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either in the harvest-time, which is to be counted from the 1st day of July Henry unto the 29th day of September, or else in the term time at Westminster, shall not be kept or observed from henceforth as holy-days; but that it may be lawful A. D. for every man to go to his work or occupation upon the same, as upon any other 1538. work-day, except always the feasts of the Apostles, of the Blessed Virgin, and of St. George, and also such feasts as wherein the king's highness's judges days in at Westminster do not use to sit in judgment; all which shall be kept holy and the harsolemnly of every man, as in time past hath been accustomed.' Provided vest time

put down. always, that it may be lawful unto all priests and clerks, as well secular as regular, in the aforesaid holy-days now abrogated, to sing or say their accustomed service for those holy-days, in their churches; so as they do not the same solemnly, nor do ring to the same, after the manner used in high holy-days, nor do command or indict the same to be kept or observed as holy-days.

Finally, that the feasts of the Nativity of our Lord, of Easter-day, of the Pour Nativity of St. John the Baptist, and of St. Michael the Archangel, shall be offering

days. from henceforth counted, accepted, and taken for the four general offering-days.

And for further declaration of the premises, be it known that Easter term Easter beginneth always the 18th day after Easter-day, reckoning Easter-day for

one, and endeth the Monday next following the Ascension-day.

Trinity term beginneth always the Wednesday next after the Octaves of Trinity Trinity Sunday, and endeth the 11th or 12th day of July.

Michaelmas term beginneth the 9th or 10th day of October, and endeth the Michael28th or 29th day of November.

Hilary term beginneth the 23d or 24th day of January, and endeth the 12th Hilary or 13th day of February.

In Easter term, upon the Ascension-day; in Trinity term, upon the Nativity of St. John Baptist'; in Michaelmas term, upon Allhallows-day ; in Hilary term, upon Candlemas-day, the king's judges at Westminster do not use to sit in judgment, nur upon any Sunday.



mas term.


After these articles and injunctions thus given out by the king and his council, then followed moreover, as time served, other injunctions besides, concerning images, relics, and blind miracles, and for abrogating of pilgrimages, devised by superstition, and maintained for lucre's sake; also for the Paternoster,' Creed, and God's commandments, and the Bible to be had in English, with divers other points more, necessary for religion; the words of which injunctions here also


Other Injunctions, given by the authority of the King's Highness,

to the Clergy of this his Realm, designed for the Reformation of the Church.

In the name of God, Amen. In the year of our Lord God 1536, and of the most noble reign of our sovereign lord Henry the Eighth, king of England and of France, defender of the faith, lord of Ireland, and, in earth, supreme head of the church of England, the twenty-eighth year, &c. I Thomas Cromwell, knight, lord Cromwell, keeper of the privy seal of our said sovereign lord the king, and vicegerent to the same, for and concerning all his jurisdiction ecclesiastical within this realm, to the glory of Almighty God, to the king's highness's honour, the public weal of this realm, and increase of virtue in the same, have appointed and assigned these injunctions ensuing to be kept and observed of the dean, parsons, vicars, curates, and stipendiaries, resident or having cure of souls, or any other spiritual administration within this deanery, under the pains hereafter limited and appointed.

The first is, that the dean, parsons, vicars, and others having cure of soul Confirmaany where within this deanery, shall faithfully keep and observe, and, as far as in tion of the them may lie, shall cause to be kept and observed of all others, all and singular premacy. laws and statutes of this realm, made for the abolishing and extirpation of the bishop of Rome's pretensed and usurped power and jurisdiction within this


to be read to the

Henry realm, and for the establishment and confirmation of the king's authority and VIII. jurisdiction within the same, as of the supreme head of the church of England; A.D.

and shall, to the uttermost of their wit, knowledge, and learning, purely, sin1538.

cerely, and without any colour or dissimulation, declare, manifest, and open, by the

space of one quarter of a year now next ensuing, once every Sunday, and Against, afterwards at leastwise twice every quarter of a year, in their sermons and other primacy. collations, that the bishop of Rome's usurped power and jurisdiction, having no

establishment nor ground by the law of G was for most just causes taken away and abolished, and that therefore they owe unto him no manner of obedience or subjection; and that the king's power is within his dominion the highest potentate and power under God, to whom all men within the same dominion, by God's commandment, owe most loyalty and obedience afore and above all other potentates in earth.

Item, whereas certain articles were lately devised and put forth by the king's highness's authority, and condescended upon by the prelates and clergy of this his realm in convocation (whereof part were necessary to be holden and believed for our salvation, and the other part do concern and touch certain laudable ceremonies, rites, and usages of the church, meet and convenient to be kept and used for a decent and politic order in the same), the said dean, parsons, vicars, and other curates, shall so open and declare, in thei sermons and other collations, the said articles unto them that be under their cure, that they may plainly know and discern, which of them be necessary to be believed and observed for their salvation; and which be not necessary, but only do concern the decent and politic order of the said church, according to such commandment and admonition as have been given unto them heretofore by the authority of the king's highness in that behalf.

Moreover, that they shall declare unto all such as be under their cure, the king's ar articles likewise devised, put forth, and authorized of late, for and concerning

the abrogation of certain superstitious holy-days, according to the effect and

purport of the same articles; and persuade their parishioners to keep and observe people.

the same inviolably, as things wholesome, provided, decreed, and established by the common consent and public authority for the weal, commodity, and profit, of all this realm.

Besides this, to the intent that all superstition and hypocrisy crept into divers men's hearts, may vanish away, they shall not set forth or extol any images, relics, or miracles, for any superstition or lucre, nor allure the people by any entreatments to the pilgrimages of any saints, otherwise than is permitted in the articles lately put forth by the authority of the king's majesty, and condescended upon by the prelates and clergy of this his realm in convocation, as though it were proper and peculiar to that saint to give this commodity or that; seeing all goodness, health, and grace ought to be both looked and asked for only of God, as of the very author of the same, and of none other; for without him it cannot be given : but they shall exhort as well their parishioners, as other

pilgrims, that they do rather apply themselves to the keeping of God's comPilgrima- mandments, and the fulfilling of his works of charity; persuading them that

they shall please God more by the true exercising of their bodily labour, travail, or occupation, and providing for their families, than if they went about to the said pilgrimages; and it shall profit more their soul's health, if they do bestow that on the poor and needy, which they would have bestowed upon the said

images or relics. Prayers Also, in the same their sermons and other collations, the parsons, vicars, and

other curates aforesaid, shall diligently admonish the fathers and mothers, tongue, masters and governors of youth being within their cure, to teach or cause to be

taught their children and servants, even from their infancy, the · Paternoster,' the Articles of our Faith, and the Ten Commandments in their mother-tongue, and the same, so taught, shall cause the said youth oft to repeat and understand. And to the intent this may be the more easily done, the said curates, in their sermons, shall deliberately and plainly recite of the said Paternoster, Articles, or Commandments, one clause or article one day, and another another day, till the whole be taught and learned by little and little; and shall deliver the same in writing, or show where printed books containing the same be to be sold, to them that can read, or will desire the same; and thereto that the said fathers and mothers, masters and governors, do bestow their children and

Images abolished.

ges forbid

in the mother



some are or occu

vants, even from their childhood, either to learning, or to some honest exercise, Henry occupation, or husbandry, exhorting, counselling, and by all the ways and means they may, as well in their said sermons and collations, as otherwise, the said A.D. fathers, mothers, masters, and other governors, being under their cure and 1538. charge, diligently to provide and foresee that the said youth be in no mannerwise kept or brought up in idleness ; lest at any time afterwards they be driven,

bringing for lack of some mystery or occupation to live by, to fall to begging, stealing, up of or some other unthriftiness, forasmuch as we may daily see, through sloth and youth in idleness, divers valiant men fall, some to begging, some to theft and murder, who, afterwards brought to calamity and misery, impute a great part thereof to pation. their friends and governors, who suffered them to be brought up so idly in their youth ; whereas, if they had been brought up and educated in some good literature, occupation, or mystery, they should (being rulers of their own family) have profited as well themselves, as divers other persons, to the great commodity and ornament of the commonwealth.

Also, that the said parsons, vicars, and other curates, shall diligently provide, Placing that the sacraments and sacramentals be duly and reverently ministered in of good their parishes. And if at any time it happen them, either in any of the cases and cuexpressed in the statutes of this realm, or of special license given by the king's rates. majesty, to be absent from their benefices, they shall leave their cure, not to a rude and unlearned person, but to an honest, well-learned, and expert curate, that may teach the rude and unlearned of their cure wholesome doctrine, and reduce them to the right way, that they do not err: and always let them see that neither they, nor their vicars, do seek more their own profit, promotion, or advantage, than the profit of the souls that they have under their cure, or the glory of God.

Item, That every parson or proprietary of any parish church within this Every realm shall, on this side the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, next coming, provide parish to a book of the whole Bible, both in Latin, and also in English, and lay the same Bible in in the choir, for every man that will, to look and read thereon; and shall dis- English. courage no man from the reading of any part of the Bible, either in Latin or English; but rather comfort, exhort, and admonish every man to read the same, as the very word of God, and the spiritual food of man's soul, whereby they may the better know their duties to God, to their sovereign lord the king, and their neighbour : ever gently and charitably exhorting them, that (using a sober and a modest behaviour in the reading and inquisition of the true sense of the same) they do in no wise stiffly or eagerly contend or strive one with another about the same, but refer the declaration of those places that be in controversy, to the judgment of them that be better learned.

Also the said dean, parsons, vicars, curates, and other priests shall in no Priests wise, at any unlawful time, nor for any other cause than for their honest neces- not to sity, haunt or resort to any taverns or ale-houses ; and after their dinner and supper they shall not give themselves to drinking or riot, spending their time houses. idly, by day or by night, at tables or cards playing, or any other unlawful game; but at such times as they shall have such leisure, they shall read or hear somewhat of holy Scripture, or shall occupy themselves with some honest exercise ; and that they always do those things that appertain to good congruence and honesty, with profit of the commonweal, having always in mind, that they ought to excel all others in purity of life, and should be example to all others to live well and christianly.

Furthermore, because the goods of the church are called the goods of the Parsons poor, and in these days nothing is less seen than the poor to be sustained with not resithe same, all parsons, vicars, prebendaries, and other beneficed men within this deanery, not being resident upon their benefices, who may dispend yearly fortieth

part to twenty pounds or above, either within this deanery or elsewhere, shall distribute hereafter yearly amongst their poor parishioners or other inhabitants there, in parishes, the presence of the churchwardens or some other honest men of the parish, the fortieth part of the fruits and revenues of their said benefices, lest they be worthily noted of ingratitude, who, reserving so many parts to themselves, cannot vouchsafe to impart the fortieth portion thereof amongst the poor people of that parish, that is so fruitful and profitable unto them.

And to the intent that learned men may hereafter spring the more, for the executing of the said premises, every parson, vicar, clerk, or beneficed man

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Henry within this deanery, having yearly to spend in benefices or other promotions of VIII. the church, a hundred pounds, shall give competent exhibition to one scholar,

and for as many hundred pounds more as he may dispend, to so many scholars A.D.

more shall he give like exhibition in the university of Oxford or Cambridge, or 1538.

some grammar-school; who, after they have profited in good learning, may be partners of their patron's cure and charge, as well in preaching, as otherwise in the execution of their offices, or may, when need shall be, otherwise profit the commonwealth with their counsel and wisdom.

Also that all parsons, vicars, and clerks, having churches, chapels, or manpounds to

sions within this deanery, shall bestow yearly hereafter upon the same mansions scholar at or chancels of their churches being in decay, the fifth part of those their bene

fices, till they shall be fully repaired; and the same so repaired they shall versity.

always keep and maintain in good estate.

All which and singular injunctions shall be inviolably observed of the said maintain dean, parsons, vicars, curates, stipendiaries, and other clerks and beneficed men,

under pain of suspension, and sequestration of the fruits of their benefices, until they have done their duties according to these injunctions.

Every beneficed man worth a hundred

find a

the uni

Beneficed men to



After these injunctions and articles before expressed (which were given about A.D. 1536 and 1537), it was not above the space

of year but other injunctions also were published, to the further instruction of the people in the proceedings of religion, whereby both the parsons of churches, and the parishes together, were enjoined to provide in every church to be a Bible in English : also for every parishioner to be taught by the minister, to understand and to say the Lord's Prayer and Creed in their own vulgar tongue, with other necessary and most fruitful injunctions, the tenor whereof followeth.

Further Injunctions of the King, exhibited A.D. 1538. In the name of God, Amen. By the authority and commission of the most excellent prince Henry, by the grace of God, king of England and of France, defender of the faith, lord of Ireland, and, in earth, supreme head under Christ of the church of England; I, Thomas lord Cromwell, lord privy seal, vicegerent to the king's said highness for all his jurisdiction ecclesiastical within this realm, do, for the advancement of the true honour of Almighty God, the increase of virtue, and the discharge of the king's majesty, give and exhibit unto you N., these injunctions following, to be kept, observed, and fulfilled, under the pain hereafter declared. First, That

ye shall truly observe and keep all and singular the king's highness's injunctions given unto you heretofore in my name by his grace's authority, not only upon the pains therein expressed, but also in your default now, after this second monition, continued, upon further punishment to be straightly extended towards you by the king's highness's arbitrement, or that of his vicegerent aforesaid.

Item, That ye shall provide, on this side the feast of N. next coming, one book of the whole Bible of the largest volume in English, and the same set up in some convenient place within the said church, that ye have cure of, where your parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same, and read it; the charges of which book shall be rateably borne between you, the parson and parishioners aforesaid, that is to say, the one half by you, and the other half by them.

Item, That ye shall discourage no man privily or apertly from the reading or hearing of the said Bible, but shall expressly provoke, stir, and exhort every person to read the same, as that which is the very lively word of God, that every christian person is bound to embrace, believe, and follow, if he look to be saved; admonishing them, nevertheless, to avoid all contention and altercation therein, and to use an honest sobriety in the inquisition of the true sense of the same, and to refer the explication of the obscure places, to men of higher judgment in Scripture.

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Item, That ye shall, every Sunday and holy-day through the year, openly Henry and plainly recite to your parishioners, twice or thrice together, or oftener if VII. need require, one article or sentence of the Paternoster or Creed in English, to

A.D. the intent they may learn the same by heart; and so, from day to day, to give 1538. them one like lesson or sentence of the same, till they have learned the whole Paternoster and Creed in English by rote: and as they be taught every sentence of the same by rote, ye shall expound and declare the understanding of Prayer the same unto them, exhorting all parents and householders to teach their chil- to be dren and servants the same, as they are bound in conscience to do : and, that

English. done, ye shall declare unto them the Ten Commandments, one by one, every Sunday and holy-day, till they be likewise perfect in the same. Item, That ye shall

, in confessions every Lent, examine every person that coineth to confession to you, whether they can recite the Articles of our Faith, and the Paternoster in English, and hear them say the same particularly : wherein if they be not perfect, ye shall declare to them, that every christian person ought to know the same before they should receive the blessed sacrament of the altar, and admonish them to learn the same more perfectly by the next year following: or else, like as they ought not to presume to come to God's board without perfect knowledge of the same (and if they do, it is to the great peril of their souls), so ye shall declare unto them, that ye look for other injunctions from the king's highness by that time, to stay and repel all such from God's board, as shall be found ignorant in the premises: wherefore do ye thus admonish them, to the intent they should both eschew the peril of their souls, and also the worldly rebuke that they might incur hereafter by the same.

Item, That ye shall make, or cause to be made, in the said church, and every Sermons other cure ye have, one sermon every quarter of a year at least, wherein ye quarterly shall purely and sincerely declare the very gospel of Christ, and in the same made. exhort your hearers to the works of charity, mercy, and faith, specially prescribed and commanded in Scripture; and not to repose their trust or affiance in other works devised by men's fantasies besides Scripture : as in wandering to pilgrimages, offering of money, candles, or tapers to feigned relics or images, or kissing or licking the same, saying over a number of beads not understood nor minded on, or such like superstition : for the doing whereof ye not only have no promise of reward in Scripture, but, contrariwise, great threats and maledictions of God, as things tending to idolatry and superstition, which, of all other offences, God Almighty doth most detest and abhor, for that the same diminisheth most his honour and glory.

Item, That such feigned images as ye know, in any of your cures, to be so Images abused with pilgrimages or offerings of any thing made thereunto, ye shall, for pulled avoiding of that most detestable offence of idolatry, forthwith take down without delay; and shall suffer from benceforth no candles, tapers, or images of wax, to be set before any images or picture, but only the light that commonly goeth about the cross of the church by the rood-loft, the light before the sacrament of the altar, and the light about the sepulchre; which, for the adorning of the church and divine service, ye shall suffer to remain still : admonishing your parishioners, that images serve for none other purpose but as the books of unlearned men that ken no letters, whereby they might be admonished of the lives and conversation of them that the said images do represent; which images if they abuse for any other intent than for such remembrances, they commit idolatry in the same, to the great danger of their souls. And therefore the king's highness, graciously tendering the weal of his subjects' souls, hath travailed in part already, and more will hereafter travail, for the abolishing of such images as might be occasion of so great offence to God, and so great danger to the souls of his loving subjects.

Item, That in all such benefices or cures as ye have, whereupon you be not good yourself resident, ye shall appoint such curates in your stead as both can by ministers ability, and will also, promptly execute these injunctions, and do their duty placed. otherwise, that ye are bound to do in every behalf accordingly; and profit their cure no less with good example of living, than with declaration of the word of God: or else their lack and defaults shall be imputed unto you, who shall straightly answer for the same, if they do otherwise.

Item, That you shall admit no man to preach within any of your benefices or cures, but such as shall appear unto you to be sufficiently licensed thereunto


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