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by the

verbo sacerdotii,' never hereafter to presume to assemble in their convocations Henry without the king's writ, or to enact or execute such constitutions without his VIII. royal assent, &c.?

A.D. Further, in the same parliament was enacted and decreed, that in causes and

1533. matters happening in contention, no person should appeal, provoke, or sue out of the king's dominions to the court of Rome, under pain of provisors, provision, or præmunire,

Item, In the same parliament was defined and concluded, that all exportation of annates and first-fruits of archbishoprics and bishoprics out of this realm to the see of Rome, for any bulls, breves or palls, or expedition of any such thing, should utterly cease.

Also, for the investing of archbishops, bishops, or others of any ecclesiastical dignity, such order in the said parliament was taken that the king should send of ina license under the great seal, with a letter missive to the prior and convent, or

vesting to the dean and chapter of those cathedral churches where the see was vacant, king. by virtue of which license or letters missive, they, within twelve days, should choose the said person nominated by the king, and no other; and that election to stand effectual to all intents : which election being done, then the party elect to make first his oath and fealty to the king, if it were a bishop that was elected; then the king, by his letters patent, to signify the said election to the archbishop of that province, and two other bishops, or else to four bishops within this realm to be assigned to that office, without any other suing, procuring, or obtaining any bulls, breves, or other things from the see of Rome.

Moreover, against all other whatsoever intolerable exactions and great sums Peterof money used to be paid out of this realm to the bishop of Rome, in pensions, pence censures, Peter-pence, procuratious, fruits, suits for provisions, and expeditions

stopped of bulls for archbishops and bishops, for delegacies and rescripts in causes of Rome. contentions and appeals, jurisdictions legative; also for dispensations, licenses, faculties, grants, relaxations, writs called "perinde valere,' rehabilitations, abolitions, canonizations, and other infinite sorts of bulls, breves, and instruments of sundry natures, the number whereof were tedious particularly to be recited : in the said parliament it was ordained, that all such uncharitable usurpations, exactions, pensions, censures, portions, and Peter-pence, wont to be paid to the see of Rome, should utterly surcease, and never more be levied : so that the king, with his honourable council

, should have power and authority from time to time, for the ordering, redress, and reformation of all manner of indulgences, privileges, &c., within this realm.


Here is to be noted by the way, as touching these Peter-pence Origin of aforesaid, that the same were first brought in and imposed by king pencer Ina, about A.D. 720, which Ina, king of the West-Saxons, caused through all his dominion, in every house having a chimney, a penny to be collected and paid to the bishop of Rome in the name of St. Peter; and thereof were they called Peter-pence.' The same likewise did Offa king of Mercians after him, about A.D. 794. And these Peter-pence ever since, or for the most part, have used of a long custom to be gathered and summoned by the pope's collectors here in England, from the time of Ina aforesaid, to this present parliament, A.D. 1533.

Finally, by the authority of the parliament it was consulted and considered concerning the legality of the lawful succession unto the crown, in ratifying and enabling the heirs of the king's body, and queen Anne. In the which parliament, moreover, the degrees of marriage plainly and clearly were explained and set forth, such as be expressly prohibited by God's laws, as in this table may appear.

(1) Ex Stat. Hen. VIII.

(2) 'No man to appeal to Rome.' Bonner, in his Prologue before . De vera obedientia,' saith, that this racenous prey of the pope cometh to as much almost as the king's revenues.

(3) Vide supra.


A.D. 1533.

A Table of Degrees prohibited, by God's Law, to marry."
The son not to marry the mother, nor step-mother.
The brother not to marry the sister.
The father not to marry his son's daughter, nor his daughter's daughter.
The son not to marry his father's daughter, gotten by his step-mother.
The son not to marry his aunt, being either his father's or his mother's sister.
The son not to marry his uncle's wife.
The father not to marry his son's wife.
The brother not to marry his brother's wife.
No man to marry his wife's daughter.
No man to marry his wife's son's daughter.
No man to marry his wife's daughter's daughter.
No man to marry his wife's sister.
All these degrees be prohibited by the Scripture.

Separation be

Katharine, by act of parliament.

king and queen

proved by parliament.

All these things thus being defined and determined in this aforetween the said parliament, and it also being in the same parliament concluded, king and that no man, of what estate, degree, or condition soever, hath any

power to dispense with God's laws, it was therefore, by the authority
aforesaid, agreeing with the authority of God's word, assented that
the marriage aforetime solemnized between the king and the lady
Katharine, being before wife to prince Arthur the king's brother,
and carnally known by him (as is above proved), should be abso-
lutely deemed and adjudged to be unlawful and against the law of
God, and also reputed and taken to be of no value or effect ; and
that the separation thereof by Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Can-

terbury, should stand good and effectual to all intents ; and also The mar- that the lawful matrimony between the king and the lady Anne his With the wife, should be established, approved, and ratified for good and

consonant to the laws of Almighty God. And further, also, for the Anne, ap- establishing of this king's lawful succession, it was fully by the said

parliament adjudged, that the inheritance of the crown should remain
to the heirs of their two bodies, that is, of the king, and queen Anne
his wife.

During the time of this parliament, before the marriage of queen
Anne, there was one Temse in the common-house, who moved the
commons to sue to the king to take the queen again into his com-
pany ; declaring certain great mischiefs like to ensue thereof, as in
bastardizing the lady Mary, the king's only child, and divers other
inconveniences. This being reported to the king's cars, he sent im-
mediately to sir Thomas Audley, speaker then of the parliament,

expressing unto him, amongst other matters, that he marvelled much words to why one of the parliament did so openly speak of the absence of the

queen from him ; which matter was not to be determined there, for speaker. it touched (said he) his soul; and he wished the matrimony were good,

for then had he never been so vexed in conscience. But the doc-
tors of universities (said he) have determined the marriage to be
void, and detestable before God; which grudge of conscience (he
said) caused him to abstain from her company, and no foolish or
wanton appetite. “For I am," said he," forty-one years old, at

age the lust of man is not so quick as it is in youth. And,
saving in Spain and Portugal, it hath not been seen, that one man

Their heirs.


Audley the

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(1) Stat. an. 25. Reg. llen.



had lost great

hath married two sisters, the one being carnally known before : but Henry the brother to marry the brother's wife, was so abhorred amongst all

A. D. nations, that I never heard that any Christian so did, but myself. Wherefore you see my conscience troubled, and so I pray you report.” And so the speaker, departing, declared to the commons the king's saying *It' was touched, a little before, how that the

pope part of his authority and jurisdiction in this realm of England ; now it followeth to infer, how, and by what occasion, his whole power and authority began utterly to be abolished, by the reason and occasion of the most virtuous and noble lady, Anne Bullen, who was not as yet married to the king, howbeit in great favour : by whose godly means and most virtuous counsel the king's mind was daily inclined better and better.* Insomuch that, not long after, the king, belike the perceiving the minds of the clergy not much favouring his cause, sent words to for the speaker again, and twelve of the common-house, having with certain of him eight lords, and said to them, “ Well-beloved subjects ! we had mons. thought the clergy of our realm had been our subjects wholly, but now we have well perceived that they be but half our subjects, yea and scarce our subjects. For all the prelates at their consecration make Spiritual an oath to the pope, clean contrary to the oath that they make unto the pope's us, so that they seem to be his subjects, and not ours.” And so the subjects king, delivering to them the copy of both the oaths, required them to king's. invent some order that he might not thus be deluded of his spiritual subjects. The speaker thus departed, and caused the oaths to be read in the common-house, the very tenor whereof here ensueth.

The Oath of the Clergy to the Pope. 1, John, bishop or abbot of A., from this hour forward shall be faithful and obedient to St. Peter, and to the holy church of Rome, and to my lord the pope and his successors canonically entering. I shall not be of counsel or consent, that they shall lose either life or member, or shall be taken or suffer any violence, or any wrong by any means. Their counsel to me credited by them, their messengers or letters, I shall not willingly discover to any person. The papacy of Rome, the rules of the holy fathers, and regalities of St. Peter, I shall help and retain, and defend against all men. The legate of the see apostolic, going and coming, I shall honourably entreat. The rights, honours, privileges, and authorities of the church of Rome, and of the pope and his successors, I shall cause to be conserved, defended, augmented, and promoted; I shall not be in counsel, treaty, or any act, in which any thing shall be imagined against him or the church of Rome, their rights, estates, honours, or powers: and if I know any such to be moved or compassed, I shall resist it to my power; and as soon as I can, I shall advertise him, or such as may give him knowledge. The rules of the holy fathers, the decrees, ordinances, sentences, dispositions, reservations, provisions, and commandments apostolic, to my power I shall keep and cause to be kept of others.

Heretics, schismatics, and rebels to our holy father and his successors, I shall resist and persecute to my power, I shall come to the synod when I am called, except I be letted by a canonical impediment. The lights of the apostles I shall visit personally, or by my deputy. I shall not alienate or sell my possessions without the pope's council. So God me help, and the holy evangelists.

This oath of the clergymen, which they were wont to make to the Pope bishop of Rome (now pope Quondam), was abolished and made void dam.

(1) See edition 1563, p. 508.-ED.
(2) More probably, Limina Apostolorum,' the thresholds of the apostles.-ED.


Henry by statute, and a new oath ministered and confirmed for the same,

wherein they acknowledged the king to be the supreme head, under A.D. Christ, in this church of England, as by tenor thereof may appear 1533. hereunder ensuing.

The Oath of the Clergy to the King. I, John B., of A., utterly renounce, and clearly forsake, all such clauses, words, sentences, and grants, which I have or shall have hereafter of the pope's holiness, of and for the bishopric of A., that in anywise have been, are, or hereafter may be, hurtful or prejudicial to your highness, your heirs, successors, dignity, privilege or estate royal: and also I do swear that I shall be faithful and true, and faith and truth I shall bear, to you my sovereign lord, and to your heirs kings of the same, of life and limb, and earthly worship above all creatures, to live and die with you and yours against all people : and diligently I shall be attendant to all your needs and business, after my wit and power; and your counsel I shall keep and hold, acknowledging myself to hold my bishopric of you only, beseeching you of restitution of the temporalties of the same ; promising (as before) that I shall be a faithful, true, and obedient subject unto your said highness, heirs, and successors during my life : and the services and other things due to your highness, for the restitution of the temporalties of the same bishopric, I shall truly do, and obediently perform. So God me help and all saints.

These oaths thus being recited and opened to the people, were the occasion that the pope lost all his interest and jurisdiction here in England within a short while after. Upon the occasion and reason whereof, the matter falling out more and more against the pope,

sir Thomas More, of whom mention is made before, being a great maintainer of the pope, and a heavy troubler of Christ's people, and now not liking well of this oath, by God's good work was enforced to

resign up his chancellorship, and to deliver up the great seal of AudleyEngland into the king's hands. After whom succeeded sir Thomas chancel- Audley, keeper of the great seal, a man in eloquence and gifts

of tongue no less incomparable, than also for his godly-disposed mind; and for his favourable inclination to Christ's religion, worthy of much commendation.

These things being done in the parliament, the king, within short riage of

time after, proceeded to the marriage of the aforesaid lady Anne Bullen, mother to our most noble queen now, who, without all contro

versy, was a special comforter and aider of all the professors of Her great Christ's gospel, as well of the learned as the unlearned ; her life being

also directed according to the same, as her weekly alms did manifestly declare ; who, besides the ordinary of a hundred crowns, and other apparel that she gave weekly, a year before she was crowned, both to men and women, gave also wonderfully much privy alms to widows and other poor householders, continually, till she was apprehended; and she ever gave three or four pounds at a time to the poor people, to buy them kine withal, and sent her subalmoner to the towns about where she lay, that the parishioners should make a bill of all the poor householders in their parish; and some towns received seven, eight, or ten pounds to buy kine withal, according as the number of the poor in the towns were. She also maintained many learned men at Cambridge. Likewise did the earl of Wiltshire her father, and the lord Rochford her brother, and by them these men were brought in favour with the king; of whom some are yet alive, and can testify


The mar

queen Anne.






the same; would to God that they were now as great professors of Henry the gospel of Christ, as then they appeared to be ; who were Dr. Heath and Dr. Thirlby; with whom was joined the lord Paget, who, A.D. at that present, was an earnest protestant, and gave unto one Raynold West, Luther's books, and other books of the Germans, as Francis. Heath, Lambert.“ De Sectis ;' and at that time he read Melancthon's Rhe- Paget. toric openly in Trinity-hall, in Cambridge, and was with his Master Gardiner, à maintainer of Dr. Barnes, and all the protestants that a mainwere then in Cambridge, and helped many religious persons out of Barnes. their cowls. It hath been reported unto us by divers credible persons

who were about this queen, and daily acquainted with her doings, concerning her liberal and bountiful distribution to the poor, how her grace carried ever about her a certain little purse, out of which she was wont daily to scatter abroad some alms to the needy, thinking no day well spent wherein some man had not fared the better by some benefit at her hands. And this I write by the relation of certain noble personages who were the chief and principal of her waiting maids about her, specially the duchess of Richmond by name.

Also concerning the order of her ladies and gentlewomen about her, one that was her silkwoman, a gentlewoman? not now alive, but of great credit, and also of fame for her worthy doings, did credibly report, that in all her time she never saw better order among the

The good ladies and gentlewomen of the court, than was in this good queen's order of days, who kept her maids and such as were about her so occupied in in her sowing and working of shirts and smocks for the poor, that neither was there seen any idleness then among them, nor any leisure to follow such pastimes as daily are seen now-a-days to reign in princes' courts.

Thus the king, being divorced from the lady dowager his brother's The king wife, married this gracious lady, making a prosperous and happy from lady change for us, being divorced from the aforesaid princess, and also Katha from the pope, both at one time. Notwithstanding, as good and from the godly purposes are never without some incommodity or trouble fol- pope, both lowing, so it happened in this divorcement, that the said princess, time. procuring from Rome the pope's curse, caused both the king and the realm to be interdicted, whereof more is hereafter to be spoken.

In the mean time queen Anne, shortly after her marriage, being Queen great with child, the next year following, which was 1533, after the dome first divorcement publicly proclaimed, was crowned with high solem-Eoizabeth nity at Westminster; and not long after her coronation, the seventh day of September, she was brought to bed, and delivered of a fair lady; for whose good deliverance 'Te Deum' was sung in all places, and great preparation made for the christening:

The mayor and his brethren, with forty of the chief citizens, were commanded to be present, with all the nobles and gentlemen. The king's palace, and all the walls between that and the Friars, were hanged with arras, as was the Friars' church. Also the font was of . silver, and stood in the midst of the church, three steps high, which was covered with a fine cloth, and divers gentlemen, with aprons and towels about their necks, gave attendance about it. Over the font hung a fair canopy of crimson satin, fringed with gold. About it

(1) The name of this gentlewoman was M. Wilkinson.


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