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Henry not supreme head; and being thereof accused and apprehended, he

was examined how he could say that the king was not supreme head A. D. of the church, when he himself had sworn to the contrary i He 1538.

answered, “ that he took his oath with his outward man, but his inward man never consented thereunto.” And being further accused of divers damnable articles, and thereupon convicted, he gladly submitted himself to abide the punishment of the church. Upon this his submission having more liberty than before he had, to talk with whom he would, he became as far from his submission as ever he was ; and when his abjuration was sent him to read, he utterly refused it, and obstinately persevered in his errors: wherefore he was justly

condemned, and afterwards hanged in Smithfield in chains, upon a Burmined in gallows quick, by the middle and arm-holes, and fire was made under

him, and so was he consumed and burned to death.

In the place of execution, there was a scaffold prepared for the king's most honourable council, and the nobles of the realm, to sit upon, to grant him pardon, if he had any spark of repentance in him. There was also a pulpit prepared, where the right reverend father, Hugh Latimer, bishop of Worcester, declared his errors, and manifestly confuted them by the Scriptures, with many godly exhortations to move him to repentance: but he was so froward, that he neither would hear, nor speak. A little before, the aforesaid image, called * Darvell Gatheren, coming out of Wales, was brought to the gallows, and there also with the aforesaid friar, as is said, was set on fire; which

the Welchmen much worshipped, and had a prophecy amongst them, A Welch that this image should set a whole forrest on fire: which prophecy Prophecy took effect; for he set this friar Forrest on fire, and consumed him

to nothing The friar, when he saw the fire come, and that present
death was at hand, caught hold upon the ladder, and would not
let it go, but so impatiently took his death, as never any man that
put his trust in God, at any time so ungodly or unquietly ended
his life. *Upon the gallows were set, in great letters, these verses

• David Darvell Gatheren,'
(As saith the Welshmen),
• Fetched outlaws out of hell;'
Now is he come with spear and shield,
In harness to burn in Smithfield,

For in Wales he may not dwell.


And Forrest the friar,
That obstinate liar,

That wilfully shall be dead,
In his contumacy
The gospel did deny,

And the king to be supreme head.? *

The ruin and dissolution

In the months of October and November the same year, shortly

after the overthrow of these images and pilgrimages, followed also the of abtreys ruin of the abbeys and religious houses, which, by the special motion nasteries. of the Lord Cromwell (or, rather and principally, by the singular

blessing of Almighty God), were suppressed, being given a little (1) See Edition 1563, pp. 571, 572.-ED.

(2) These verses form part of The Fautasy of Idolatry, which may be found on a subsequent page in this volume.-ED.


before by act of parliament into the king's hand; whereupon not only Henry the houses were rased, but their possessions also disparkled among the nobility, in such sort as all friars, monks, canons, nuns, and other A.D.

1538. sects of religion were then so rooted out of this realm from the

very foundation, that there seemeth, by God's grace, no possibility hereafter left, for the generation of those strange weeds to grow here any more, according to the true verdict of our Lord and Saviour Christ in his gospel, saying, “Every plantation, being not planted of my Father, shall be plucked up by the roots,' &c.'


The History of the worthy Martyr of God, John Lambert, otherwise

named Nicholson,



Immediately upon the ruin and destruction of the monasteries, the same year, and in the month of November, followed the trouble and condemnation of John Lambert, the faithful servant of Jesus Christ, and martyr of blessed memory. This Lambert, being born and brought up in Norfolk, was first converted by Bilney, and studied in the university of Cambridge; where, after he had sufficiently profited both in Latin and Greek, and had translated out of both tongues sundry things into the English tongue, being forced at last by violence of the time, he departed from thence to the parts beyond the seas, to Tyndale and Frith, and there remained the space of a year and more, , being preacher and chaplain to the English House at Antwerp, till he was disturbed by sir Thomas More, and by the accusation of one Barlow, was carried from Antwerp to London; where he was brought Lambert, to examination first at Lambeth, then at the bishop's house at Otford, to the before Warham, the archbishop of Canterbury, and other adversaries; English having five and forty articles ministered against him, whereunto he Antwerp. rendered answer again by writing: which answers, forasmuch as they has one contain great learning, and may give some light to the better under- Barlow, standing of the common causes of religion now in controversy, I brought thought here to exemplify the same, as they came right happily to do. our hands. The copy both of the articles, and also of his answers, here in order followeth.

Articles, to the number of five-and-forty, laid to Lambert. Imprimis, Whether thou wast suspected or infamed of heresy?

Heresy II. Whether ever thou hadst any of Luther's books, and namely, since they were condemned? and how long thou didst keep them, and whether thou hast spent any study on them?

III. Whether thou wast constituted priest, and in what diocese, and of what bishop?

IV. Whether it be lawful for a priest to marry a wife, and whether a priest in some case be bound by the law of God to marry a wife?

V. Whether thou believest that whatsoever is done of man, whether it be Necesgood or ill, cometh of necessity ?

sity. (1) Matt. xv.

Priests' niarriages.

The sacrament of



Sacrament of penance.

Sacrament of confession.



ten verities.


VI. Whether the sacrament of the altar be a sacrament necessary unto salvaVIII. tion? and whether after the consecration of the bread and wine done by the A.D.

priest, as by the minister of God, there is the very body and blood of Christ, in

likeness of bread and wine ? 1538.

VII. Item, What opinion thou holdest touching the sacrament of baptism? whether thou dost believe that it is a sacrament of the church, and a necessary

sacrament unto salvation, and that a priest may baptize; and that the order of the altar. baptizing ordained by the church, is necessary and wholesome? Baptism. VIII. Item, Whether thou believest that matrimony be a sacrament of the Matri- church necessary to be observed in the church, and that the order appointed by

the church for the solemnizing thereof, is allowable and to be holden?

IX. Item, Whether thou dost believe orders to be a sacrament of the church, ment of and that saying of mass, ordained by the church, is to be observed of priests ?

whether it be deadly sin or not, if it be omitted or contemned; and whether the order of priesthood were invented by man's imagination, or ordained by God?

X. Item, Whether penance be a sacrament of the church, and necessary unto salvation; and whether auricular confession is to be made unto the priest. or is necessary unto salvation ? and whether thou believest that a Christian is bound, besides contrition of heart, having the free use of an apt or free priest, under necessity of salvation, to be confessed unto a priest, and not unto any layman, be he ever so good and devout; and whether thou believest that a priest, in cases permitted to him, may absolve a sinner (being contrite and confessed) from his sins, and enjoin him wholesome penance?

XI. Item, Whether thou dost believe and hold, that the sacrament of conation and firmation and extreme unction be sacraments of the church, and whether they unction. do profit the souls of them that receive them: and whether thou believest the

aforesaid seven sacraments to give grace unto them that do duly receive them? Unwrit- XII. Whether all things necessary unto salvation are put in holy Scripture,

and whether things only there plit be sufficient? and whether some things upon necessity of salvation are to be believed and observed, which are not expressed

in Scripture? Purga

XIII. Whether thou believest that purgatory is, and whether that souls

departed be therein tormented and purged ? Praying XIV. Whether holy martyrs, apostles, and confessors departed from tsiis to saints. world, ought to be honoured and called upon, and prayed unto?

XV. Whether the saints in heaven, as mediators, pray for us?

XVI. Whether thou believest that oblations and pilgrimages may be devoutly Pilgrim- and meritoriously done to the sepulchres and relics of saints ?

XVII. Whether the fast in Lent, and others appointed by the canon law, and received in common usage of christian people (unless necessity otherwise

requireth), are to be observed? Worship- XVIII. Whether it be laudable and profitable, that worshipful images be set ping to images.

in churches for the remembrance of Christ and his saints ? Praving

XIX. Whether the believest that prayers of men living, do profit souis for souls departed, and being in purgatory? departed.

XX. Whether men may merit and deserve, both by their fastings and also

by their other deeds of devotion ? Preaching with

XXI. Whether thou dost believe that men, prohibited of bishops to preach, as suspected of heresy, ought to cease from preaching and teaching, until they have purged themselves of suspicion before a higher judge?

XXII. Whether thou believest that it is lawful for all priests freely to preach

the word of God, or no? Laymen XXIII. Whether thou believest that it is lawful for laymen of both kinds, to preach. that is to wit, both men and women, to sacrifice and preach the word of God ? pope's ex

XXIV. Whether excommunication, denounced by the pope against all herecommu: tics, doth oblige and bind them before God?

XXV. Whether every priest is bound to say daily his matins and even-song, Saying of according as it is ordained by the church ; or whether he may leave them unsaid

without offence or deadly sin ? Scripture XXVI. Whether thou believest that the heads or rulers, by necessity of mother. salvation, are bound to give unto the people holy Scripture in their mothertongue. language?

XXVII. Whether is it lawful for the rulers, for some cause, upon their



age. Lentfast.


out license.








ence between a Larin and

reasonable advisement, to ordain that the Scripture should not be delivered unto the people in the vulgar language ?

XXVIII. Whether thou believest that consecrations, hallowings, and bless- A.D. ings used in the church, are to be praised ?

1538. XXIX. Whether thou believest that the pope may make laws and statutes, to bind all christian men to the observance of the same, under pain of deadly of laws. sin, so that such laws and statutes be not contrary to the law of God ?

XXX. Whether thou believest that the pope and other prelates, and their Excomdeputies in spiritual things, have power to excommunicate priests and laypeople, that are inobedient and sturdy, from entering into the church, and so suspend or let them from administration of the sacraments of the same?

XXXI. Whether faith only, without good works, may suflice unto a man Justificafallen into sin after his baptism, for his salvation and justifying ?

XXXII. Whether a priest, marrying a wife, and that without the dispensation of the pope, and begetting also children of her without slander-giving, do sin deadly?

XXXIII. Item, whether a Latin priest, after he hath taken the order of Differpriesthood, being sore troubled and stirred with pricking of lust and lechery, and therefore marrying a wife for remedy of the same, do sin deadly? XXXIV. Item, whether thou dost ever pray for John Wickliff, John Huss, a Greek

priest. or Jerome of Prague, condemned of heresy in the Council of Constance, or for any of them, since they died? or whether thou hast done openly or secretly for Wick

Praying any deeds of charity for them, affirming them to be in bliss, and saved ? liff, Huss,

XXXV. Item, whether thou hast accounted them, or any of them, to be condeer saints, and worshipped them as saints ?

Prague. XXXVI. Item, whether thou dost believe, hold, and affirm, that every General general council, and the Council of Constance also, doth represent the universal councils. congregation or church?

XXXVII. Item, whether thou dost believe the same things which the Council Council of Constance, representing the universal church, hath approved and doth face approve, for the maintenance of faith, and soul's health, and that the same is to be approved and holden of all Christians?

XXXVIII. Whether the condemnations of John Wickliff, John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, done upon their persons, books, and documents, by the whole general council of Constance, were duly and rightly done, and so, for such, by every catholic person they are to be holden?

XXXIX. Whether thou believest that John Wickliff of England, John Huss Whether of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague, were heretics, and for heretics are to be Wickliff, named, and that their books and doctrines have been, and now be, perverse ; Jerome for which books, and pertinacy of their persons, they are condemned by the were heholy council of Constance for heretics?

XL. Item, whether thou believest or affirmest, that it is not lawful in any Oaths. case to swear?

XLI. Whether thou believest that it is lawful, at the commandment of a judge, to make an oath to say the truth, or any other oath in case convenient, and that also for purgation of infamy?

XLII. Item, whether a christian person, despising the receipt of the sacra- The numments of confirmation, extreme unction, or solemnizing of matrimony, doth sin ber of deadly?

XLIII. Item, whether thou believest that St. Peter, as Christ's vicar, hath Power of power upon earth to bind and loose ?

XLIV. Item, whether the pope, ordinarily chosen for a time, his proper name the pope. being expressed, be the successor of St. Peter ?

XLV. Item, whether thou hast ever promised, at any time, by an oath, or made any confederacy or league with any person or persons, that you would always hold and defend certain conclusions or articles, seeming to you and your accoinplices, right and consonant unto the faith ; and that you certify us touching the order and tenor of the said opinions and conclusions, and of the names and surnames of them that were your adherents, and promised to be adherent unto you in this behalf?




Power of



No man


The Answers of John Lambert to the Forty-five Articles.

Unto your first demand, wherein you do ask whether I was suspected of or 1538.

infamed of heresy, I answer, that I am not certain what all persons at all seasons have deemed or suspected of me; peradventure some better, some

worse; like as the opinion of the people was never one, but thought diversely speech of of all the famous prophets, and of the apostles, yea , and of Christ himself : as Verse and appeareth in St. John,' how, when he came into Jerusalem in the feast called

• Scenopegia,' anon there arose upon him a great noise, some saying that he was a very good man; others said nay, and called him a seducer, because he led the people from the right ways of Moses's law into error. Seeing therefore that all men could not say well by Christ, who is the author of verity and truth, yea the very truth itself, and likewise of his best servants; what should I need to

regard if at some time some person, for a like cause, should suspect of me Praise of amiss, and evil report of me? seeing moreover, it is said in the gospel,” • Woe the world be to you, when all men speak well of you; for so did their fathers to the false regarded. prophets.' If therefore at any season such infamy was put upon me, I am glad

that I have so little regarded the same, that now I have forgotten it. And though I did remember any such, yet were I more than twice a fool to show

you thereof; for it is written in your own law, . No man is bound to bewray bound to himself.'s But this I insure you : I was never so charged with suspicion or himself. infamy of this crime, that I was therefore at any time convented and reproved

before any judge before that I was troubled for these causes, for which I was at the first put into your hands : and of them, seeing you could not prove me faulty, I wonder why you would never yet pronounce me quit and innocent, according as I have even lowly desired of you, and required full instantly the same. But letting those things pass, you have imagined new matters to charge me with, wherein I think certainly, that you could no more have proved me culpable, than you did in the first; that is to wit, no whit culpable in either, had it not been that by long imprisonment you forced me to tell what I thought in them, which I have and will freely do; and that, indifferently considered, I suppose shall not deserve any sore punishment, unless you will beard the truth,

whereunto I hope it shall not disagree. The


your second demand, where you do inquire whether I had ever any of profit of Luther's

Luther's books, and namely, since they were condemned, and how long I kept books. them, and whether ever I have spent any study in them; I say that indeed I

have had of them, and that both before they were condemned and also since; but I neither will nor can tell you how long I kept them. But truth it is, that I have studied upon them, and I thank God that ever I so did ; for by them hath God showed unto me, and also to a huge multitude of others, such light as the deceivable darkness of them (I beseech God amend it) that name themselves, but amiss, to be the holy church, cannot abide. And that appeareth evidently, for they dare not stand to any trial. He coveteth above all things, as all his adversaries do well know, that all his writings, and the writings of all his adversaries, might be translated into all languages, to the intent that all people might see and know what is said of every part; whereby men should the better judge what the truth is. And in this methinketh he requireth nothing but equity; for the law would have no man condemned, nor justified, until his

cause were heard and known. Over-rich But the contrary part, I mean our over-rich prelacy, who are so drowned in prelates. voluptuous living that they cannot attend to study God's Scripture, nor preach

the same, which should be the principal part of their office, abhor this fashion (albeit it is right indifferent and full of equity) no less than they do abhor death. And no marvel, for doubtless, if it so could be obtained that the

writings of all parties might be openly seen and conferred, we should soon see Facing their sleightly dealing, and facing doctrine, with all other cloked abusion, lightly doctrine overthrown, as appeareth well in Almain; for there, be the books of every prists. party seen openly, and translated into the vulgar language, that all people may see and read upon them; and so, upon the sight of the books, they lightly

(1) John vii.
(2) 'Væ vobis, cum laudaverint vos omnes homines,' &c. Luko vi.
(3) · Nemo tenetur prodere seipsum.'
(4) Popish doctrine will abide no trial.

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