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say No to these questions, and we do not believe he will say Yes. What then is his motive in writing this book ? If we should find a man asleep, whose waking hours were full of pain, and grief, and anguish of mind, and we knew by the murmured words from his lips and the pleasant smile upon his face, that he was in a happy dream, we would not rudely arouse him, shouting, “Here! here! wake up; you are dreaming, and there is nothing in a dream, it's all nonsense wake up.” Why disturb him? His dream does us no harm, and is a comfort to him; and why should we wake him, and worry him with a learned scientific argument about the brain and the nerves, lo convince him that a dream is nothing?
We do not like the spirit in which Dr. Maudsley writes this book, so unlike that in which his other books are written. There is an air of lofty superiority, and a constant sneer at theologians and religious believers, running through all the argument, which is equally beneath the dignity of the scientist and the gentleman. We have no more sympathy with the absurdity of orthodox creeds than he has ; but courtesy, and respectful treatment of those who disagree with us, are never out of place.
4. Memoir of Rev. Charles Lowe. By his wife, Martha Perry Lowe. Cupples, Upham & Company. $1.75.
Mr. Lowe's name has long been familiar to us, and though we had no personal acquaintance with him, for years we followed his work as agent of the Unitarian Association and founder and Editor of the Unitarian Review, and often were moved to admiration of his conscientious and untiring devotion to duty, his sincere natural piety, his excellent judgment, and his sure success in all his denominational and literary enterprises. This memoir, written with so much wisdom and tenderness, shows us what we did not know, that his work almost from the beginning, as pastor, as agent of the Association, and as Editor of the Review, was done under the wearing burden of bodily weakness and failing health. Both his first pastorates he was compelled to resign because his physical strength and endurance proved unequal to the demands made on him ; and before he left the Salem church he had a severe and protracted struggle for life, and for a time it seemed doubtful which way the balance would turn. It is wonderful, as we read of this period, to see how he held to his purpose, and as he grew a little better and his courage rose, how, notwithstanding the burden of pain and weakness, he kept to his work. What pathos in this passage from his Diary :"Hard at work on my sermon on Regeneration. Shall I ever see the time when sermon-writing will be less difficult? It is real torture, the first day or two, while bringing myself into the subject ; and then though I experience sometimes, in writing, a glow of joy, it is generally wearisome and painful.” And yet he wrote, and preached and worked until he fainted and fell in the Master's vineyard, overcome with the heat and burden of the day.
It is inspiring to follow this Christian man through all his labors and trials; through controversy with the radical and conservative elements of his denomination in his earnest efforts for the largest fellowship of all sincere souls, for workers rather than talkers ; through discouragement, and disappointment, and sickness; through all the painful struggles of a never weary soul with an always weary body — and to note with what a sweet and patient spirit every burden was borne, and with what entire resignation and peace he waited on the will of God, what. ever the form in which it might be expressed. And it is instructive to
learn from his own lips, when he was near the end, how he was sustained by his childlike faith in God and the Savior, and made more than conqueror over death. Indeed this word conqueror is not the word which fitly describes the closing scene - there was nothing to conquer, there was no struggle, no conflict, but a ready and willing and cheerful surrender to the wisdom and the goodness of the Divine Father. Few can read the record of his last hours without a heart of thankfulness for the Christian faith. And we can not help asking Dr. Maudsley, whose book we have noticed elsewhere, what this disciple of Christ would gain by exchanging his faith in these last hours for the cold, hard, barren materialism which he seeks to put in its place?
It is not an easy thing for a wife to write the story of a husband's life and labors. There are two difficulties in her way - one that she will unconsciously permit her personal affection to color the narrative too highly; the other that, in her anxiety to avoid this, she may omit many things which would enrich the sketch, and impart pathos, tenderness and warmth. But Mrs. Lowe has escaped both these extremes, and has given us a record of one of the most amiable, and lovable of men, which will equally satisfy those who knew him personally, and those who will only know him through this memoir. We regard the book as one of permanent value, and specially helpful to all ministers who seek conscientiously to do the work of both preacher and pastor.
5. The National Revision Commentary on the New Testament. Based upon the Revised Version of 1891, by English and American scholars. Vol. VI.
The Epistle to the Romans. By M. B. Riddle, Prof. ot N. T. Exegesis in Hartford Theological Seminary. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.00. This
the only commentary on the Revised Version, and it is edited by that indefatigable and conscientious scholar, Dr. Philip Schaff. The notes are chiefly drawn from the “ Popular Illustrated Commentary,” and Dr. Schaff's additional notes on Romans in Lange's Commentary
The volume is helpful in all historical, critical and purely expository matters not involving controverted doctrines; but Paul in this epistle furnishes some hard nuts for Orthodox commentators to crack. Dr. Riddle seems to realize this fact, and it comes out almost comically in the Notes on chapters v. and xi., where it is amusing to see the shifts to which the Doctor is driven in order to maintain his loyalty both to Orthodoxy and to Paul's straight-forward declarations touching the final reconciliation of all souls. Not having room here, we have given examples of this in the “ Leader."
6. Where Did Life Begin? A Brief Enquiry as to the Probable Place of Beginning and the Natural Courses of Migration therefrom of the Flora and Fauna of the Earth. A Monograph by G. Hilton Scribner. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25.
This book will probably open the way to some lively discussion among the Scientists, to whom it throws down the glove in very knightly style. The author's theory in brief is set forth in this paragraph from page 17 :
" The whole globe was once a molten mass too hot to maintain life. The polar regions were then too hot for that purpose. These same regions are now too cold to maintain such life as we find on other parts of the earth Nothing, then, can be more obvious than that the temperature of these now frigid zones, in sliding gradually from the first extreme of heat to the last extreme of cold, must have passed slowly through all the grades of temperature and climatic conditions which were exactly suited at one time or another to all the varieties of plants and animals which now live or ever have lived on the earth."
The conclusion therefore is that all life began in the arctic zone, and as the cooling process went on toward the equator, this life, vegetable
and animal, followed it down through the temperate zone and into the tropical. And this theory is maintained with an ingenuity of argument, and a massing of facts, which will surely win the admiration of the Teader; and, whether convinced or not, will compel the admission that the author has thought long and well on the subject, and reasons it out with all the severity of logic and statement belonging to a scientific treatise.
7, Thc Works of Orville Dewey, D.D. With a Biographical Sketch. A new and complete edition. American Unitarian Association. $1.00.
As far back as 1839 we made our first venture, in the old Expositor," in the way of a regular Book Review - and the work chosen for it was one of those included in this volume : "On Commerce and Business." We well remember the pleasure and the profit derived from the reading of the book, and the enthusiasm with which we wrote in its praise as prophetic of greater breadth and variety in the subjects of pulpit teaching. We heartily welcome this new edition of his sermons and addresses, for they are of permanent value and interest.
We entirely agree with the statement that, with the possible exception of Dr. Channing, no person occupied a more prominent position in the early annals of American Unitarianism than Dr. Dewey. A preacher of practical truth to tried and tempted men and women, he had an almost unique power. That discourses preached before the present generation came on the s'age should still be in demand, is sufficient proof of their usefulness.
8. A Day in Athens with Socrates : Translations from the Protagoras and the Republic of Plato. Charles Scribner's Sons. 50 cts. Paper.
If one would get a vivid picture of the intellectual life of Athens, of Socrates and his contemporaries, of the social, moral, philosophical and political questions discussed by the great philosopher and those whom he encountered, let him read this little volume especially if he has not the time for a thorough reading of all Plato's Dialogues. We have here examples of some of the best of those subtle disputations which have fascinated thoughtful minds in all ages since they were written, and have made the names of both Socrates and Plato famous. An ad. mirable Prefice, copious Notes explanatory of the historical allusions, and biographical incident and information concerning the persons introduced, complete the book and add to its interest and educational value.
9. Appleton's Early Christian Literature Primers. The Post-Nicene Latin Fathers. By Rev. George A. Jackson. D. Appleton & Co.
This is the fourth volume of this truly excellent series, embracing the period of A. D. 325-590. We have already stated its purpose and leading characteristics, which this new issue fully maintains, completing the original plan of the projector. The leading feature of this volume is the large space given to the works of Augustine, the source from which John Calvin drew much of his inspiration. One third of the book is devoted to this great Mastsr in the Latin church; giving 10 pages from his “ Confessions," and 36 from “The City of God," including. “Extracts on Eternal Punishment, and on Prayers for the Dead.” But when it is remembered how largely Augustine shaped the creed of the church in his own and subsequent ages, and the measure of his influence in the Orthodox sects of to-day, the student of ecclesiastical history will not perhaps regret the opportunity here given of making acquaintance with the thought and style of this great leader.
Beside Augustine we have Pelagius, his chief opponent in the matter of “ Free Will,” to whom the author has generously given four pages, including an extract of thirteen lines ! Other Fathers noticed are Ambrose, Jerome, Hilary, Rufinus, Leo the Great, and many of lesser note, including Church Historian and the Early Latin Christian Poets. The Biographical notes are pleasing and informing, and the Chronological Tables rf Emperors, Popes and Writers who were contemporary will prove very handy and useful to students.
10. Lise at Puget Sound, with Sketches of Travel in Washington Territory, British Columbia, Oregon and California. 1865-1881. By Caroline C. Leighton. Lee & Shepard. $1.50.
This is a record of travel, which will have for the average reader some fresh and informing sketches of Indian and frontier life, as well as pictures of magnificent scenery in lands at the time wholly unknown to the ordinary traveller. The writer made these journeys and voyages in company with her husband, a government official, sent to visit our North-western possessions; and the most primitive conveyances were employed. They travelled in emigrant wagons drawn by oxen, in Indian canoes, on horseback, and on foot through ancient forests with trees 250 feet in height, and undergrowth so dense that passage had to be cut with axes.
And one of the attractions of the narrative is the quiet fearlessness with which Mrs. Leighton faced dangers on sea and on land, from which most men would shrink ; and the patient endurance with which she accepted the hardships of travel through these savage regions, where nearly all the conveniences and securities of civilization were absent, and all sorts of wild men and wild beasts were present.
11. The Consolations of Science, or Contributions from Science to the Hope of Immortality, and Kindred Themes. By Jacob Straub. With an Introduction by Hiram W. Thoras, D.D., Pastor of the People's Church, Chicago, Ill.
As far as we are able to judge this work is the fruit of much patient thinking, careful reading and generous scientific culture. It is the first of its kind in our denominational literature, and deserves a cordial welcome from all thoughtful and cultivated minds among us, and from that large class of persons who are asking questions regarding the probabilities of a future existence independent of revelation, and who are endeavoring to place science on the stand, and by cross examination draw from her testimony in favor of the Christian doctrine of immortality. Such will find the author of this work a most intelligent and able assistant, thoroughly prepared by long and diligent study of the facts and teachings of Science to show that the tendency of these is towards spiritualism rather than materialism : that Nature joins her forces with those of Religion in strengthening the hope and assurance that the spirit that is in man lives beyond the death of the body - lives endlessiy.
As we read his admirably constructed arguments, and ponder his facts industriously gathered from the animate and inanimate world, and through the wondrous disclosures of science transmuted into spiritual facts, we are ready to ask why he has so long hidden his light under a bushel ; why he has not before this made some worthy contribution to our literature, helped on the great battle between Doubt and Faith, and hastened the correlation of the forces of Science and Religion. We trust that, having begun the good work, he will continue his contributions on the relations of Science to the great questions of Revelation and Christian Theology.
The reader will understand that the subject is treated in a purely scientific spirit, without any reference to, or help from, the Scriptures. The author's purpose is to ascertain how far Nature, which is the work of God, justifies the belief in immortality ; how far Science, without intending it, has, in her more recent achievements in the material realms, furnished facts, the legitimate philosophy and logic of which prophesy the persistence of spiritual as well as physical force, the permanence of mind as well as of matter. After a brief sketch of the probable reasonings and beliefs of the human race in ils infancy, and a statement of the doctrines respecting spirits and a future life as held among the early peoples, Egyptians, Chaldæans, Indians, Hebrews and Greeks, he settles down to his work. We can only touch a few points, very briefly.
In scientific circles there is a growing tendency, he thinks, toward the spiritual side of nature. “Properties and forces in nature are seen to disappear from view beyond the senses and the means of physical analysis, transferring their causes as well as effects to regions unknown, and to connect with entities there no less real and substantial than those on the visible plane.” The existence of these occult forces is generally admitted by scientists. “There are many,” says Prof. Youmans, “who deplore what they regard as the materialistic tendencies of modern science. The reverse is true. The tendency of this kind of inquiry is ever from the material toward the abstract, the ideal, the spiritual
. Froni the baldest materiality we rise at last to a truth of the spirit-world of so exalted an order that it has been said to connect the mind of man with the spirit of God." And even Prof. Tyndall says that the process by which the “luminiferous ether" acting on the nerve " is converted into the conscious impression of light, science does not even tend to unravel.” “It eludes the analysis of science.”
Mr. Straub then proceeds to a survey of the mineral, vegetable and animal realms, and with much learning and plausibility of argument endeavors to show that there is an all-pervading ether in all these realms, an invisible something which reveals itself by its all-pervading forces, and which, however it may change its form of 'manifestation. or be modified in its action, is persistent and eternal. Why should man be an exception to this rule? Is there nothing in him, the highest form of organization and life, which survives the change or dissolution of his material part? Here the argument opens out into a wide field in which the author discusses the scientific questions arising with great acumen, and ample proofs and illustrations drawn from natural phenomena, and from the concessions of scientists ; and he shows, we think, very clearly that his line of argument is the same as that on which all scientific inquiry proceeds, and on which its greatest achievements have been accomplished.
It is impossible for us to give an adequate idea of the variety and force of the arguments and illustrations employed without writing a book ; and so the reader must go himself to these richly laden pages to learn how truly science has been made to do duty in support of the doctrine of a future life. One of the most interesting and convincing chapters is the fourteenth, in which “ Man's proper immortality is affirmed by the organic law of his being," the section on “ the evidence of Prescience," drawn from “Natural History,” being chiefest. Chapters xv.xviii. enter upon a discussion respecting the relations of the two worlds, present and future, and the laws and modes of mental intercourse ; and here the work enters on somewhat more debatable ground, and has in it more of the speculative element. But the subjects treated are handled in a calm and judicial temper, and while the position that inter