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ration is there the least idea of any sudden change of heart or disposition in Baptism, such as to supersede the necessity either of preparatory conversion or subsequent renovation. All here alludes to a change of state and condition, not to a change of heart and disposition : to God's part, not that part mixed up of the Spirit's leading and men's concurrences. The change of heart and disposition, indeed, in all ordinary cases, and in its measure, is the indispensable pre-requisite to the full beneficial enjoyment of the change of state and condition ; but for that very reason it is not identical with it: it is always distinct from it in theory, and it is very frequently, indeed, so in practice ; that is, first, in all cases of Infant Baptism (in which the recipient is capable of regeneration, but not capable either of preparatory conversion, or subsequent renovation), and, secondly, in all those cases in which the grant of regeneration is suspended and frustrate for a time, for want of Baptism having been rightly received—that is, for want of repentance and faith having had their effectual work in the heart.
The third constituent part of regeneration (if this be not rather considered an indispensable adjunct, which perhaps it is)—viz., the confirming of faith and increase of grace in the heart of the recipient, by virtue of prayer (the prayers of the congregation) to God, as held by our Church, confirms most strongly our view, that the hearts of the postulants for Baptism are expected to be prepared by turning to God in true faith and repentance beforehand; for faith, to be susceptible of confirmation, must have previously existed; and grace, to be capable of increase, must have been, in some measure or degree or other, already had and enjoyed: preventing grace must have begun and assisted the work of conversion; which makes it abundantly evident that the Church of England, notwithstanding that she fully holds and teaches the doctrine of Baptismal regeneration, does not put so much upon the moment of the celebration of the sacrament as many have supposed her to do. The prayer of the congregation alluded to in the Article, when it is said, “Faith is confirmed and grace increased by virtue of prayer unto God,” is, according to the ritual of the Church of England, twofold ; that which concerns the renovation of the new Christian is put up in four pregnant petitions, marking out his desired course and hopedfor progress, from the first “ burying of the old Adam and raising up of the new man” in him; through his “ deadness to carnal affections," and lively cherishing of “all things belonging to the Spirit,” his “victory over the world, the flesh, and the Devil,” to his being “ finally endued with heavenly virtues and everlastingly rewarded, through Thy mercy, O blessed Lord God, who doth live and govern all things, world without end.” And this portion of the Church's prayer is put up just previously to the prayer of consecration and the outward instrumental act of regeneration; whilst that which concerns regeneration itself is put up at an earlier period in the service : but it is to be remarked, that, after the Baptism has been completed, and the sign and scale of regeneration applied, the prayer is repeated with such alteration and addition as to make it a prayer for continuance in
the state of salvation only: and this is the most distinctly seen in “the office for the public Baptism of such as are of riper years."
The prayer for the regeneration of the parties is as follows: “Increase this knowledge and confirm this faith in us evermore; gite Thy Holy Spirit to these persons, that they may be born again, and be made heirs of everlasting salvation, through our Lord Jesus Christ.”
But after the instrumental act of regeneration is performed, then the prayer is repeated with this remarkable change : “Increase this knowledge and confirm this faith in us evermore; give Thy Holy Spirit to these persons, that, being now born again, and made heirs of everlasting salvation, through our Lord Jesus Christ, they may continue Thy servants and attain Thy promises."
This marks at once the point of time at which, “as by an instrument, they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into the Church ;” and at which also “the promises of forgiveness of sins, and of our adoption to be the sons of God, by the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed." An instrument here means, of course, a deed ;* and as the moment of the adoption of a person to be the heir of another, in the case of an estate to be entailed, would necessarily be held to be that at which, all parties having come together for the purpose, the requisite deeds were duly signed and sealed, and this, however long previously the intention of the Father might have been known; so, in the case of our adoption to be children of God, the moment of applying the instrumental act of Baptism is that at which the merits of the death of Jesus are held to be appropriated to believers; and they are then taken out of a state of nature, and placed in a state of grace, or a state of salvation; and henceforth no more is said to them about their regeneration or new birth in Christ, excepting to thank God for its completion, and to warn and exhort them to walk worthy of it.
What Dr. Hey says upon this subject is so very much to the purpose, that we must claim indulgence for extracting it: “In our Article," (the Ninth) “the Latin word for regenerated is renatis ; and renatis, in this same Article is the Latin for baptised; whence it appears that our Article means the same thing by regenerated and baptised. Some may apprehend danger from this remark, as if it let down regeneration to mean only the external form of Baptism ; but I do not see how it does that. When shall we complete our contract? when shall we sign and seal ? These being used for one another, does not let down contracting" i. e., (the completing of a contract, “ to the mere outward ceremony of signing and sealing. The outward part, in a symbolical act, must always imply the thing signified. When we speak of entering on any state of life, as by manumission, indentures, marriage, &c., we take for granted the ordinary effects ; they pass unmentioned, because it seems useless to mention them.”+
II. ART AND ANTIQUITY.
BEFORE proceeding to examine the Symbolism of the interior of an ancient church, the reader will perhaps not object to have brought before his notice a little relic of a symbolic nature, which was turned up last year in a field called the Pingles, in the parish of Northborough, near Peterborough. It is an oval medalet of brass, one inch by three quarters; one side bearing on the exergue the word Roma beneath a gigantic chalice, which stands between two angels kneeling in worship to the glorified Host, signed with the Cross, which crowns it. The reverse presents, diminished, the chalice again, and the Host still glorified, but not now bearing the Cross, exalted in the clouds over & draperied altar, on which is a skull wearing a royal crown. It looks like the crown of Spain, and probably is so; for before it kneels a glorified saint adoring the heavenly vision above; and the inscription round is S. Franc. Borgi—that is, most likely, Sanctus Franciscus Borgia. Don Francis Borgia, Duke of Gandia, inherited the name, but not the infamy, of Cæsar Borgia and of Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI., who died about twelve years before the birth of Francis. By the mother's side, being grandson of Ferdinand of Arragon, he was kinsman to Charles, King of Spain, and Emperor. He was Charles's fellowpupil under Sainte Croix ; and, attending the Emperor with a troop of his own to the Milanese and Provence, was selected to report the campaign to the Empress, at Segovia. She had been the patron and friend of himself and his wife, Eleanora de Castro; but she died in the moment of triumph. Isabella might not be laid in the sepulchre of the kings of Spain till a grandee of the highest rank had seen within the cerements the very body. The duty was confided to Don Francis Borgia : none was better fitted for such a trust. “Every lineament of that serene and once eloquent countenance was indelibly engraven in his memory," proceeds an able article in “ The Edinburgh Review” of July, 1842, from which the above particulars of his life are chiefly abridged. “ Amid the half-uttered prayers which commended her soul to the Divine Mercy, and the low dirge of the organ, he advanced with streaming eyes, and reverently raised the covering which concealed the secrets of the grave, when— but why or how portray the appalling and loathsome spectacle? . . . It was the great epoch in the life of Borgia. In the eyes of the world, indeed, he may have been unchanged; but in his eyes the whole aspect of the world was altered. . . . . For whom had life a deeper interest, or who could erect on a surer basis a loftier fabric of more brilliant hopes ? Those interests and hopes he deliberately resigned, and at the age of 29 bound himself, by a solemn vow, that, in the event of his surviving Eleanora, he would end his days as a member of a religious order. He had gazed on the hideous triumph of Death and Sin over prospects still more splendid than his own.”
It must have been about that very year, 1534, when, on the feast called “the Assumption of our Blessed Lady," Don Inigo de Quipuscoa, knight of the Virgin, and now known by the name of Ignatius Loyola, went in procession at Paris, from Notre Dame, up Mont Martre, and down into the Crypt of St. Denys, Apostle of France, with a little band, of whom was Francis Xavier, youngest of a noble family, also of Spain, and once a page of the Queen of Castile and Arragon, but now at the university of Paris : for he, also, was to be a saint canonised, according to the prophecies of a sister. There stood the chalice; there the consecrated host; which their priest, Peter Faber, drank of, and dealt out to them. And on that host they vowed to go with Ignatius to Palestine, or on any mission for the Vicar of Christ. About seven years after, the Duke of Gandia had buried his Eleanora, when his castle, yet hung with mourning, received an unexpected guest, that same Faber, on a mission from Ignatius in behalf of education : for, in 1540, the bull of Paul III. was reluctantly sealed, which instituted the order of Jesuits, the professors of which, beside the three common monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, make a fourth promise to God to go without delay whithersoever the Roman Pontiff orders. (Mosh. Cent. 16, c. iii., sec. 1, xi.) As M’Laine observes, on Mosheim, sec. i. iii., Ignatius had parried the opposition of Cardinal Guidiccioni, by changing a restricted obedience to the pope into an implicit one. But such an obedience belonged likewise to their own general. Was the service, then, of two absolute masters not an impossibility, which Christ had declared it! The election of the second general, rather more than sixteen years after, proved : for, Ignatius having died in. 1556, Laynez, after a struggle against Papal intrigue, was (in spite of an order from the Pope to choose their general for three years only) chosen for life. And the Pope's command at the same time, to chant the daily offices like other religions, was no more faithfully observed. Such was the first step in practice of that morality which was afterward maintained in theory by this society. Laynez, in 1565, was succeeded by Father Francis, who, aided by the counsels of Faber and Loyola, had about ten years earlier, after building on the estates of Gandia a Jesuit College, Library, and Church, at last shaken off with his fortune and dukedom all ties of family, friendship, and country. His character has been strikingly portrayed with those of his predecessors in the article already cited. But it will have been already seen that the medal above described, is full of the Symbolism of his life and of his order.
The date of his canonisation is probably known. That of Loyola and Xavier was in the sixty-seventh year after the former's death. Borgia's probably preceded that great year when, as appears from some of the diaries of the time, Le Pere Comptet, Jesuit missionary in the East, was over here taking tea, “really as good as any in China," with the nobility of England, while Father Petre was converting her court, and the King was throwing away her crown. But the purpose of this medalet? It is not pierced, nor has it a pierced process atop, like the amulet medals of Loreto, to be worn round the neck. It was, perhaps, a Symbol in almost the first sense of the Greek term; a secret sign by which the emissaries of the order might secure a welcome in the houses of the unknown to which they were directed. To be enabled, on being shown the general Symbol of the obverse, to specify or show the particular Symbol of the reverse might be the first introduction of the mysterious stranger to his host in times of jealousy; or they might be secretly exchanged in the common-place salute of shaking hands; or other methods might be devised in which these medalets (which are executed with considerable grace) might be made available as a passport. The same purpose, during the first persecutions, may have been served by the answering to the Articles of our creed, called anciently the Symbol of the faith, as a far holier and more spiritual passport to the confidence of those sharing (but not deservedly) in a common peril.
And now, then, let the reader, whose time in reaching the church has been whistled away, enter the church-yard. The fine yew-tree that first strikes us, whose boughs adorn the interior, at least at Christmas, if not at Easter and Whitsuntide, is itself said to be a Symbol. A good extract, in the Words to Church Builders, from Alan Carr, 1665, ingeniously and beautifully declares it the emblem of a Christian. He concludes, “ Thus, you see a man may read a lecture of divinity to you from a tree.” And how many another tree, had it been there, might not a fertile fancy have turned to the same account! Or, rather, what tree is there which it could not ? An elegant passage in one of the printed sermons of a celebrated living Baptist minister, formerly of the Church of England, Mr. Philpotts, characterises the fruitless professor by “the lofty and barren poplar.” Yet the poplar not only points to Heaven, but daily reaches more rapidly towards Heaven, and nearer to it than any of the trees. It is thus that the exquisite Symbolisms of poetry, though fit and stirring illustrations of the truth, are not, like the truth itself, immutable. Thus all Symbols need, too, the interpreter to make them useful : and thus it was not to Carr's purpose to mention that the yew is death to the animal that browzes on it, though, even so, it were something symbolic of the place it here occupies : nor that the brightest berries, goodly as they are to the eye, and sweet to the taste, bear poison within them in their seed; though, even so, it were no unmeet emblem of that tree in the midst of the garden, which seemed to the woman good to eat of, and lovely to the eyes, and yet
“ Brought death into the world, and all our woe." But let the yew be the emblem of a Christian still.
And were all the tenants of this burial-ground Christians? It may be said, all that were buried here with the office of the Church were