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and profane persons much countenanced, and many times employed, until iniquity and ungodliness hath gone over the face of the land as a flood; nay, Tufficient care hath not been had to separute betwixt the precious and the vile, by debarring from the facrament all ignorant and scandalous persons, according to the ordinances of this kirk,

Neither have the privileges of the parliaments and liberties of the subject been duly tendered: but some among ourselves have laboured to put into the hands of our king an arbitrary and unlimited power, destructive to both; and many of us have been accessory of late to those means and ways, whereby the freedom and privileges of parliaments have been incroached upon, and the subjects oppressed in their consciences, persons and ellates; neither hath it been our care to avoid these things which might harden the king in his evil way; but upon the contrary he hath not only been permitted, but many of us have been instrumental, to make him exercise his power, in many things tending to the prejudice of religion and of the covenant, and of the peace and safety of these kingdoms; which is so far from the right way of prelerving his majesty's perlon and authority, that it cannot but provoke the Lord against him, unto the hazard of both : nay, under a pretence of relieving and doing for the king whilft he refuses to do what is necessary for the house of God, fome have ranversed and violated most of all the articles of the covenant.

Our own conscience withio, and God's judgments upon us without, do conviece us of the manifold wilful renewed breaches of that article, which concerneth the discovery and punishment of malignants, whose crimes have not only been consived at, but dispensed with and pardoned, and themselves received into intimate fellowship with our felves, and intrusted with our counsels, admitted unto our parliaments, and put in places of power and authority, for managing the public affairs of the kingdom; whereby, iu God's justice, they got at lart into their hands the whole power and strength of the kingdom, both in judicatories and armies; and did employ the fame unto the enacting and prosecuting unlawful engagements in war against the kingdom of England, notwithstanding of the diffent of many considerablc members of parliament, who had given constant proof of their integrity in the cause from the beginning; of many faithful teflimonies and free warnings of the servants of God; of the supplications of many fynods, presbyteries and fires; and of the declarations of the general assembly and their commissioners to the contrary, which engagement, as it hath been the cause of much sin, fo allo of much misery and calamity unto this lood; and holds forth to us the grievousvels of our fin, of complying with malignants, in the greatness of our judgment, that we may be taught never to split again upon the same rock, upon which the Lord hath fet fo remarkable a beacon. And after all that is come to pats unto us, because of this our trespass : and after that grace hath been wzred unto us from the Lord our God, by breaking these mens


yoke from off our necks, and putting us again into a capacity to act for the good of religion, our own safety, and the peace and the latety of this kingdom, should we agaio break this commandment and coveDant, by joining once more with the people of these abominations, and taking into our bofom those ferpents, which had formerly ftung us almost upto death; this, as it would argue great madness and folly upon our part, so no doubt, if it be not avoided, will provoke the Lord against us, to consume us, until there be no remnant nor escaping in the land.

And albeit the peace and union betwixt the kingdoms be great blessings of God voto both, and a bond which we are obliged to preferve unviolated, and to endeavour that justice may be done upon the oppofers thereof : yet fome in this land, who have come under the bond of the covenant, have made it their great study how to dissolve this union; and few or no endeavours have been used by any of us for punishing of such

We have suffered many of our brethren, in several parts of the land, to be oppressed by the common enemy, without compassion or relief: there hath been great murmuring and repining, because of expence of means, and pains in doing of our duty: mapy, by persuasion or terror, have suffered themselves to be divided and withdrawn, to the contrary part : many have turned off to a detestable indifferency and neutrality in this cause, which so much concerneth the glory of God and the good of these kingdoms; Aay, many have made it their study to walk lo, as they might comply with all times, and all the revolutions thereof. It hath not been our care to countenance, encourage, intrust and employ luch only, as from their hearts did affect and miod God's work; buc the hearts of such many times have been dit-couraged, and their hands weakened, their sufferings neglected, and themselves llighted; and many, who were once open enemies, and always secret underminers, countenanced and employed : nay, even those who had been looked upon as incendiaries, and upon whom the Lord hath set marks of desperate malignancy, fallhood and deceit, were brought in, as fit to manage publick affairs : many have been the lets and impediments that have been caft in the way, to retard and obstruct the Lord's work; and some have kept secret, what of themfelves they were not able to suppress and overcome.

Besides these, and many other breaches of the articles of the coveeant in the matter thereof, which it concerneth every one of us to search out and acknowledge before the Lord, as we would with his wrath to be turned away from us; so have many of us failed exceedingly, in the manner of our following and puriuing the duties contained thereia ; not only seeking great things for ourselves, and mixing of our private interests and ends concerning ourselves, and friends, and followers, with those things which concern the publick good; buc many times preferring such to the honour of God, and good of his



cause, and retarding God's work, until we might carry along with us our own interefts and designs. It hath been our way to trust in the mcans, and to rely upon the arm of flesh for succeso, albeit the Lord hath many times made us meet with disappointment therein, and stained the pride of all our glory by blasting every carnal confidence unto us: we have followed for the most part the counsels of flelh and blood, and walked more by the rules of policy than piety, and have bearkened more unto men than unto God.

Albeit we made folema publick profession before the world, of our unfeigned desires to be humbled before the Lord for our own fins, and the fins of these kingdoms, especially for our undervalown sins, inestimable benefit of the gospel, and that we have dot laboured for the power thereof, and received Christ into our hearts, and walked worthy of him in our lives; and of our true and unfeigned purpose, defire and endeavour for ourselves, and all others under our power and charge, both in publick and private, in all the duties which we owe to God and man, to amend our lives, and each one to go before another is the example of a real reformation, that the Lord might tura away his wrath and heavy indignation, and establish thele kirks and kingdoms in truth and peace : Yet we have refused to be reformed, and have walked proudly and obtinately against the Lord, not valuing his gospel, nor submitting ourselves unto the obedience thereof not seekiog after Christ, nor studying to honour him in the excellency of his person, nor employ him in the virtue of his offices ; Dor making conscience of publick ordinances, nor private aor secret duties ; nor studying to edify one another in love. Igaorance of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ, prevails exceedingly in the land; the greatest part of masters of families, amongst ooblemen, barons, gentlemen, burgesses and commons, neglect to seek God in their families, and to endeavour the reformation thereof; and albeit it hath been much presed, yet few of our aobles and great ones, even to this day, could be persuaded to perform family duties themselves, and in their own persons; which makes fo necessary and 'ufeful a duty to be misregarded by others of inferior rank: gay, many of the nobility, gentry and burrows, who should have been examples of godliness and sober walking uato others, have been ringleaders of excess and rioting. Albeit we be the Lord's people, engaged to him in a solemo way ; yet, to this day, we have pot made it our study, that judicatories and armies should consist of, and places of power and trust be filled with men of a harmless and Christian conversation, and of known integrity, and approven fidelity, affection and zeal unto the cause of God; but not only those who have been neutral and indifferent, but difaffected and malignant, and others who have been profane and scandalous, have been intrusted: by which it hath come to pass, that judicatories have been the seats of injustice and iniquity; and many in our armies, by their miscarriage, have become our plague, unto the great prejudice of the cause of God, the

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great scandal of the gospel, and the great increase of looseness and protanity throughout all the land. It were impollible to reckon up all the abominations that are in the land; but the blafpheming of the game of God, swearing by the creatures, profanation of the Lord's day, uncleapness, drunkendels, excels and rioting, vanity of apparel, lying and deceit, railing and cursing, arbitrary and uncontrouled oppression, and grinding of the faces of the poor by landlords, and others in place and power, are become ordinary and common sias; and, besides all thele things, there be many other transgreffions, whereof the lands wherein we live are. guilty. All which we desire to ackpowledge and to be humbled for, that the world may bear witness with us, that righteousness belongeth unto God, and shame and confusion of face unto us, as appears this day.

And becaule it is needful for those who find mercy, not only to confess, but also to forsake their fin; therefore, that the reality and sincerity of our repentance may appear, we do.refolve and folemnly engage ourselves, before the Lord, carefully to avoid for the time to come all thefe offences, whereof we have now made iolema publick acknowledgement, and all the snares and tentations which tend there unto: and to testify the integrity of our relolution herein, and that we may be the better enabled in the power of the Lord's strength to perform the fame, we do again renew our solemn league and covenant, promilog hereafter to make conscience of all the duties, whereunto we are obliged, in all the heads and articles thereof, particularly of there that follow.

1. Becaule religion is of all things the most excellent and precious, the advancing aod promoting the power thereot, against all ungodlinels and profanity, the securing and preserving the purity thereof against all error, herefy and schism; and namely, independency, anabaptism, antinomianism, arminianism, and socinianism, tamilism, libertinilin, scepticism, and erastianisin, and the carrying on the work of uniformity shall be fudied and endeavoured by us before all worldly interefts, whether concerning the king, ourselves, or any other whatlomever, 2. Because many have of late laboured to supplant the liberties of the kirk, we shall maintain and defend the kirk of Scotland, io all her liberties and privileges, against all who shall oppole or uudermine the fame, or encroach thereupon, under any pretext, whatsomever. 3. We shall vindicate and maintain the liberties of the subjects, in all these things which concern their conscieaces, persons and estates. 4. We fhall carefully maintain and defend the union betwixt the kingdoms, and avoid every thing that may weaken the same, or involve us in any measure of accession unto the guilt of these who have invaded the kingdom of England. 5. As we have been always loyal to our king, lo we shall still endeavour to give unto God that which is God's and to Cælar the things which are Cæsar's. 6. We shall be so far from conpiving at, complying with, or countenanciog of malignancy, injustice,

iniquity, iniquity, profanity and impiety, that we hall not only avoid and discountenance those things, and cherish and encourage these persons who are zealous for the cau.e of God, and walk according to the gospel; but also shall take a more effectual courle than heretofore, in our respective places and calliags, for punishing and suppressing these evils ; and faithfully endeavour, that the best and fittelt remedies may be applied for taking away the causes thereof, and advancing the knowledge of God, and holiaeis and righteou nels in the land. And therefore

, in the last place, as we shall earnestly pray unto God, that he would give us able men, fearing God, men of truth, and hating covetoufress

, to judge and bear charge among his people; so we shall, according to our places and callings, endeavour that judicatories, and all places of power and trust both in kirk and state, may confift of, and be filled with such men as are of known good affection to the cause of God, and of a blamelels and Christian conversation.

And, because there be many, who heretofore have not made conscience of the oath of God, but some through fear, others by persuasion

base ends and human interests, have entered thereinto, who have afterwards discovered themselves to have dealt deceitfully with the Lord, in swearing tally by his name; Therefore we, who do now renew our covenant, in reference to these duties, and all other duties contained therein, do, in the fight of him, who is the Searcher of hearts, folemnly profess, that it is not upon any public advantage

, or private interest or bye-end, or because of any terror or persuasion, from men, or hypocritically and deceitfully, that we do again rake upon us the oath of God, but honestly and sincerely, and from the sense of our duty; and that therefore, denying ourlelves and our own things, and laying a Gde all felf-interest and ends, we shall above all things seek the honour of God, the good of his cause, and the wealth of bis people; and that forsaking the counsels of flesh and blood, and not leaning upon carnal confidences, we (hall depend upon the Lord, walk by the rule of his word, and hearken to the voice of his servants. Jo all which, professing our own weakness, we do earnestly pray to God, who is the Father of mercies, through his Son Jesus Chrift, to be merciful unto us, and to enable us by the power of his might, that we may do our duty, unto the praise of his grace ia the churches. Amen.

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