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In the third chapter the service under the indenture is considered, and the rights and liabilities as well of the master as of the apprentice; the law as to assigning or turning over an apprentice, and the dissolution of the apprenticeship, either by the term expiring-by the apprentice's coming of age-by the bankruptcy or insolvency of the master-by death-by consent-by award -or by order of justices.

The fourth chapter relates to the jurisdiction of justices of the peace and sessions, either to put an end to the contract, or to punish the apprentice, or to direct a return of the premium by the master.

The fifth chapter contains a comprehensive view of the law relating to the freedom of a corporate town, and to setting up in trade and employing others in it, showing what trades are within the Statute of Elizabeth-what is a using of a trade--what kind of service as an apprentice is sufficient--what are illegal employments of journey men, and lastly, the modes of proceeding for penalties incúrrred under the Statute, or against bye laws. And the work concludes with an Appendix, containing the Statute 5 Eliz. C. 4. and the forms of indentures and proceedings.


7'emple, 16th Nov. 18!!.




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EFORE we consider minutely the various legislative provisions relative to apprentices, and which prohibit persons who have not served as such from being employed in trade, it will be proper to take a concise view of the general policy of those regulations, and to point out the injurious consequences which have ensued from their enactment.

It is allowed by every writer on political eco- Impolicy of nomy, that the great object of all rational politics interference. is to produce the greatest quantity of happiness in a given tract of country—that this must be effected by increasing the number of the percipients, provided they be comfortably supported—that the way to increase such number usefully and



Impolicy of permanently, is to increase the effective demand legislative

for labour, which stimulates the improvement of interference.

agriculture and other sources of subsistence; and
that consequently it is the duty of every legislator
to use those means which are most conducive to
this end (a). The only dispute is as to the means
to be adopted. Upon this point the experience of
all ages evinces, that every direct interference of
the legislature with its subjects, by prohibiting or
restraining any particular branch of honest labour,
or by encouraging any particular branch at the
expense of another, whether in agriculture or in.
commerce, has in general retarded the advances
of public opulence, and that the sound policy of
a legislator is not to impose restrictions or regula-
tions upon domestic industry, but rather to pre-
vent them from being imposed by the contrivance
or folly of others (6). Where there is a free coin-
petition, the labour and the capital of every indi- .
vidual will always be directed by him into the
channel most conducive to his own ultimate inte-
rest; of that interest each is himself, from a thou-
sand circumstances, the best possible judge; and
the interests of the whole community must in ge-
neral be most effectually insured, when that of each
individual is most judiciously consulted; upon
this point the opinions of those celebrated writers,
Smith, Hume, Paley, and Malthus are uniform (c).
Dr. Adam Smith observes, “ that every


(a) 2 Paley. Mor. Phil. - Hume's Hist. Eng. 403-4. 345, 346.-2 Malthus. 433. -3 Smith's W. N. 183.-2 2 Smith. 200.

Malthus. 196. (b) Paley. 400.- Smith's (c) 9 Smith's W. N. 201. W.N. 204.5. 201. 125. 118.9. 204,5.

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