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Bull, Taylor, Ken, and Wilson. We will first notice from the Lectures on Justification in question, that the writer denies altogether to Justification its separate office in the scheme of our Salvation. With him Justification and Sanctification are one and the same gift. Thus, at page 44, he says, “Scripture speaks of but one gift, which it sometimes calls Renewal, sometimes Justification, according as it views it;" and at page 45, “I really do not understand how a man can read the 51st Psalm without perceiving, that we are forgiven by being, or while we are, renewed; and that the present broad separation of Justification and Sanctification, as if they were two gifts, not in idea only, but in fact, is technical and unscriptural.” But now hear how Hooker in his learned Discourse on Justification, section 6, maintains, that they are two gifts. Now, concerning the righteousness of Sanctification, writes Hooker, we deny it not to be inherent; we grant, that unless we work, we have it not; only we distinguish it as a thing different in nature from the Righteousness of Justification. St. Paul does plainly sever these two parts of Christian Righteousness one from the other; for in Romans vi. thus he writeth : “Ye are made free from sin, and made servants unto God' this is the righteousness of Justification. “Ye have your fruit unto holiness'-this is the righteousness of Sancti. fication. Let Hooker suffice us, to controvert this revived opinion, that Justification and Sanctification are one and the same gift.
We will now take another view of Justification set forth by our author; namely, that Justification follows Sanctification.
At page 44, he says, speaking of Psalm li., “ It is impossible to doubt, that in the mind of the inspired writer the one benefit immediately involved the other, as a part of it; that renewal involved external Justification, or God's favour; or that God's favour was given through renewal. And again, at page 69—“ In the last lecture, the second, in which I stated what I consider as, in the main, the true doctrine, two points were proposed for proof: first, that Justification and Sanctification were substantially the same thing ; next, that viewed relatively to each other, Justification followed upon Sanctification.”
Now, in the very next page, the 70th, our author allows, that both our Church and St. Augustine maintain the very contrary ; that is, that Sanctification follows Justification ; for in page 70, he writes, “In the present lecture, the third, I propose to consider the exact relation of Justification to Sanctification, in regard to which our Church would seem to consider Luther in the right : and, I believe, that St. Austin really does consider, that in the order of nature Sanctification follows upon Justification.” This is a large avowal, that St. Austin really does consider that Luther's view is the Scriptural one; but, that our author may make our Church only to seem to consider Luther in the right, in page 72, he argues, that the Eleventh Article is not to be understood as it stands in its simple sense, but that we must go on to the Thirteenth Article for its fuller meaning, in which Article, the Thirteenth, the actual Gospel gift, called Justification, according to our author, is renewal. But we had better adhere to what our Church seems to say, and her
ciergy especially,who have ex animo subscribed to her Articles, and have declared, that we will not put our own sense or comment to be the meaning of the Article, but that we will take it in its literal grammatical sense.
We will now go on to another notion of our author's, and we will quote passages from his work to show in what he considers our Justification to consist, and this we shall find to be in Obedience. Thus, at page 36, our author says, “ Cleanness of heart and spirit, obedience by word and deed, this alone in us can be acceptable to God; that is, this alone can constitute our Justification, for by righteousness is meant obedience such as to be acceptable. Again, at page 37, Holiness is the thing, the internal state upon which the blessing comes. If God blesses, surely it is by making holy; if He counts righteous, it is by making righteous; if He justifies, it is by renewing: and in the same sense in which it can be said, that God is glorified by our obedience, 80 can it be said, that we are justified by our obedience. And at page 69, he adds, “While the received doctrine in all ages of the Church has been, that through the largeness and peculiarity of the gift of grace we can obey unto Justification, it is the distinguishing tenet of the School of Luther, that through the incurable nature of our corruption we cannot.” But now let us turn to the Homilies, and thence learn that it is also the distinguishing tenet of our Church, that we cannot obey unto Justification. In the first part of the Homily of Salvation, it Baith, “ Faith doth not shut out repentance, love, dread, and the fear of God to be joined with faith in every man that is justified, but it shutteth them out from the office of justifying; it excludeth them, so that we may not do them to this intent, to be made just by doing of them.” Again, in the second part it saith, “ This saying that we be justified by Faith only, freely, and without works, is spoken for to take away clearly all merit of our works, as being unable to deserve our Justification at God's hands.” And, therefore, as it is said in the third part, “The very true meaning of this proposition or saying, We be justified by CHRIST only, (according to the meaning of the old ancient authors,) (these which our modern author just now quoted as supporting his views,) the meaning that we be justified by Christ only is this : We put our faith in Christ, that we be justified by Him only, that we be justified by God's free mercy, and the merits of our Saviour CHRIST only, and by no virtue or good work of our own that is in us, or that we can be able to have, or to do, for to deserve the same ; CHRIST himself only being the cause meritorious thereof." Thus clearly speak the Homilies. And now hear, also, a sentence or two from Bishop Hall: and first his “Old Religion,” chap. i. : “God,” says Bishop Hall, "justifies him whom he sanctifies.” These two acts of mercy are inseparable ; but this justice, being wrought in us by the Holy Spirit, according to the model of our weak receipt, and not according to the full power of the Infinite Agent, is not so perfect as that it can bear us out before the tribunal of God. It must be only under the garment of our Elder Brother, that we dare come in for a blessing : his righteousness, made ours by faith, is that whereby we are justified in the sight of God: this doctrine is that which is blessed with a Tridentine curse. But all antiquity is with us. The sweet and passionate speeches of St. Austin and St. Barnard to this purpose would fill a book alone. Neither can any Reformed Divine, either more disparage our inherent righteousness, or more magnify and challenge the imputed.” And so in his Christ Mystical, chap. v., sec. 1, having dwelt upon CHRIST as our righteousness, Bishop Hall, as it were with holy indignation, asks, “Where are now those enemies of grace, that scoff at imputation ; making it a ridiculous paradox, that a man should become just by another man's righteousness? How dare they stand out against the Word of Truth, which tells us expressly, that CHRIST is made our righteousness.” Thus, do we learn Truth ourselves from the soundest of our Divines, whilst controverting the errors which have so recently crept into our Church ; and with such clear statements before us of the great Doctrine of Justification through Faith alone in the merits of CHRIST, we may well rejoice in these days of sifting, that CHRIST our LORD has not left us without these Standard Bearers in our Church.
And now for another opinion of our author, which results from the one just considered, that with the presence of the Holy Ghost we can obey unto Justification ; for, as is logical, but not Scriptural, he thence concludes, that the Holy Ghost justifies us. We are justified, says our author, through the Holy Ghost. Thus, at page 48, he argues, “ St. Paul again and again speaks of our Justification as not being from without, but from within ; from God, indeed, as an origin, but through our own hearts and minds, wills and powers. He attributes it to the influences of the Spirit working in us, and enabling us to perform that obedience to the law, towards which, by ourselves, we could not take a single step.” Whilst, at page 50, our author argues, “ Is it not almost too clear to insist upon that what is first called the ministration of the Spirit is next called the ministration of righteousness; or, in other words, that the Spirit ministers righteousness, that it justifies ?” And again, at page 154, “ Justifying righteousness consists in the coming and presence of the Holy Ghost within us." And at page 234, “God the Son atoned ; God the Holy Ghost justifies.”
Now, in contradiction to this view, Lightfoot, in his Sermon on Rom. viii., v. 23, having introduced the passage, “We are his workmanship created in Christ Jesusunto good works,” comments thus, “Who works this ? Christ, and the Spirit. Something Christ doth by his bloodnamely, restores righteousness ; the rest by his Spirit-namely, recovers holiness. As the Son and Spirit co-operated in man's creation, so in his renovation Personal works are distinct, but never separate : Christ to justify, the Spirit to sanctify.” And so also did we learn in our Catechism, that God the Son redeemed us, and that God the Holy Ghost sanctifieth us. And in like manner speaks the Homily for Whitsunday in the First Part : “ The Father to create, the Son to redeem, and the Holy Ghost to sanctify and regenerate. Whilst in looking over the Article in Pearson on the Creed, “I believe
in the Holy Ghost," the work of Sanctification is by him alone argued as belonging to the third Person in the ever-blessed Godhead. And all our Divines since the Reformation, as well as the Fathers, who attribute Justification to Christ alone on the ground of his merits, clearly deny this same work to the Holy Ghost. So much, then, in answer to this view, that the Holy Ghost justifies.
But our author has yet three other means or instruments through the which he maintains that we are justified. These three other means are the Voice of the LORD, the glory and power of God, and the Divine presence within us. We will quote passages, to prove that these are exalted by our author into the high office of justifying us, that they are with him more than instruments. “The Voice of the Lord is mighty in operation ; the voice of the LORD is a glorious voice," is our author's text for his third Lecture; and, having shown how the Voice of the Lord has been operative in many ways, he argues at p. 90, “ It would seem, then, in all cases, that God's word is the instrument of his deed. When, then, HE solemnly utters the command, “Let the soul be just, it becomes inwardly just.” And at page 91, he concludes, “On the whole, then, from what had been said, it appears that Justification is an announcement or fiat of Almighty God breaking upon the gloom of our natural state, as the Creative Word upon chaos; that it declares the soul righteous, and in that declaration, on the one hand, conveys pardon for its past sins ; and, on the other, makes it actually righteous.” (See also page 108.) And now of the glory and of the power of God as our righteousness. At page 183, our author says, “Let us consider this great gift, first as it is glory, then as it is power. And, having quoted and curiously commented on some passages in which the word glory occurs, he concludes at page 186, “Here, then, is additional evidence that an endowment is bestowed upon us distinct from any moral gift, or any mere external title or imputation ; and that this endowment, thus distinguished, is nothing else than our righteousness.” And then our author goes on to say, that “the same general conclusion will follow from considering it as power.” And from the texts he quotes, he concludes at page 193, “Here, then, as before, an endowment is vouchsafed to us, not moral, yet internal, so as fitly to answer and corroborate the description I have already given of “the gift of righteousness." Thus our author makes out, that the glory and the power of God in us are more than instruments in our Justification with him, they constitute that which he wishes to prove is the gift of righteousness.
But there is yet a third ingredient, which our author has to add to this his new compound of the gift of righteousness, and that is the Divine Presence, whether of God the Father, the Son, or the Holy Ghost. Thus, in page 160, “ This is to be justified, to receive the Divine presence within us, and be made a temple of the Holy Ghost.” And at page 193, " The Sacred Presence, which is our Justification in God's sight, sanctifies the while, as a light illuminating a room.” So, also, in page 198, “ The entrance of CHRIST's sacred presence into the soul, which becomes our righteousness in God's sight, at the same time becomes our righteousness in it.” Take again page 217 : “ To what does the view point, which I advocate," asks our author, "as the great and immediate condition of our Justification? It points to the glorious Shekinah of the WORD Incarnate, as to the true wedding garment in which the soul must be dressed.” And at page 249: “ This our true righteousness, it is the in-dwelling of our glorified LORD.” And thus our author sums up his view of Justification in the 316th page : “ Justification comes through the Sacrament, is received by faith, consists in God's presence, and lives in obedience.”
But where, let us now ask, are the merits of the Saviour in this new definition of Justification? How differently does the Homily of Salvation set forth Christ and his merits alone as the ground of our Justification. Thus, at the conclusion of the third part, it says, “Christ is now the righteousness of all them, that truly do believe in HIM; He for them paid their ransom by his death, He for them fulfilled the law in his life. So that now in Him and by Himevery true Christian may be called a fulfiller of the law; forasmuch as that which theirinfirmity lacketh,Christ's justice hath supplied.” There is in these words, no seeming to hold one thing, and to mean another. We will take their popular sense as the exact sense, a permission, however, which we must not request of our author, for in his Scholastic mind there is a wide difference between the exact sense, and the popular sense of our Articles and Homilies. See pages 70, 297. “ Indeed, this his notion savours of the Reserve, recommended in Tract 80.”
But, to return to the Homily of Salvation, at the Second Part: “ This saying, that we be justified by faith only, is spoken for to ascribe wholly the merit and deserving of our Justification unto Christ only, and his most precious blood-shedding. So, that as great and godly a virtue as the lively faith is, yet it putteth us from itself, and remitteth or appointeth us unto CHRIST; for to have only by Him remission of our sins and Justification. So that our Faith in CHRIST (as it were) saith unto us, thus, ' It is not I that take away your sins, but it is CHRIST only; and to Him only, I send you for that purpose, forsaking therein all your good virtues, words, thoughts, and works, and only putting your trust in Christ.'” See how widely the author before us, differs from our Church. I refer not to the Articles, because he has pronounced them to be ambiguous : see pages 71, 72, of his Lectures. And he has also written a long Tract, No. 90, to prove that he may put his own sense or comment to be the meaning of the Article. But see how widely he differs from the Homilies on the few points which our limits allow us to lay before our readers. With him, and all who have adopted the opinions of the “ Tracts for the Times," 1, Justification is one and the same gift with Sanctification. 2, Justification follows Sanctification. 3, Justification consists in obedience. 4, Justification is of the Holy Ghost. 5, Justification is “ the Voice of the LORD” declaring us righteous. 6, That the “ gift of righteousness" is the glory of God,