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regardless as to whether they coincide with my own opinions or not: 1 · Alcohol and tobacco are of no value to a healthy student;' 2 'That the most vigorons thinkers and bardest workers abstain from both stimulants;' 3. That those who have tried both moderation and total abstinence, find the latter the more healthful practice;' 4 • That almost every brain-worker would be the better for abstinence;' 5* That the most abstruse calculat ons may be made, and the most laborious work performed, without artificial stimulants; ' 6. That all work done under the influence of alcohol is unhealthy work;' 7' That the only pure brain stimulants are external ones — fresh air, cold water, walking, riding, and other outdoor exercises.?"
The causes of brain-exhaustion may be divided, says Dr. Corning, into two groups, — “those arising out of the peculiar relations of the individual to the material exigencies of life and to society, and those arising from sources inherent in the individual himself. Under the former head are included the indirect sources of brain exhaustion, while the second group comprises more particularly the exciting causes of the disorder." The present and rapidly increasing subdivision of labor fosters, both in manual work and mental activity, a “ condition of prolonged concentration of isolated faculties of the mind : " our political system, putting so many on the stretch and worry for position ; the demands and exactions of our social life; and the climatic conditions of our country, especially in the territorial districts and the States of the Northwest, induce a great prevalence of functional nervous diseases, which in nine cases out of ten “ assume the form of an impairment of brain energy, with or withont hypochondiacal accompaniments.” Our false educational conceptions and methods seem to be framed and applied with little reference to the ultimate demands of society upon the individual, and take but slight account of the physiological exigencies of the individual living being as such. That the system is one of the most “prolific predisposing causes of brain exhaustion, is shown by the fact that many children, who in early years have been frequently obliged to discontinue school on occount of morbid brain fatigue caused by overwork, have, later on in life, become the victims of more or less chronic cerebral exhaustion." The exciting causes are all those which result in the production of worry: excesses in living, the habit of turning night into day, and, as has been noted above, narcotism, falsely called stimulation.
What are the symptoms which warn one that the brain is becoming exhausted ? Among the earliest and most certain are derangements of the faculty of recollection, the memory of dates, places, names, slipping away from us.
Then come morbid emotions, sleeplessness or disordered sleep, lack of mental concentration, local pains in the head, morbid fears, and a general inability to command the will. The essentials of a system of treatment to effect a complete cure, are “Increased sleep, increased nutrition, cessation of mental work, and time.” “Could we be but sure of enjoying ten hours of perfect physiological sleep every twenty-four hours, there would be indeed few intellectual storms of sufficient potency to cause shipwreck of the mind. But just here lies the difficulty ; it is impossible to impose burdens upon the intellectual and mental faculties beyond a certain point without seriously interfering with that rhythmical unconsciousness which is the indispensable requisite to the proper repair of those higher centres concerned in the processes of intellection." Of the first importance, therefore, to men of intellectual habits, is an abundance of refreshing sleep. We heartily commend Dr. Corning's book to all who follow intellectual pursuits, assuring them that his theories, illustrations and advice cannot fail to be of value to them.
9. The Life of Frederick Denison Maurice, Chiefly told in his own Letters. Edited by his son, Frederick Maurice. With Portraits. In two volumes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1884. 8vo. pp. xiv., 552; xv., 712. $5.00.
Thirty years ago the name of Rev. Frederick D. Maurice came prominently before the American public, by the publication of his “ Theological Essays," and his “ Letter to Rev. Dr. Jelf, Cauon of Christ's Church, and Principal of King's College, on the word • Eternal,' and the Punishment of the Wicked.” The Essays were claimed by their author to be a serious and affectionate talk with the Engish Unitarians, in the hope of convincing them that they had not done justice to the under current of spiritual truth in the Trinitarian theology of the Church of England, bnt had been expending their hostility on barbarous perversions of its dogmas. But rejecting, as Mr. Maurice boldly did, and with a hearty indignation, the Calvinistic notions of the Atonement, Justification, and Regeneration, and holding that love being the ground of all God's action, no sacrifice was needed to appease the divine law or divert God's jus. tice, and careful to avoid any arithmetical statement or scholastic definition of the Trinity, he attracted the sympathetic attention of the Unitarians, and roused the most determined opposition from his brethren in the Church, who accused him of perverting the standards, tampering with the doctrines, and relaxing the terrors of Episcopal orthodoxy. Especially did he rouse their indignation by his earnest objections to the common notion of everlasting or endless punishment, and by contending that the word rendered - Everlasting” and “ Eternal” in the Bible, was not expressive of any idea of duration, but wholly of quality.
At this time Mr. Maurice was Professor of Theology in King's College, and Chaplain of Lincoln's Inn; and he was at once remonstrated with by the Principal of the College, Rev. Dr. Jelf. A controversy immediately ensued, and Prof. Maurice was expelled from his professorship. We look in vain for any indications of a change of views from that time on. He was an Agnostic on the subject of the duration of future punishment, denying that he believed that it was necessarily endless, and equally denying that he believed that it would cease. In a letter to a friend he says:
“ I cannot speak of God punishing for a number of years and then ceasing to punish, or of the wicked expiating their crimes by a certain amount of penalties. The idea of a rebel will is, to those who know in themselves what it is, far too awful for such arrangements as these. A man who feels what sin means, who feels it as the contradiction to God's nature, the perfectly holy, and blessed, and loving nature, caunot find any comfort in the thought of God leaving men alone, or hold out such a prospect as a comfort to his fellows. He feels that God is altogether Love, Light with no darkness at all. But then that which is without God, that which loves darkness, that which resists Love, must not it be miserable ? and can it not fix itself in misery? Has it not a power of defying that which seeks to subdue it? I know in myself that it has. I know that we may struggle with the Light, that we may choose death. But I know also that Love does overcome this rebellion. I know that I am bound to believe that its power is greater than any other. I am sure that Christ's death proves that death, hell, hatred, are not so strong their opposites. How can I reconcile these contradictory discoveries? I cannot reconcile them. I know no theory which can. But I can trust in Him who has reconciled the world to Himself. I can leave all in His hands. I dare not fix any limits to the power of His love. I cannot tell what are the limits to the power of a rebel will. I know that no man can be blessed except his will is in accordance with God's will. I know that it must be by an action on the will that love triumphs. Though I have no faith in man's theory of Universal Restitution, I am taught to expect 'a restitution of all things which God who cannot lie has promised since the world began.' I am obliged to believe that we are living in a restored order ; I am sure that restored order will be carried out by the full triumph of God's loving will. How that should take place while any rebellious will remains in His universe I cannot tell, though it is not for me to say that it is impossible ; I do not want to say it, I wish to trust God absolutely, and not to trust in any conclusion of my own understanding at all.
"My duty, then I feel, is this: 1. To assert that which I know, that which God has
revealed, His absolute universal love, in all possible ways, and without any limitation. 2. To tell myself and all men that to know this love and to be moulded by it, is the blessing we are to seek. 3. To say that this is eternal life. 4. To say that the want of it is death. 5. To say that if they believe in the Son of God they have eternal life. 6. To say that if they have not the Son of God they have not lite. 7. Not to say who has the Son of God, because I do not know. 8. Not to say how long any one may remain in eternal death, because I do not know. 9. Not to say that all will necessarily be raised out of eternal death, because I do not know. 10. Not to judge any one before the time, or to judge other men at all, because Christ has said, "Judge not that ye be not judged.' 11. Not to play with Scripture by quoting passages which have not the slightest connection with the subject, such as where the tree falleth it shall lie.' 12. Not to invent a scheme of purgatory and so take upon myself the office of the Divine Judge. 13. Not to deny God a right of using punishment at any time or anywhere for the reformation of His creatures. 14. Not to contradict Christ's words, . These shall be beaten with few, these with many stripes,' for the sake of maintaining a theory of the equality of sins. 15. Not to think that any punishment of God's so great as His saying, 'Let them alone.'"
The volumes before us are largely autobiographical, being for the most part made up of letters written by Prof. Maurice, which are arranged with such fidelity by his son as to leave but little for their collector to do, aside from giving them chronlogical and subject arrangement. With the exception of a few family traditions, our knowledge of the early life of the subject of the Memoir, is derived from his own memoranda and letters. His father was a Unitarian clergyman, but failed to hold his family in that communion, for first his older daughters, and then their mother, drifted into Calvinism. Before this change of views came to the mother, she writes to her husband who was sorely cast down by the decision to which his daughters had come — that they could no longer listen to their father's preaching; and in her effort to comfort and help him in his disappointment, gives in her surmise as to the cause of their change of sentiments, a reason which has not even at the present day lost its force — the absence of an adequate literature of their own faith, and the readiness with which they obtained access to books for spiritual help, which also contained and imparted the effective poison of error. She says :
" I can think of only one cause by which we can in any way have been led to the pres. ent circumstances - a desire that our children should be serious. This has been the cause that books were put into their hands that in the most pleasing and amiable form, have introduced doctrines which are usually represented to young persons of our opinions as being substituted for exertion and holiness. It can be no shame to us that we were obliged to resort to authors of different opinions from ourselves, to give our children serious impressions, to teach them the end for which existence was bestowed upon them. It is, however, a shame to Unitarians in general that we have so few books of this kind. From my own experience, I can say that I am driven to read books which continually introduce doctrines that I cannot discover in the Scriptures, because I find so few Unitarian publications that make an impression on the heart, influencing it by forcible motives to right conduct.”
Baptized by his father in infancy or childhood, Frederick D. Maurice became a Churchman at twenty-six years of age, and after much hesitation, knowing how painful it must be to his father, was re-baptized into the Church of England, and soon after took orders and a curacy. What is known as the Oxford movement was rapidly developing strength when he became active in the church. That movement sought to do away with the formalism of the established church, and to put new life into it by going back and taking the Church back to the abandoned dogmas and ceremonials of the Middle Ages. Maurice confessed his sympathy with those who mourned over the spiritual deadness of the Church, and so incurred the dislike of the so-called Evangelicals ; but as earnestly repudiating the attempts to escape from this by fleeing to the dogmas and authority of Rome, he fell from favor with the Tractarians.
Sympathizing also with the Chartists in demanding reforms in the interest of the working classes, he was branded a heretic and infidel, and assailed as an atheist by the respectable conservatives ; and on the other hand, insisting that Christianity is the only true socialism, and the Church the only safe Commune, he was distrusted by the Chartists as only a partial convert. Wholly in accord with no one, either in re. ligion, philanthropy, or politics, yet in an eminently Christian spirit seeking to do good to all, his mission seems to be best defined in his own statement, “My vocation is with the discontented, wearied, hopeless, with all that are in debt and disgrace, with outcasts and ragmuffins in the different bodies.” Yet while seemingly broad in his sympathies, and sincere in his efforts to convince men that the world's great need was union with God through Christ, he was not free from narrowness and at times intolerant bigotry. The Church of England was to him the only visible and divinely organized Church. His refusal to meet Quakers, Baptists and Independents on a common platform was because, as he stated it, “ You fraternize on some other ground than that of our union in Christ and then you ask me to fraternize with you on that ground.” “The Prayer Book," he said, “preaches a gospel to mankind which no dissenters and no infidels preach."
He was a man of great industry, and wonderful diversity of genius ; and like many other men of warm feeling, versatility, and constant mental effort, was vague in many of his expressions, more nice than exact in statement, his exuberani rhetoric often concealing instead of announcing his thought. He wrote wholly by dictation, his wife being his amanuensis. His habit in this was on the border of the ludicrous. It is thus described :
“ His usual manner of dictation was to sit with a pillow on his knees hugged tightly in his arms, or to walk up and down the room still clutching the pillow, or, suddenly sitting down or standing before the fire with the pillow still on his knees or under his left arm, to seize a poker and violently attack the tire, then to walk away from it to the furthest end of the room, return, and poke violently at the fire, not unfrequently in complete unconsciousness of what he was doing, poking the whole of the contents of the fireplace through the bars into the fender. The habit of holding the pillow whenever he was engaged in excited talk dated from such early days that one of his undergraduate Cambridge friends used to say that a black horse-hair pillow which he then had always followed him about of itself. My mother in the Guy's days used to call such a one his black wife.' All the while he poured forth a continuous stream of words. When, however, he took into his own hands, for looking over and correction, a passage which he had either written or dictated, the chances were very strong that half at least of it would be torn out, or erased and rewitten. All his manuscript is full of verbal corrections, erasures and rewritings on each separate page, and whole sections of each of the MS. books are torn completely out. He never could be satisfied with the expression he had given to the thoughts he wished his words to convey."
Strong in his devotional feelings, he was a man of almost constant prayer: often, says his sister, spending the whole night in commnnion with God, and never, his wife testifies, beginning any work without seeking preparation in prayer. Often, too, pausing in his work to implore divine guidance, he seemed to live in the very atmosphere of heaven. And so, too, he died, his last act and words being the imparting of a benediction : “Suddenly he seemed to make a great effort to gather himself up, and after a pause he said slowly and distinctly, “The knowledge of the love of God, the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be amongst you — amongst us and remain with us forever.' 'He never spoke again. In one instant all consciousness was gone, and when I looked up and called him he did not know me. Then, as the breathing became more and more labored, and at last ceased, there gradually settled down upon the face a look of calmness, beauty, triumph, which remained on it for many hours.”
From the Maccabees to Christ.
Sixty years after its overthrow by Titus, in A. D. 132, above the ashes of Jerusalem, to the amazement of the wrathsul Roman who liad deemed him quashed forever, under lead of Bar-co-chab, Son of a Star, most dazzling of his many later Messials, for independence and nationality once more fiercely struck, and finally fell, the Jew. Himself overwhelmed, and the site of his City passed under the plough, never since, for Judea, has be raised land of war again. And ninety years after that catastrophe, rid for a while of his dream of Messianic sovereignty, broken and weary, under patronage of Alexander Severus he was glad to subside into a peaceful, practical, and industrious citizen of the world. .
But, the while, away from Rome, away from Jerusalem, and before its siege by Titus, the individual Jew, keeping close in thought and heart, always, his country and religion, was biasing towards both, the destinies of Princes.
Beyond Euphrates, a district of Old Persia, was Adiabené. Its religion, likely, was that of Zoroaster. But, converts of a Jew, Ananias, its Queen, Helena, and her son, Jzates, went over to Judaism (A.D. 41–16). She made pilgrimage to Jerusalem. And, against the prudence of even Ananias, Izates clainored for circumcision, and secured it.
Judea was faint with famine. Quick to her need came corn from Alexandria, from Cyprus, fruits, and gold from Adiabené. For, in the zeal of their new faith, Queen and Prince had hurried abundance to the destitution of Judea.
In death, as in life, to round the Judaism of mother and son, one thing more was needed, was claimed, was accorded. And the bodies of both obtained burial in the sacred dust of
1 Milman's History of the Jews, ii. 440, Note 4. NEW SERIES. VOL. XXI. .