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same. The word of God to be
without stop or
Henry by the king's highness, or his grace's authority, or by the bishop of the diocese; VIII. and such as shall be so licensed, ye shall gladly receive, to declare the word of A.D.
God without any resistance or contradiction. 1538,
Item, If ye have heretofore declared to your parishioners any thing to the
extolling and setting forth of pilgrimages to feigned relics or images, or any Pilgrim; such superstition, you shall now openly, afore the same, recant and reprove the images
same; showing them, as the truth is, that ye did the same upon no ground of abandon- Scripture, but as being led and seduced by a common error and abuse, crept
into the church through the sufferance and avarice of such as felt profit by the
Item, If ye do or shall know any within your parish, or elsewhere, that is a
letter of the word of God to be read in English, or sincerely preached, or of preached the execution of these injunctions, or a fautor of the bishop of Rome's pretensed
power, now by the laws of this realm justly rejected and extirped; ye shall interrup
detect the same to the king's highness, or his honourable council, or to his vicegerent aforesaid, or to the justice of peace next adjoining.
Item, That you and every parson, vicar, or curate, within this diocese, shall, book for for every church, keep one book of register, wherein ye shall write the day and
year of every wedding, christening, and burying, made within your parish for your time; and so for every man succeeding you likewise; and also therein set every person's name that shall be so wedded, christened or buried : and for the safe keeping of the same book, the parish shall be bound to provide, of their common charges, one sure coffer, with two locks and keys, whereof the one to remain with you, and the other with the wardens of every such parish wherein the said book shall be laid up; which book ye shall every Sunday take forth, and in the presence of the said wardens or one of them, write and record in the same, all the weddings, christenings and buryings, made the whole week before: and that done, to lay up the said book in the said coffer as before; and for every time the same shall be omitted, the party that shall be in the fault thereof," shall forfeit to the said church three shillings and four pence, to be employed on the reparation of the same church.
stem, That ye shall, once every quarter of a year, read these and the other former injunctions given unto you by authority of the king's highness, openly and deliberately, before all your parishioners; to the intent that both you may be the better admonished of your duty, and your said parishioners the more incited to ensue the same for their part.
Item, Forasmuch as by a law established, every man is bound to pay his be paid. tithes, no man shall, by colour of duty omitted by their curates, detain their
tithes, and so redouble one wrong with another, and be his own judge; but shall truly pay the same, as hath been accustomed, to their parsons and curates, without any restraint or diminution ; and such lack and default as they can justly find in their parsons and curates, to call for reformation thereof at their ordinaries' and other superiors' hands, who, upon complaint and due proof thereof, shall reform the same accordingly.
Item, That no parson shall from henceforth alter or change the order and manner of any fasting day that is commanded and indicted by the church, or of divine prayer, or of service, otherwise than is specified in the said injunctions, until such time as the same shall be so ordered and transposed by the king's highness's authority; the evens of such saints, whose holy-days be
abrogated, only excepted, which shall be declared henceforth to be no fasting day abro- days, except also the commemoration of Thomas Becket, sometime archbishop gated.
of Canterbury, which shall be clean omitted, and instead thereof the ferial ser
vice used. Knolling Item, That the knolling of the Aves after service and certain other times,
which hath been brought in and begun by the pretence of the bishop of Rome's pardon, henceforth be left and omitted, lest the people do hereafter trust to have pardon for the saying of their aves between the said knolling, as they have
done in times past. Suffrages Item, Whereas, in times past, men have used, in divers places in their procesof saints sions, to sing 'Ora pro nobis,' to so many saints, that they had no time to sing rejected the good suffrages following, as · Parce nobis Domine,' and' Libera nos Domine,
it must be taught and preached, that better it were to omit “Ora pro nobis,' and to sing the other suffrages, being most necessary and effectual. All which
of Aves forbidden.
and singular injunctions I minister unto you and to your parishioners, by the Henry king's highness's authority, to be committed in this part, which I charge and command you, by the same authority, to observe and keep, upon pain of
A. D. deprivation, sequestration of your fruits, or such other coercion as, to the king
1538. or his vicegerent for the time being, shall be seen convenient.
By these articles and injunctions thus coming forth one after The king another, for the necessary instruction of the people, it may appear serving how well the king then deserved the title of his supreme government, or'sugiven to him over the church of England; by which title and autho- preme gority he did more good for the redressing and advancing of Christ's than the church and religion here in England in these three years, than the pope. pope, the great vicar of Christ, with all his bishops and prelates, had done the space of three hundred years before. Such a vigilant care was then in the king and in his council, how by all ways
and means to redress religion, to reform errors, to correct corrupt customs, to help ignorance, and to reduce the misleading of Christ's flock, drowned in blind popery, superstition, customs and idolatry, to some better form of more perfect reformation : whereunto he provided not only these articles, precepts, and injunctions above specified, to inform the rude people, but also procured the bishops to help forward, in the same cause of decayed doctrine, with their diligent preaching and teaching of the people; according as ye heard before, how that in the year 1534, during the whole time of parliament, there was appointed every Sunday a bishop to preach at Paul's cross, against the supremacy of the bishop of Rome.
Amongst these bishops, John Longland, bishop of Lincoln, the king's confessor, and a great persecutor of the poor flock of Christ (as is before sufficiently recorded), made a sermon before the king, upon Good Friday, this present year 1538, at Greenwich, seriously and effectuously preaching, on the king's behalf, against the usurped supremacy of the bishop of Rome; the contents of whose sermon wholly to express, were here too long and tedious.
So much as may suffice for our purpose I thought should remain to posterity, beginning at his theme, which then he took in hand to treat upon, written in Hebrews xiii., as followeth.
The Sermon of John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln, on Good Friday,
before the King at Greenwich, A.D. 1538. The theme from Hebrews xiü.
The words of the apostle are these, ‘Habemus altare de quo edere non habent potestatem qui tabernaculo deserviunt. Quorum enim animalium infertur sanguis pro peccato in sancta per pontificem, horum corpora cremantur extra castra. Propter quod, et Jesus extra portam passus est.
Exeamus igitur ad eum extra castra, improperium ejus portantes !'.
These are the words of the apostle; many things contained in few words; and the English thereof is this : We have an altar; we have an altar (saith the apostle), an altar, and a sacrifice upon this altar. And they that serve at the tabernacle may not eat of this altar, may not eat of this sacrifice that is offered upon this altar. For the apostle here, per metonymiam,' doth put the altar for that which is the sacrifice upon the altar. The blood of those beasts that were slain for the sacrifice, was brought into the holy, secret, high place of the temple where the ark was, between the high altar (as we will say) and the veil by the bishop, and there offered up for the sin of the people. The bodies of the beasts that were burned without the pavilions or tents, for which, 'propter
Henry quod,' for which ; what? for the fulfilling of which mystery. Also to verify
and fulfil the figure, and that the thing figured might be correspondent to the A. D. figure, Jesus suffered without the gate, to sanctify the people by his blood. 1538. Let us go out therefore, and suffer with Christ, bearing his opprobries and
rebukes. These be the words of the apostle now taken.
I will, by the help of our Lord God, declare these words in order, even as they do stand. Here is an altar; here is a sacrifice; here is a bishop who did
this sacrifice; here is a tabernacle; a serving of the tabernacle; the blood of the sacrifice which was offered by the bishop for the sins of the people, in the most holy place of the temple; and the bodies of the beasts (whose blood was offered) were burned without the tents. And this was done the tenth day of the seventh month. Ye hear now the words of the apostle, wherein appeareth the manifest figure of the passion of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which we this day do honour.
In these words the apostle toucheth the figure of the law, and bringeth it to a spiritual understanding; for it was commanded in the law, in the book of Numbers,' the tenth day of the seventh month, in the feast that was called the feast of the propitiation of mercy, of remission, or the feast of purgation, when the people were purged; at which time they should take a calf and a kid, and slay them; whose blood the only bishop should bring 'in sancta sanctorum,' into the most holy, solemn, and secret place of the temple, wherein the bishop never came, unless he brought with him blood to offer in sacrifice. "Almost all things after the law, or in the law, were cleansed in blood, and by blood; and without the effusion of blood was no remission,' saith the apostle: and in that place of the temple called 'sancta sanctorum,' the bishop prayed and offered for the people. The flesh and corpse of the sacrifice was burned without the tents, without their pavilions; and it was not lawful to any that did serve the tabernacle, to eat of the flesh of that sacrifice.
Here is a manifest figure (as I said) of the passion of our Saviour Christ. The altar that was consecrated and hallowed in this solemnity of the blood of the eternal testament, was that holy cross that Christ suffered on; which as on this day he did consecrate, hallow, dignify, and dedicate; and did adorn and deck the same with the members of his most precious body, more gloriously than if it had been embroidered and inserted with precious stones. For as gold, which is the most precious metal, is made more precious when it is set with precious stones, and is dignified therewith, whether it be altar, image, crown, ring or ouch; so was the altar, the holy cross, beautified, dignified, adorned, and made
precious, with the members of that most precious stone Christ, which is, as Peter The stone saith,3 the lively stone which men did reprove, which God did elect for the
approved stone, for a corner stone,' for the chief stone in the building of his church, for the stone that joineth the walls of the church together, for the stone whereupon the faith of Christ and his church is builded : a precious stone, a stone of price, a stone of high value, far passing in the estimation of a good christian man all other precious stones in the world. This precious stone Christ, with the members of his most precious body, did deck, adorn, and make precious this altar of the cross, when his body was by the Jews, with violence, extremely strained upon the same, that all his bones (as testifieth the prophet)
might be numbered. Upon this altar was the great sacrifice of the world Christ the offered, Christ himself. He was the sacrifice, and he was the priest.
• He sacrifice offered up himself to God his Father, for the sin of man,' saith the apostle.
He offered himself a pure, clean, immaculate host to God, to redeem the world, to sanctify sinners, to justify man.
This Christ, the bishop of good things to come (as the apostle witnesseth), entered once into the place called sancta sanctorum,' not only of the temple; but “in sancta sanctorum,' into that holy place of places, into heaven. He entered with sacrificed blood, like a bishop. Not with the blood of goats or calves, not with the blood of rams or bulls, but with his own precious blood.' For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of the burned calf sprinkled
of the world.
(1) Numb. xix. (2) Quia omnia fere in sanguine secundum legem mundabantur, et sine sanguinis effusione nou sit remissio.' Heb. xi.
(3) • Lapis vivus, ab hominibus reprobatus, a Deo electus, probatus angularis et preciosus.
(4) Psalm xxii.
(6) Heb. ix.
the pope ; blas
abroad, were sufficient to the making clean of the flesh, how much more then is Henry the blood of Christ, who by the Holy Ghost did offer up himself to God, a most pure, most clean, and immaculate sacrifice, able to purge, cleanse, and make
A.D. fair our consciences from the works of death, and to live in the living God?
1538. This is our great bishop, as the apostle saith. We have a great bishop, which did penetrate the heavens, whose name is Jesus the Son of God.' This is our great bishop, our high bishop, our universal bishop. This is the head bishop of all bishops, and of all the world, named of God (as the apostle saithe) to be our great bishop, properly called Summus Pontifex,' the highest bishop of bishops. For this is he only that is “Summus, maximus, et universalis Pontifex.'
The bishop of Rome therefore ought herein to be abashed, ashamed, and to the abhor his own pride. For in this he outrageously doth offend God, and blas- pride of phemeth him, in that he presumeth to take this high name from our bishop, Christ; in that he taketh away, as much as lieth in him, the glory of God, the phemeth majesty appertaining unto Christ; in that he taketh upon him these names appropriate only to Christ, the highest bishop, the greatest bishop, the universal bishop, the bishop of all the world. I much marvel how he dare be so bold to usurp and take these great names upon him. Greater blasphemy cannot be, No than to take from God that which naturally belongeth unto him; than to take greater from God his glory and honour: than to vindicate and take upon
him such high
phemy names, as beseemeth no Christian man to usurp. God said by his prophet, 'I than in will not give my glory away to any other,'4 to any creature. He doth reserve the glory, that laud and honour that belongeth only unto him, unto himself; no man may attempt so far, no man may take so much upon him.
Peter ! Peter! thou wast once bishop of Rome, and the first bishop of Rome; Didst thou ever take this name upon thee, Summus, Maximus, Universalis ? Peter No, no, no. And why? For the Holy Ghost was in thee. Thou wouldest take never no more upon thee, than God gave thee. Thou wast not desirous of worldly fame and glory. All that thou soughtest for, was for the glory of God; as all him at that will read thy sermons, thy epistles, and thy life, shall soon perceive. Look! the poje a great number of bishops that next followed Peter in the same see; what were doth. they? Holy martyrs, holy livers, who never attempted thus far. Let the bishop of Rome therefore acknowledge his great fault, his high folly, his unlawful usurpation, his unpriestly presumption, and humble himself to Christ and God, his great bishop. Would God he would reform himself! would God he would keep himself within that compass of his authority, and encroach no more upon other men's jurisdictions, but diligently keep and overlook his own diocese, and be content with that! would God he would look upon his predecessor St. Gregory in his register, who was a bishop of Rome, a holy man. Let him learn there how he did rebuke John, at that time the bishop of Constantinople, for taking on him so highly, in such names : universal bishop, highest bishop, greatest bishop; and how he proved it to be against the law of God. He saith there, in one place, to this proud bishop John, What answer shalt thou make in that strait examination at that last judgment, to Christ the head of the universal holy church, that goest about to have subject unto thee all the members of Christ, by taking on thee the name of universal bishop? In another place again in the same book he saith unto him, “Who art thou, that dost presume to usurp a new name upon thee of universal bishop, contrary to the statutes of the gospel and decrees?'
God forbid that ever this blasphemy should come in the hearts of christian people! in which the honour of all priesthood is taken away, when a man shall rashly and arrogantly take that name upon bim. Let this bishop of Rome therefore humble himself unto our great universal bishop, Christ; humble himself under the mighty hand of God; and know what the apostle doth write of the honour and
power of this Christ our great high bishop. He is (he saith) ‘Pontifex misericors, fidelis, potens, magnus, humilis, penetrans cælum, compatiens infirmitatibus nostris, offerens dona et sacrificia pro peccatis nostris, condolens iis qui ignorant et errant: Qui potest salvum facere a morte, offerens preces et supplicationes cum clamore valido et lachrymis, et exauditus est (1) 'Habemus pontificem magnum qui penetravit cælos, Jesum Filium Dei.'Levit. xvi. Heb. iv.
(3) 'Summus pontifex, maximus pontifex, universalis pontifex.' (4) 'Non dabo gloriam meam alteri.' Isai. xlii. (5) Gregorius in Registro, lib. iv. indictione xxx. Epist. xxxviii. (6) Heb. ii. iii. iy. v. vii. vii. ix.
(2) Heb. v.
Henry pro reverentia sua : Pontifex appellatus a Deo: Pontifex sanctus, innocens;
impollutus, segregatus a peccatoribus, excelsior cælis : Non habens necessitatem A.D. (quemadmodum alii) prius pro suis delictis hostias offerre, deinde pro populo : 1538.
Pontifex sedens in dextris Dei interpellans pro nobis, emundans conscientias
nostras ab operibus mortuis, intrans sancta sanctorum, per proprium sanguinem. The titles Hic est Pontifex confessionis nostræ.
Let all earthly bishops learn of this heavenly bishop Christ, some of these Christ, in properties are appropriate and belong only to God, and not to man. scripture. we ought to follow him, in some we cannot, nor ought to do.
This our high Miseri and great Bishop is misericors,' saith the apostle, merciful. A merciful bishop,
ready to forgive, ready to remit those that have offended him. He is not cruel nor vengeable, but full of pity, full of mercy. And in this we ought to follow
him. He is ' Pontifex potens,' a mighty Bishop, mighty and full of power. We be but weak and feeble bishops, not able to do any thing but by his permission and help. He is able to make sick, to make whole; to make rich, to make poor; to set up, to put down. •Potens,' a mighty bishop, mighty and able to remit sin,' to forgive, to save both body and soul from damnation. Potens,' a mighty bishop, and full of power. No power in this world but of him: Omnis potestas a Domino Deo est ;' all power is of him. And, as he himself witnesseth, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth." . Potens salvare a morte;' he can save the body, and save the soul : he can deliver the one and deliver the other from everlasting death. Who can forgive sin but he ? * Est potens;' he is a mighty bishop! Of him and by him emperors, kings, magistrates, and potestates, bishops, priests, with all others that have power, have their power and authority. Who is able to turn the wind, to make the wind blow or cease, but he ? Who is able to say and prove, I will now have it rain, now clear; the sun to shine, the
water to flow, to ebb, with such other, but only he? This is our mighty Bishop. Omnipo- 'Pontifex potens,' mighty : yea, 'omnipotens,' almighty. He can do all ;
nothing is to him impossible. Ipse dixit, et facta sunt omnia.' Mandavit, et creata sunt universa : potens ergo est. He is a mighty Bishop. We are not so.
Fidelis Pontifex.'. He is a faithful Bishop: faithful. He is a faithful bishop to God, referring all lauds, all honour and glory, to his Father. In all things that he did, miracles or other, he took never the more upon himself. He was also a faithful bishop to the world ; for he did all that belonged to the office of a good bishop. The very office of a bishops is, prædicare, orare, et sacrificare, sive offerre : to preach, to pray, to do sacrifice, or to offer. He preached to his people; he taught the world most wholesome doctrine, whereby he called the people to God; he converted sinners; he called them to penance. He made them weep and lament their sins; they followed his person, they followed his word, they followed his ensample. They came out of all coasts to see him, to hear him, to learn of him. They forsook meat and drink, house and home; and followed him wheresoever he went, as well in wilderness as elsewhere : insomuch that after they had followed him three days, he, being moved with pity, lest they should perish for lack of food, being in the wilderness far from succour, he fed them twice miraculously. Once in the desert with five loaves and two fishes he fed five thousand men, besides women and children, and there were left twelve great baskets, twelve maunds full of brokelets and offals at that meal.6 At another time he fed in the wilderness to the number of four thousand men, besides women and children, with seven loaves, and a few little fishes, and there were left of fragments, seven maunds full.7
The second office of a bishop he fulfilled also, for he prayed. He was most
devout in prayer, so to teach all bishops and preachers not to presume on their office of a wit or learning, neither on their capacity, memory, fair tongue or utterance ; bishop is
that the preacher do studiously apply his book, with all diligence, to study how to speak, what to speak, before whom he shall speak, and to shape his sermon after the audience.
The preacher ought also, besides his study and preaching, to pray: for by devout prayer he shall attain, percase, as much or more, as by study or learning, for without prayer the words will little prevail. Look in Christ's life, and thou shalt find that in every thing he went about, he
(1) Rom. xiv. (2) • Data est mihi omnis potestas in cælo et in terra.' Matt. xxvili. (3) Quis potest dimittere peccatum nisi solus Deus ?" Mark ii. (4) Psa. xxxii. (5) 'The office of a bishop: If he had placed here, 'administrare sacrainenta,' for • sacrificare,' his partition so might have stood.
(6) Matt. xiv.
(7) Matt xv.