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weather be hot and the ground dry; if this be planted a little deeper, it may escape the violent heat of the sun, and in the event of a shower, the ground would become sufficiently moist to bring it up; whereas it sometimes happens that seed sown after a shower does not vegetate until after the season is too far advanced to bring the crop to perfection.

The work of drilling by those who have no machine, may be performed in various ways; in some cases a plough is used, in others a small hoe, or a dibble drawn along the edge of a board or line; it is of little consequence



the work is done, if it be well done. While I leave the gardener to make his own choice of tools, I would suggest that he be provided with two or three drilling machines; these, every handy man may make for himself; they should be in the form of a garden rake, with a stout heavy back, and five teeth, two inches broad, and tapered so as to enter the ground, and leave drills two inches deep. If one be made with the teeth eight inches apart, another twelve, and another fourteen, they will be useful in making drills for various seeds; and drills thus made serve instead of straining a line when transplanting Cabbage, Lettuce, Leek plants, &c. the line being stretched at one edge of the bed, and the drilling machine drawn straight by the line, makes five drills at once.

If they are straight, they may be kept so, by keeping one drill open for the outside tooth to work in, until the ground be all drilled.

Gardeners practice different methods of covering up seed, some do it with a hoe, others with a rake or harrow; some draw a portion of the earth to the side of the bed; and after sowing the seed, return it regularly over the bed ; in some particular cases a sieve is used, in others a roller. Rolling or treading in seed, is necessary in dry seasons, but it should never be done when the ground is wet.

There is nothing that protects young crops of Turnips, Cabbage, and other small plants, from the depredations of the fly, so well as rolling; for when the surface is rendered completely smooth, these insects are deprived of the harbour they would otherwise have under the clods and small lumps of earth. This method will be found more effectual than

soaking the seed in any preparation, or dusting the plants with any composition whatever ; but as the roller must only be used previous to, or at the time of sowing the seed, and not even then if the ground be wet, it is necessary that the gardener should have a hogshead always at hand in dry weather, containing infusions made of waste tobacco, lime, soot, cow dung, elder, burdock leaves, &c. A portion of these ingredients, or any other preparation that is pernicious or poisonous to insects, without injuring the plants, thrown into a hogshead kept filled up with water, if used moderately over beds of young plants in dry weather, would, in almost every case, insure a successful crop.

Saltpetre is pernicious to many species of insects; it is also an excellent manure, and may be used to great advantage when dissolved in the proportion of one pound to four gallons of water. This liquid applied to plants through the rose of a watering pot, will preserve health and vigour. Soap suds are equally beneficial, if used occasionally in the same

-say once a week. These remedies applied alternately, have been known to restore Melon and Cucumber vines from the ravages of the yellow fly, bugs, blight, &c., and to keep plants in a thriving condition.

As liquid, however, cannot be conveniently used on a large piece of land, it may be necessary, if insects are numerous, to sow tobacco dust mixed with road dust, soot, ashes, lime, or the dust of charcoal, in the proportion of half a bushel per acre, every morning, until the plants are free or secure from their attacks. Turnip seed will sometimes sprout in forty-eight hours. Cabbage seed ought to come up within a week after it is sown; but it sometimes happens that the whole is destroyed before a plant is seen above ground; the seedsman, in this case, is often blamed without


a cause.

A correspondent has communicated the result of an ex periment he has tried for preventing the attacks of flies or fleas, on turnips. He says, “ steep your seed in a pint of warm water for two hours, in which is infused one ounce of saltpetre; then dry the seed, and add currier's oil sufficient


to wet the whole; after which mix it with plaster of Paris, so as to separate and render it fit for sowing." Fish oil is known to be destructive to ants and various other small insects, but it is difficult to apply to plants.

In the summer season, Broccoli, Cabbage, Caulifiower, &c. are particularly subject to the ravages of grubs and caterpillars; to prevent this wholly, is perhaps impossible, but it is not difficult to check these troublesome visitors; this may be done, by searching for them on their first appearance, and destroying them. Early in the morning, grubs may be collected from the earth, within two or three inches of such plants they may have attacked the night previous.

The approach of caterpillars is discoverable on the leaves of Cabbages, many of which are reduced to a thin white skin, by the minute insects which emerge from the eggs placed on them; these leaves being gathered and thrown into the fire, a whole host of enemies may be destroyed at once ; whereas, if they are suffered to remain, they will increase so rapidly, that in a few days the plantation, however extensive, may become infested; now, when once these arrive at the butterfly or moth stage of existence, they become capable of perpetuating their destructive race to an almost unlimited extent. The same remarks apply to all other insects in a torpid state.

Worms, maggots, snails, or slugs, may be driven away, by sowing salt or lime in the spring, in the proportion of two to three bushels per acre, or hy watering the soil occasionally with salt and water, to the quantity of about two pounds of salt to four gallons of water; or the slug kind, may be easily entrapped on small beds of plants, by strewing slices of turnip on them late in the evening; the slugs or snails will readily croud on them, and may be gathered up early in the morning (before sunrise) and destroyed.

Moles may be annoyed and driven away, by obstructing the passage in their burrows with sticks smeared with tar. First insert a clean stick from the surface through the burrows as a borer; then dip others in tar, and pass

them through into the floor of the burrows, being careful not to



wipe off the tar in the operation. Tar is also an effectual remedy against smut in wheat. - After being heated in a kettle until it becomes thin, it may be stirred in amongst the grain until it becomes saturated. The wheat should afterwards be mixed with a sufficient quantity of wood ashes to dry and render it fit for sowing.

To prevent depredations from crows, steep corn in strong saltpetre brine, sow it over the land, or steep your seed corn, and if the crows once get a taste, they will forsake the field.

Perhaps the next important point to be attended to, is the most proper rotation of crops. Virgil, who was a philosopher as well as a poet, very justly observes, that “ REPOSE OF THE EARTH IS A CHANGE OF ITS PRODUCTIONS."

It is a curious fact, that a plant may be killed by the poison which it has itself secreted, as a viper may be stung to death by its own venom.

Hence it has been very generally noticed, that the soil in which some particular vegetables have grown, and into which they have discharged the excretions of their roots, is rendered noxious to the prosperity of plants of the same or allied species, though it be quite adapted to the growth and support of other distinct speeies of vegetables.

It is proved by experience, that fall Spinach is an excellent preparative for Beets, Carrots, Radishes, Salsify, and all other tap, as well as tuberous-rooted vegetables.

Çelery, or Potatoes, constitute a suitable preparative for Cabbage, Cauliflower, and all other plants of the Brassica tribe; also Artichokes, Asparagus, Lettuce and Onions, provided that such ground be well situated, which is a circumstance always to be duly considered in laying out a garden.

Lands that have long lain in pasture are for the first three or four years after being tilled, superior for Cabbage, Turnips, Potatoes, &c. and afterwards for culinary vegetables in general.

The following rules are subjoined for further government:

Fibrous-routed plants may be alternated with tap, or tuberous-rooted, and vice versa.

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Plants which produce luxuriant tops, so as to shade the land, to be succeeded by such as yield small tops, or narrow leaves.

Plants which during their growth require the operation of stirring the earth, to precede such as do not admit of such culture.

Ground which has been occupied by Artichokes, Asparagus, Rhubarb, Sea Kale, or such other crops as remain long on a given spot, should be subjected to a regular rotation of crops, for at least as long a period as it remained under such permanent crops. Hence in all gardens judiciously managed, the Strawberry bed is changed every three or four years, till it has gone the circuit of all the compartments, and Asparagus beds, &c. should be re. newed on the same principle, as often as they fail to produce luxuriantly. Indeed, no two crops should be allowed to ripen their seeds in succession in the same soil, if it can be avoided ; because, if it be not exhausted by such crops,

1 weeds will accumulate more than on beds frequently cultivated.

Manure should be applied to the most profitable and exhausting crops; and the succession of crops should be so arranged, that the ground be kept occupied by plants either valuable in themselves, or which may contribute to the increased value of those which are to follow; and the value of the labour required to mature vegetables, and prepare them for market, should be always taken into consideration,

Many kinds of seed, such as Asparagus, Capsicum, Celery, Fetticus, Leek, Lettuce, Onion, Parsnip, Parsley, Rhubarb, Salsify, Spinage, &c. will not vegetate freely in dry weather, unless the ground be watered or rolled; where there is no roller on the premises, the following may answer for small beds as a substitute: after the seed is sown and the ground well raked, take a board (or boards) the whole length of the bed, lay them flat on the ground, begin. ning at one edge of the bed, walk the whole length of the bed, this will press the soil on the seed, then shift the boaids

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