 30. If I must needs glory, I will "glory of deep syinpathetic emotions in my bosom. Like
| the things which concern mine infirmities. a tender and compassionate friend, I am affected when I see others in circumstances of distress.
k Chap. xii. 5, 9, 10. The word weak here may refer to any want of strength, any infirmity or feebleness arising either. If I must needs glory.-It is unpleasant for from body or mind. It may include all who me to boast, but circumstances have compelled were feeble by persecution or by disease ; or it me. But since I am compelled, I will not boast may refer to the weak in faith and doubtful about of my rank, or talents, but of that which is retheir duty, (see 1 Cor. ix. 22;) and to those who garded by some as an infirmity. Mine infirmities. were burdened with mental sorrows. The idea -Greek, “ The things of my weakness." The is, that Paul had a deep sympathy in all who word here used is derived from the same word needed such sympathy from any cause. And the which is rendered “weak,” in ver. 29. He intends statement here shows the depth of feeling of this doubtless to refer here to what had preceded in great apostle ; and shows what should be the his enumeration of the trials which he had enfeeling of every pastor. See Note on Rom. xii. dured. He had spoken of sufferings. He had 15. And I am not weak 2-I share his feel- | endured much. He had also spoken of that tenings and sympathize with him. If he suffers, Iderness of feeling which prompted him to sympasuffer. Bloomfield supposes that Paul means, thize so deeply when others suffered. He adthat in the case of those who were weak in the mitted that he often wept, and trembled, and faith he accommodated himself to their weakness, glowed with strong feelings on occasions which and thus became all things to all men. See my perhaps to many would not seem to call for such