« PreviousContinue »
THE object of the writer of the present volume has been to give a correct, and, as far as the limits would permit, a comprehensive epitome of the history of the world, which accuracy of narration and chronology would render valuable as a book of reference, and in which general views and reflections would remove the dryness inseparable from a mere enumeration of facts. As a portion of a Cyclopædia, it is to the historical volumes what in an atlas the map of the world is to those which follow it, representing in connection what they exhibit isolated, and displaying the relative proportions and importance of the several parts. Its chief utility will be, doubtless, as a book of reference for those who are already versed in history; yet it is hoped that even the tyro who studies it with attention will find himself, at the termination of his labour, ignorant of few of the great characters and events which occur in the history of the world.
Where brevity was a matter of such paramount importance, few will expect the graces of style; and it will, perhaps, be conceded, that the repetition of the same figures and modes of speech was almost unavoidable where like events so frequently occurred.
For the plan of dividing the last two parts into periods, the author is indebted to the celebrated Müller, and has adopted several of the divisions employed by
him in his Universal History. That work (the inaccuracies of which are to be regretted), with those of Schlosser, Gibbon, Hallam, and others, has been used in addition to contemporary and national histories in the composition of these Outlines. The Oriental portion has been chiefly derived from the works of Gibbon, Malcolm, and Hammer.
To prevent any misconception, the reader is requested to bear in mind that the present is a volume of political history, mankind being regarded in it only as divided into great societies; and that, consequently, when true or false religions are spoken of, it is only in their political relations that they are viewed. In a work of this kind, theological discussion would have been altogether irrelevant and out of place.
The history of any country or people may be read consecutively by consulting the index, where, under its name, will be found reference to the pages where it is mentioned. The wars and political relations of two countries will be best known by reading the corresponding parts of the history of each.
Of the Earth and its Physical Changes, 1. Of Man, 3. Original Seat of
Man, 4. Original State of Man, 5. Æthiopians, 7. Chinese, 8. India, 10.
ANCIENT STATES OF CENTRAL AND WESTERN ASIA.
Bactria, 12. Babylon and Assyria, 13. Egypt, 14. Phoenicia, 16. Phi-
listines-Arabia, 17. Israelites, 18. Medes and Persians, 23.
GREECE TO HER SUBVERSION BY THE MACEDONIANS.
Persian War, 38. Peloponnesian War, 41. Lacedæmonian Dominion, 44.
Alexander, 49. Division of Alexander's Dominions, 51. Macedon, 53.
Greece, 54. Thrace-Bithynia, 55. Pergamus Pontus, 56. Armenia
-Syria, 57. Judea, 58. Parthia, 59. Egypt, 60. Carthage, 61.
Rome under Kings, 63. Tuscans War with Porsenna, 67. Dictator-
Secession-Tribunes, 69. Spurius Cassius, and the Agrarian Law, 71.
The Decemvirs and the Twelve Tables, 72. Spurius Mælius, 74. Wars
anterior to the Gallic Invasion, 75. Gauls Capture of Rome, 77. Re-
building of the City - Manlius, 78. Licinian Rogations, 79. Samnite
ROME TILL THE TIME OF THE GRACCHI.
First Punic War, 84. Illyrian War-Gallic War-Second Punic War,
86. Macedonian and Syrian Wars, 88. Conquest of Macedon, 89. Third
ROME TILL THE END OF THE REPUBLIC.
The Gracchi, 93. Jugurthine War-Cimbric War, 96. State of Rome-
Social or Marsian War, 97. Mithridatic and Civil Wars, 98. From the
Death of Sulla to that of Mithridates, 102. Catiline's Conspiracy
The Gallic War of Cæsar, 105. Civil War of Cæsar and Pompeius, 109.
Events till the Death of Cæsar, 111. Civil War with Brutus and Cassius,
Emperors of the Cæsarian Family, 116. Emperors chosen by the Army,
119. Flavian Family, 120. Good Emperors, 122. From Commodus to
Diocletian, 124. Change in the Form of Government, 130. Corruption
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BARBARIANS IN THE WESTERN EMPIRE.
Gotho-Germans -East-Goths in Italy, 152.
gundians, 155. Allemanni Franks, 157.
Goths in Spain - Byzantine Empire, 161.
THE TIMES OF MOHAMMED AND THE FIRST KHALIFS.
Mohammed, 168. First Khalifs, 173. Conquest of Syria, 174. Conquest
of Persia, 176. Conquest of Egypt, 177. Invasion of Africa, 178. Om-
miyades - Conquest of Africa, 179. Conquest of Spain, 180. Invasion
of France by the Arabs, 181. France, 182. Lombards-Constantinople,
THE TIMES OF CHARLEMAGNE AND HAROON-ER-RASHEED.
Italy, 185. Empire of Charlemagne, 187. Feudal System, 189. England
- Constantinople, 191, Abbasside Khalifs, 192.
DISSOLUTION OF THE GREAT EMPIRES OF THE EAST AND WEST.
Empire of Charlemagne, 196. Hungarians, 198. Northmen, 199. France,
201. Germany - House of Saxony, 202. Italy, 204. England, 206.
Russia, 207. Constantinople, 208. Decline of the Arabian Empire -
Africa, 210. Decline of the Arabian Empire- Asia, 211. Causes of the
Decline of the Power of the Khalifs, 213. Gasnevides- Spain, 215.
Germany House of Franconia, 225. France, 226.
Spain - Constantinople, 229. Seljookians, 230. First Crusade, 233.
THE PAPAL POWER AT ITS GREATEST HEIGHT.
Italy-Popes, 235. Italy-Lombard Cities, 240. Italy Naples and
Portugal, 251. Almohades-
Sicily-Germany · -Swabian Line, 241.
tagenets, 247. Ireland, 250. Spain
Persia, 252. Saladin, 253. Mamelukes-
255. Mongols-Chingis Khan, 260. End of the Khalifat at Bagdad,
DECLINE OF THE PAPAL POwer, and foRMATION OF GREAT MONARCHIES.
Italy - Popes, 262. Italy-Republics, 267. Italy - Naples and Sicily, 270.
Germany, 273. Switzerland, 275. France, 277. England-Plantage-
nets, 283. Wars between France and England, 289. Scotland, 295.
Scandinavia, 299. Poland, 300. Hungary, 301. Ottomans, 302. Ta-