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in which no Chriftian may intangle himself r.


CHAP. XXIII. Of the civil Magiftratë.

OD, the fupreme Lord and King of all the world, hath I ordained civil magiftrates to be under him, over the people, for his own glory, and the public good; and, to this end, hath armed them with the power of the fword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil doers a.

II. It is lawful for Chriftians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto b: in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice and

☛ Mat. xix. 11. But he faid unto them. All men cannot receive this faying, fave they to whom it is giv


v. 12. For there are fome eunuchs, who were fo born from their mother's womb; and there are fome eunuchs, who were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's fake: he that is able to receive it, let him receive it. 1 Cor. vii. 2. Neverthelefs, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband, V.9. But if they cannot contain, let them marry for it is better to marry than to burn. Eph. iv, 28. Let him that stole, fteal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. 1 Pet. iv. 2. That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh, to the lufts of men, but to the will of God. 1 Cor. vii. 23. Ye are bought with a price, be not ye the fervants of men.

1. Rom. xiii. 1. Let every foul be fubject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God:


the powers that be, are ordained of God, v. 2. Whofoever therefore re fifteth the power, refifteth the ordinance of God: and they that refift, fhall receive to themselves damnation. v. 3. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou fhalt have praise of the fame. v. 4. For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the fword in vain: for he is the minifter of God, a revenger,to execute wrath upon him that doth evil. 1 Pet. ii. 13. Submit yourfelves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's fake: whether it be to the king as fupreme, v. 14. Or unto governors, as unto them that are fent by him, for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well.

II. 6 Prov. viii, 15. By me kings reign, and princes decree juftice.. 16. By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earthi Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 4. (See in letter a.)



Chap, XXIII. peace, according to the wholfome laws of each commonwealth ; fo, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Teftament, wage war upon juft and nceffary occafions d.

III. The civil magiftrate may not affume to himfelf the adminiftration of the word and facraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven e: yet he hath authority, and it

è Pfal. ii. 1o. Be wife now therefore, O ye kings: be inftructed, ye judges of the earth. v. 11. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. v. 12. Kifs the Son, left he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little; bleffed are all they that put their trust in him. 1 Tim. ii. 2. For kings, and for all that are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honefty. Pfal. lxxxii, 3. Defend the poor and fatherlefs: do juftice to the afflicted and needy: v. 4. Deliver the poor and needy; rid them out of the hand of the wicked. 2 Sam. xxiii. 3. The God of Ifrael said, the Rock of Ifrael spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. Pet. ii. 13 (See in letter a.)

d Luke iii. 14. And the foldiers likewife demanded of him, faying, And what fhall we do? And he faid unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falfly, and be content with your wagès. Rom. xiii. 4. (See letter a.) Mat. viii. 9. For I am a man under authority, having fol diers under me and I fay to this man, Go, and he goeth and to a nother, Come, and he cometh: and to my fervant, Do this, and he doeth it. v. 10. When Jefus heard it, he marvelled, and faid to them that followed, Verily, I fay unto you, I have not found fo great faith, no not in Ifrael. Acts x. 1. There was a certain man in Cefarea called Corne-,


lius,, a Centurion of the band called the Italian band, v. 2. A devout-man, and one that feared God with all his houfe, who gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway Rev. xvii, 14. Thefe fhall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb fhall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; and they that are with him, are called, and chofen, and faithful. v. 16. And the ten horns which thou faweft upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and fhall make her defo late, and naked, and fhall eat her flefh, and burn her with fire.

III. e Chron. xxvi. 18. And they withstood Uzziah the king, and faid unto him, it appertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incenfe unto the Lord, but to the priests the fons · of Aaron, that are confecrated to burn incenfe: go out of the fanctu→ ary, for thou haft trefpaffed: neither fhall it be for thine honour from ' the Lord God. With Mat. xviii. 17. And if he fhall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church; but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man, and a publican. And Mat, xvi, 19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, fhall be bound in heaven: and whatfoever thou fhalt loofe on earth, shall he loofed in heaven. Cor. xii. 28. And God hath fet fome in the church, first apoftles, fecondarily prophets, thirdly cachers, after


is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preferved in the church, that the truth of God he kept pure and entire, that all blafphemies and herefies be fuppreffed, all corruptions and abufes in worship and difcipline prevented or reformed; and all the ordinances of God duly fettled, adminiftred, and obferved f for

that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diverfities of tongues. v. 29. Are all apoftles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of miracles? Eph. iv. 1. And he gave fome, apoftles: and fome, prophets: and fome, e vangelifts and fome paftors and teachers; v. 12. For the perfecting of the faints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ. 1 Cor. iv, 1. Let a man fo account of us, as of the minifters of Christ, and stewards of the myfteries of God. v. 2, Moreover it is required in ftewards, that a man be found faithful. Rom. x. 15. And how fhall they preach, except they be fent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gofpel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things! Heb, v. 4. And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.

flfa. xlix. 23. And kings fhall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nurfing mothers: they fhall bow down to thee with their face towards the earth, and lick up the duft of thy feet, and thou shalt know that I am the Lord; for they shall not be a fhamed that wait for me. Pfal. cxxii, 9. Because of the houfe of the Lord our God, I will feek thy good. Ezra vii. 23. Whatfoever is commanded by the God of heaven; let it be dili gently done, for the houfe of the God of heaven: for why fhould there be wrath against the realm of the king and his fons. v. 25. And

thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand, fet magiftrates and judges, who may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all fuch as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not. v. 26. And whofo ever fhall not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, Jet judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confifcation of goods, or to imprisonment. v. 27. Bleffed be the Lord God of our fa thers, who hath put fuch a thing as this in the king's heart, to beautify the houfe of the Lord which is in Jerufalem: v. 28. And hath ex tended mercy unto me, before the king, and his counfellers, and before all the king's mighty princes: and I was ftrengthened as the hand of the Lord my God was upon me, and I gathered together out of Ifrael chief men to go up with me. Lev, xxiv. 16. And he that blafphemeth the name of the Lord, he thall fure ly be put to death, and all the congregation fhall certainly ftone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blafphemeth the name of the Lord, thalk be put to death. Deut. xii. 5. And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, fhall be put to death (because he hath spoken to turn, you away from the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the houfe of bondage, to thrust thee, out of the way which the Lord thy God


Chap. XXIII. for the better effecting whereof, he hath power to call fynods to be present at thein, and to provide that whatfoever is tranf acted in them be according to the mind of God g.

.IV. It is the duty of people to pray for magiftrates h, to ha,

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commanded thee to walk in) fo fhalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee. v. 6. If thy brother the fon of thy mother, or thy fon, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bofom, or thy friend, which is as thine own foul, entice thee fecretly Jaying, Let us go and ferve other gods, which thou haft not known, thou nor thy fathers. v. 12. If thou fhalt hear fay in one of thy cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, faying, 2 Kings xviii. 4. He removed the high places, and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pie ces the brazen ferpent that Mofes had made for unto thofe days the children of Ifrael did burn incenfe to it, and he called it Nehushtan, (1 Chron. xiii, 1. to the 9. verfe, 2 Kings xxiii, 1, to the 26. verfe.) 2 Chron, xxxiv. 33. And Jofiah took away all the abominatious out of all the countries that pertained to the children of Ifrael, and made all that were prefent in Ifrael to ferve, even to ferve the Lord their God. and all his days they departed not from following the Lord, the God of their fathers. 2 Chron. XV, 12, And they entred into a covenant, to feek the Lord God of their fa thers, with all their heart and with all their foul; v. 13. That whofoever would not feek the Lord Gud of Ifrael, fhould be put to death, whether small or great, whether man or woman,

3 Chron. xix. 8. Moreover, in Jerufalem did Jehofhaphat set of the


Levites, and of the priests, and of the chief of the fathers of Ifrael, for the judgment of the Lord, and for controverfies, when they returned to Jerufalem. v. 9. And he charged them, faying, Thus fhall ye do in the fear of the Lord, faithfully and with a perfect heart. v. 10. And what caufe foever shall come to you of your brethren that dwell in their cities, between blood and blood, between law and com mandment, ftatutes and judgments, ye fhall even warn them that they trefpals not against the Lord, and fo wrath come upon you, and upon your brethren: this do, and ye hall not trefpals. v. 11. And behold, Amariah the chief priest is over you in all matters of the Lord: and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the houfe of Judah, for all the king's matters: alfo the Levites fhall be officers before you. Deal couragiously. and the Lord fhall be with the good, (2Chron. xxix, and xxx. chapters.) Mat, ii. 4. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and feribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. v. 5. And they faid unto him, In Bethlehem of Judah: for thus it is written by the prophet.

IV.b1 Tim.ii. 1. Texhort therefore, that fift of all fupplications, prayers, interceffions, and giving of thanks be made for all men: v. 2. For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honefty.

135 nour their perfons i, to pay them tribute and other dues, to o bey their lawful commands, and to be fubject to their authority for confcience fake / Infidelity, or indifference in religion, doth not make void the magistrate's just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obedience to him m: from which ecclefiaftical perfons are not exempted n; much less hath the pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominious, or over any of their people; and leaft of all to deprive them of their domi

4 1 Pet, ii. 17. Honour all men, Love the Brotherhood. Fear God, Honour the king,

Rom. xiii. 6. For, for this caufe pay you tribute alfo; for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. v. 7. Render therefore to all their dues, tribute to whom tribute is due, cuftom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.

/Rom xiii. 5. Wherefore ye muft needs be fubject, not only for wrath, but also for confcience fake. Tit. v. 1. Put them in mind to be fubject to principalities and powers, to obey magiftrates, to be ready to every good work.

m1 Pet. ii, 13. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's fake, whether it be to the king, as fupreme, v. 14. Or unto governors, as unto them that are feat by him, for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praife of them that do well. v. 16. As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of malicioufnefs, but as the fervants of God.

n Rom. xiii, 1. Let every foul be fubject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God; the powers that be, are ordained of God. Kings ii. 35. And the king put Benaiah the fon of Jehoiadah in his room over the hoft; and Zadok the prieft did the king put in the room

of Abiathar. Acts xxv. 9.But Feftus, willing to do the Jews a pleasure, anfwered Paul, and faid, Wilt thou go up to Jerufalem, and there be judged of these things before me V. 10. Then faid Paul, I ftand at Cefar's judgment-feat, where I ought to be judged; to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest. V. 11. For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die; but if there be none of these things whereof these accufe me, no man may deliver me unto them, I appeal unto Cefar. 2 Pet. ii, 1, But there were falfe prophets alfo among the people, even as there fhall be falfe teachers among you, who privily fhall bring in damnable herefies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themfelves fwift deftruction. V. 10. But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the luft of uncleannefs, and defpife government, prefumptuous; àre they, felf-willed: they are not afraid to fpeak evil of dignities; v 1. Whereas angels, who are greater in power and might, bring no railing accufation against them before the Lord. Jude 8. Likewife alfo thete filthy dreamers defile the flesh, defpife dominion, and fpeak evil of dignities. v. 9. Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil, he difputed about the 14


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