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loved his vision of truth. He was saturated with its spirit. In lonely self-struggles and unspeakable agonizings, he had learned his faith. While au unlettered boy he had achieved a victory of faith such as the cultured Emerson scarcely achieved in his lifetime of less strenuous endeavor. The anchor of Ballou's hope was forged in furnace heat, ever after it remained sure and steadfast, reaching within the veil. He was no agnostic ; not for one moment did he doubt the reality of his heavenly vision; he lived in the peace of the full assur. ance of faith in a Sovereign God, and that under His Providence all will be well.

Ballou's insulated position as a sectarian, his independence of the schools, his want of literary refinement, relatively confine his fame. He is not now widely honored like Emerson. Yet it must some day be seen by the whole church what a mighty work he accomplished. A modern Orthodox critic says: “ Hosea Ballou was the theological giant who broke the backboue of Calvinism in New England.” He must take his place among the providential emancipators of the world. That his work is not yet seen in its true relations by many who have indirectly shared in its beneficent results, is reason why the members of the church to which he specially gave his life-long endeavors, should keep green his memory and continue to share his inspiration.

According to their lights, Emerson and Ballou were both noble and heroic men. They did not know nor appreciate each other in this world. Let us hope that the dividing lines between them are removed in the world where they now are. Meanwhile we should esteein them both, as in different spheres and by different methods, servants of spiritual freedom and sincerity, and human charity and divine hope.

Rev. 0. F. Safford.


On Sume Recent Contributions to North American Ethnology.

The study of certain phases of North American ethnology has been opened anew, and under more favorable auspices than ever before. Dominating errors, emanating from supposed authorities, have been incorporated into both general and special bistories, thus misleading and warping opinions. relative to the actual position of the aborigines. The view that " no trace of an alphabet existed at the time of the conquest of the continent of America,” l although prevalent and influencing the investigator, arises either from a neglect to study, or else a want of appreciation of the earlier Spanish histories of the continent. The histories of Acosta, Cogolludo, Bernal Diaz, Gomara, Herrera, Ixtlilxochitl, Landa, Las Casas, Saliagun, Oviedo, Ximenez, and others, too long neglected, are now being carefully examined under the light of accumulated discoveries. The collected experience of the last three hundred years has served to indorse the earlier listorians and to dispose of later writers.

The favorabie reaction which has set in and bids fair to give correct information, is owing to the energy and fidelity of a very small school of ethnologists. The outcome of the present active pursuits is looked to as prophesying the most favorable results.

The ascendant race may well be excused for not entering enthusiastically into the study of the language, history, and ethnology of the natives, because his sympathies are beyond the ocean, where he traces his origin and civilization. That. civilization taught him there was a monstrous Evil Spirit, and the legends and religious expressions of the lower races were the inventions and snares of the Father of Lies. Aside from this, it must be regarded that, on purely ethnological grounds, the mythology, language, manners, and customs of both the Barbaric and Toltecan fainilies are just as important, necessary and fascinating.

1 " Types of Mankind," p. 328,

If it be admitted that the natives were lower, intellectually and socially, than the exotic races that now uccupy America, then their moral condition cannot be so great, and to be appreciated must not be passed over in the spirit of a prude. Perhaps behind the offensive there may lurk an expression that tells of higher things.

The investigation will go on. The past will be presented clearly and intelligently ly that class above mentioned. Foremost in the ranks stands Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, who has exbibited a devotion which is being emulated by others. His prolific pen and open hand in publishing works on the subject at what must be a financial sacrifice, elicit the admiration of those who are capable of appreciating the service. His latest works are worthy, in this place, of a brief notice.

ABORIGINAL AUTHORS.2 The red race possesses a vivid imagination, a fervid oratory, a love of story-telling, a fondness for tropes, and a logically developed language. He peoples the air, earth, and water with creatures of his fancy; explains all with nicety of expression, and forcibly defines the more delicate relatiouship of ideas. His sentences are clear, flowing and sonorous.3 They readily acquire the various dialects spoken by different tribes. Mr. Stephen Powers informs us that “among the tribes surrounding the Hupâ, I found many Indians speaking three, four, five, or more languages, always including Hupâ, and generally English.” 4

If the Indian was so well equipped in his own language, 2 " Aboriginal American Authors and their Productions; especially those in the pative languages. A Chapter in the History of Literature. By Daniel G. Brinton, A.M., M.D. Philadelphia: 1883.

8 This statement must be taken with many broad exceptions. In Stephen Power's Tribes of California (Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. III,), we are informed that " the Kabina pek language is extremely rugged, hirsute, and guttural" (p. 206). The Makhelchel “ language is like the Kabinapek phonetically, even more barsh and difficult. It is full of hissing sounds” (p. 215). The Shastika" language is a difficult one. many of the verbs being polysyllabic and harsh” (p. 250) “ The language of Pitt River is so hopelessly consonantal, ha and sesquipedalian, so utterly unlike the sweet and simple languages of the Sacramento, that to reduce it to writing one must linger for weeks, and cause the Indians to repeat the words many times” (p. 272).

4 Ibid, p. 73.

why, then, did he not employ his energies in creating a literature ? The ready acquisition of a foreign language is no evidence of intellectual superiority. It is possible that those who so readily acquire languages are inpotent in more important directions. The reputations of Elihu Burritt and Mezzofanti are not founded on any literary or learned works they have written, but on the remarkable extent of their linguistic acquisitions. The power is one rather of physical than intellectual force. However, a well formed language and the love of fine distinctions would have a tendency to produce a literature ; and, if what is claimed of the Indian tongue be true, somewhere it must occur. The ethnologist was not surprised to learn that very creditable literary work in both English and Spanish has been done. Even more creditable productions are found in their own language, especially in the Maya and some of the Central American tongues. It cannot be safely affirmed that the contact with European civilization had a tendency to assist and elevate Indian literature; for we cannot close our eyes against the awful truth that the Indian has gradually and steadily gone down under it.

Many manuscripts remain whose authors are unknown. Some authors are known and their names are given. In 1825 David Cusick, a full-blooded Tuscarora, printed his “ Ancient History of the Six Nations.”5 In it he attempts to narrate in chronological order the traditions of his tribe. Considering he was not skilled in the English tongue and understood its grammar imperfectly, the work is one of merit. He has arranged the matter skillfully, while some of the passages are quaintly vivid and forcible. Of this work the distin. guished etlinologist, Horatio Hale says, " wherever the test of linguistic evidence, the best of all proofs in ethnological questions, can be applied to his statements relative to the origin and connection of the tribes, they are invariably confirmed.” 6

In 1870, at Toronto, Peter Dooyentate Clarke published his 5 Published at Lewiston, N. Y., in 1825, reprinted at Lockport, N. Y., in 1848, and given verbatim et literatim in Schoolcraft's History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes. Vol. V., pp. 632-46.

6 “ The Iroquois Book of Rites," p. 12.

readable little book, entitled Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandotts. Chief Elias Johnson published at Lockport (1881) a History of the Six Nations, which is very creditably composed. Other works have appeared written by Rev. Wil. liam A pess, of the Pequod tribe ; George Copway, a chief of the Ojibways; also by Rev. Peter Jones, of the same tribe.

Among the semi-civilized natives of Mexico, Central America and Peru, are found the best writings. These people readily acquired the Spanish and Latin languages, became skilled grammarians, and wrote both prose and verse with commendable accuracy.

The list of native Mexican authors is a large one, the most widely known being Ixtlilxoclitl, a lineal descendent of the sovereigns of Tezcucu. Prescott, although criticizing his style and the manner of handling his matter, regards him as a prominent authority," and acknowledges “his language is simple, and, occasionally, eloquent and touching. His descriptions are highly picturesque. He abounds in familiar anecdote; and the natural graces of his manner, in detailing the more striking events of history and the personal adventures of his heroes, entitle him to the name of the Livy of Auahuac.” 7

In South America were the Incas of Peru, well developed in the arts of civilization. They had a literature of their own, and several specimens of their poetical and dramatic compositions have been preserved, which indicate correct taste. While they possessed no methods of writing, yet they had various mnemonic aids, by which they were able to recall their bistorical traditions and their poetical efforts. Among the authors the Inca Garcillasse de la Vega, must needs be mentioned. He takes first rank among Spanish American historians, and has acquired a greater celebrity than any other writer on ancient Peruvian history. He was a mestizo, his father being European and his mother the granddaughter of the renowned Tupac Inca Yupanqui. The writings of Don Luis Inca are lost, and those of Don Joan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui are very valuable.

7 Conquest of Mexico, Vol. I., p. 207.

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