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good means, that, without the effufion of more blood, there may be such a blessed pacification betwixt his majesty and his subjects, as may tend to the good of religion, his majesty's true honour and safety, and happiness of his people; did therefore give commission to John earl of Loudon, lord chancellor, lord Maitland, lord Waristoua, and Mr. Robert Barclay, to repair to England, and endeavour the effe&uating of these ends contained in the covenant of treaties, conform to their instructions.

And the said estates having taken the proceedings above-written to their consideration, do find and declare, Thac the Lords of council, and conservers of peace, did behave themselves as faithful consellors, loyal subjects, and good patriots, in tendering their humble endeavours for removing the distractions betwixt his majesty and his subjects, and in cal. ling the commissioners for the common burdens, and by joint advice apo pointing the late meeting of convention, wherein they have approven themselves answerable to the duty of their places, and that truft com. mitted to them ; and therefore ratifies and approves their whole proceedings therein, and declares the said convention was lawfully called, and also full and free in itself, consisting of all the members thereof, as any convention bath been at any time bygone ; and ratifies and approves

the feveral acts made by them, or their committee, for injoining the covenant. And also, The said estates of parliament (but prejudice of the premiffes, and of the general ratification above-mentioned) ratifies, approres and confirms the foresaid mutual league and covenant, concerning the reformation and defence of religion, the honour and happiness of the king, and the peace and safety of the three kingdoms of Scotland, Englaod, and Ireland ; together with the acts of the kirk and estate authorizing the fame League and Covenant ; together also with the foresaid articles of treaty agreed upon betwixt the said commillioners of the convention of cftates of Scotland, and the commissioners of both the houses of parliament of England, concerning the faid Solemn League and Covenant.And the said estates ordain the same acts, with the League and Covenant above-specified, AAs authorizing the fame, and the articles of treaty forefaid, to have the full force, and strength of perfect laws and acts of parlia. ment, and to be observed by all his majesty's lieges, conform to the tenors treof respective. Of the which League and Covenant,

the tenor follows



Solemn League and Covenant


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Reformation and Defence of Religion, the Honour and Happie ness of the King, and the Peace and Safety of the three Kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland ; agreed upon by Commiffioners from the Parliament and Asembly of Divines in England, with Commissioners of the Convention of Estates and General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and by both Houses of Parliament and Assembly of Divines in England, and taken and subscribed by them, anno 1643 ; and thereafter, by the faid Authority, taken and subscribed by all Ranks in Scotland and England the same Year; and ratified by AEZ of the Parliament of Scotland, anno 1644; and again re newed in Scotland, with an Aiknowledgment of Sins, and Engagement to Duties, by all Ranks, anno 1648, and by Parliament 1649; and taken and subscribed by King Charles II. at Spey, June 23, 1650; and at Scoon, January 1, 1651.

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E aoblemen, barons, knights, gentlemen, citizens, burgesses,

minifters of the gospel, and commons of all forts, in the kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland, by the providence of GOD, living under one king, and being of one reformed religion, having before our eyes the glory of GOD, and the advancement of the kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the honour and happiness of the king's majesty and his posterity, and the true publick liberty, safety, and peace of the kingdoms, wherein every one's private condition is included : and calling to mind the treacherous and bloody plots, conspiracies, atrempts and practices of the enemies of GOD, agaioft the true religion and professors thereof in all places, especially in these three kingdoms, ever since the reformation of religion, and how much their rage, power and presumption are of late, and at this time, increased and exercised, whereof the deplorable state of the church and kingdom of Ireland, the distressed estate of the church and kingdom of England, and the dangerous estate of the church and kingdom of Scotland, are present and publick testimonies: We have now at last (afrer other means of fupplication, remonstrance, protestation and sufferings) for the



of us.

preservation of ourselves and our religion from utter ruin and destruction, according to the commendable practice of these kingdoms in former times, and the example of GOD's people in other nations; after mature deliberation, resolved and determined to enter into a mutual and folemn league and covenant, wherein we all subscribe, and each one of us for himlelt, with our hands lifted up to the most high GOD, do swear, I. THAT

HAT we Mall sincerely, really, and constantly, through the

grace of GOD, endeavour, in our several places and callings, the preservation of the reformed religion in the church of Scotland, ia doctrine, worship, discipline and government, against our common enemies; the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, according to the word of GOD, and the example of the best reformed churches : and shall endeavour to briog the churches of GOD in the three king. doms, to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion, confession of faith, form of church-government, directory for worship and catechising; that we, and our posterity after us may, as brethren, live in faith and love; and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midf

II. That we fall in like manner, without respect of persons, endeavour the extirpation of popery, prelacy, (that is, church-government by arch-bishops, bishops, their chancellors, and commissaries, deaos, deans and chapters, archdeacons, and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that hierarchy) superstition, herely, ichism, profaneness, and whatsoever shall be found to be contrary to found doctrine and the power of godliness; left we partake in other mens fios, and thereby be in danger to receive of their plagues : and that the Lord may be one, and his name one in the three kingdoms.

III. We mall, with the famme fincerity, reality and conítancy in our feveral vocations, endeavour, with our eftates and lives mutually to preserve the rights and privileges of the parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoms; and to prelerve and defend the king's majesty's per: fon and authority, in the preservation and defence of the true religion, and liberties of the kingdoms; that the world may bear witness with our consciences of our loyalty, and that we have no thoughts or inteprions to diminish his majesty's jult power and greataels.

IV. We fhall also, with all faithfulnels, endeavour the discovery of all such as have been or thall be incendiaries, malignants, or evil initruments, by hindering the reformation of religion, dividing the king from his people, or one of the kingdoms from another, or making any faction or parties amongst the people, contrary to this League and Covenant; that they may be brought to publick trial, and receive condign punishment, as the degree of their offences shall require or deserve, or


the supreme judicatories of both kingdoms respectively, or others having power from them for that effect, Thail judge convenient.

V. And whereas the happiness of a blessed peace between these kingdoms, denied in former times to our progenitors, is by the good providence of God grapted unto us, and hath beea lately concluded, and settled by both parliaments; we shall each one of us, according to our place and interelt, endeavour that they may remain conjoined in a firm peace and union to all posterity; and that justice may be done upon the wilful oppofers thereof, in manner expressed in the precedent article.

VI. We shall also, according to our places and callings, in this common cause of religion, liberty and peace of the kingdoms, asist and defend all those that enter into this League and Covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof ; and shall not suffer ourselves directly or indirectly, by whatsoever combination, persuasion or terror, to be divided and withdrawn from this blessed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary part, or to give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neutrality in this caute, which so much concerneth the glory of GOD, the good of the kingdom, and honour of the king; but shall all the days of our lives zealously and constantly continue therein, against all opposition, and promote the fame, according to our power, against all lets and impediments whatsoever ; and, what we are not able ourselves to suppress or overcome, we shall reveal and make koown, that it may be timely prevented or removed: all which we shall do as in the right of GOD.

And, because these kingdoms are guilty of many sins, and provocations against God, and his Son Jesus Christ, as is too manifest by our present distresses and dangers, the fruits thereof; We profels and declare, before God and the world, our unfeigned desire to be humbled for our own fins, and for the sins of these kingdoms: especially that we have not as we ought, valued the inestimable blesling of the gospel, that we have not laboured for the purity and power thereof, and that we have not endeavoured to receive Christ in our hearts, nor to walk worthy of him in our lives; which are the causes of other fins and tranfgrelions so much abounding amongst us : and our true and unfeigned purpose, delire and endeavour for ourselves, and all others under our power and charge, both in publick and in private, in all duties we owe to God and mao, to amead our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real reformation ; that the Lord may turn away his wrath and heavy indignation. and establish these churches and kingdoms in truth and peace. And this covenant we : make in the presence of ALMIGHTY GOD, the searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the same, as we shall answer at that great day, when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclofod; most humbly belee.hing the Lord to strengthen us by his holy Spirit for this end; and to bless our desires and proceedings with such success, as may be



deliverance and safety to his people, and encouragement to other Chrif tian churches, groaning under, or in danger of the yoke of antichristian tyranny, to join in the fame, or like association and covenant, to the glory of God, the enlargement of the kingdom of Jelus Chrift, and the peace and tranquillity of Christian kingdoms and commonwealths.

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