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to assist the memory of the gardener, but to show him, at one glance, the work necessary to be done in the various departments of gardening in every month of the year.

The Author having shown his primary object in adopting the catalogue form, presumes that his readers will not be disappointed; if they do not find there the names of all the species or varieties of plants they may wish to introduce into their gardens, the mode of culture of such being gene. rally alike. If a catalogue of this kind was essential, it would occupy more space than is, allotted for this book ; besides it would be impossible to keep pace with our enterprising horticulturists and florists, who are continually introducing new species into our country. When, also, it is considered that there are a number of indigenous plants at present unknown to us, it will appear evident that the most extensive catalogue would not be perfect in this respect for any length of time; the Author, therefore, thought it unnecessary to attempt any thing more than that which is essential to the attainment of a tolerable share of the products of the garden, by ordinary exertion. How far he has. succeeded in this resp. must be left for the reader to, decide.

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New York, January, 1840.

* The reader's attention is solicited to the elucidation îinmediately preceding the article Artichoke, relative to the. varied climates to which our directions are calculated to apply.

This exposition, particularly concerns such gardeners as cultivate land in a teniperature different to that in the vicinity of New York City.





Before I commence the Catalogue, it may be necessary for me to direct the reader's attention to some important matters, essential to the good management of a Kitchen garden.

The mode of laying out the ground is a matter of taste, and may be left to the gardener bimself; the form being a thing of trifling importance in the production of useful vegetables, or whether the ground be laid out in beds of four or ten feet wide, provided it be well worked, and the garden kept neat and free from weeds.

Those who have not a garden already formed, should, however, fix on a level spot where the soil is deep; but as we have not always a choice, I would recommevd the reader to that which is within the reach, and ought to be the object of every man, namely, to make the most of what he has.

To this end, he may form a border round the whole garden, from five to ten feet wide, according to the size of the piece of land; next to this border, a walk may be made from three to six feet wide; the centre part of the garden may be divided into squares, on the sides of which a border may be laid out three or four feet wide, in which the various kinds of herbs may be raised, and also Gooseberries, Currants, Raspberries, Strawberries, &c. The centre beds may be planted with all the various kinds of vegetables. The outside borders facing the East, South and West, will be useful for raising the earliest fruits and vegetables; and the North border, being shady and cool, will serve for raising, and pricking out such young plants, herbs and cuttings, as require 10:be screened from the intense heat of the suna

It may be necessary to state further, that though shady situations are useful for the purpose of raising Celery, Cabbage and other small plants, slips, &c. in the summer season, that all standard trees should be excluded from a Kitchen Garten; for the following reasons : –First, their rdots -spread so widely, and imbibe so much moisture from the ground, that little is left for the nourishment of any plant within the range of their influence ;-Secondly, when in full leaf, they shade a large space, and obstruct the free circulation of the air, so essential to the well-being of all plants ;Thirdly, the droppings from trees are particularly injurious to whatever vegetation they fall upon.

Previous to entering on the work of a garden, the gardener should lay down rules for his future government. In order to this, he should provide himself with a blank book. In this he should first lay out a plan of his garden, allotting a place for all the different kinds of vegetables he intends to cultivate. As he proceeds in the business of planting his grounds, if he were to keep an account of every thing he does relative to his garden, he would soon obtain some knowledge of the art. This the writer has done for the last twenty years, and he flatters himself that a publication of the results of his practice will be interesting and useful to his readers.

If gardeners were to make it a rule to record the dates and particulars of their transactions relative to tillage, planting, &c., they would always know when to expect their seeds to come up, and how to regulate their crops for succession; and, when it is considered that plants of the Brassica, or cabbage tribe, are apt to get infected at the roots, if too frequently planted in the same ground, and that a rotation of crops in general is beneficial, it will appear evident that a complete register of every thing relative to culture is essential to the well-being of a garden.

One important point to be attended to, is to have a supply of good old manure, and other composts, ready to incorporate with the earth ; also a portion of ashes, soot, tobacco dust, and lime, for the purpose of sowing over seed beds in dry


weather; this will tend in a great measure to destroy insects, which sometimes cut off the young plants as fast as they come up.

If the ground cannot be all manured every year as it should be, it is of primary importance that those vegetables be provided for which most need manure. A perusal of the catalogue will enable the young gardener to judge of the kinds of garden products which require most. Lest I should not have been explicit enough in this particular, I would inform him that good rich manure is indispensably necessary for the production of Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Lettuce, Spinage, Onions, Radishes, and Salads in general.

In the event of a scanty supply of manure, those kinds of vegetables which are raised in hills or drills, may be provided for by disposing of the manure immediately under the seeds. or plants.

The next important matter is to have the ground in suitable condition to receive the seed; I wish it to be understood that I am an advocate for early sowing and planting, even at the risk of losing a little seed, provided the ground be fit to receive it. A light sandy soil will be benefitted if worked when moist, as such treatment will have a tendency to make it more compact; on the contrary, if a clay soil be worked when too wet, it kneads like dough, and never fails to bind when drought follows; and this not only prevents the seed from rising, but injures the plants materially in their subsequent growth, by its becoming impervious to the moderate rains, dews, air, and influence of the sun, all of which are necessary to the promotion of vegetation.

Some gardeners, as well as some writers, recommend certain fixed days for sowing and planting particular kinds of seed; I think it necessary to guard my readers from being misled. The failure of crops may be often attributed to the observance of certain days for sowing. If some kinds of seed be sown when the ground is wet and cold, they will become chilled in the ground, and seldom vegetate. If they be sown in very dry weather, the germinative parts of the seed may become injured by the burning rays of the sun, or the young plants may get devoured by insects as fast as they come up. To obviate these difficulties, I have generally allowed a week or ten days for the sowing of seed, intending the medium as the proper time for the vicinity of New-York. With this clearly borne in mind, the reader who observes the difference in the degrees of heat and cold in the different parts of the country, will know how to apply these instructions accordingly.

Much depends on the manures used on particular kinds of soil. The great art of improving sandy and clayey soils, is to give the former such dressings of clay, cow dung, and other kinds of manure, as will have a tendency to bind and make them more compact, and consequently more retentive of moisture; and to the latter, coats of horse dung, ashes, sand, and such other composts as may tend to separate the particles and open the pores of the clay, so as to cause it to approach as nearly as possible to a loam.

The nearer the ground approaches to a sandy soil, the less retentive will it be of moisture; the more to a clayey, the longer will it retain it; and the finer the particles of which the clay is composed, the more tenacious will it be of water, and consequently be longer in drying, and the harder when dry; but earth of a consistence that will hold water the longest, without becoming hard when dry, is of all others, the best adapted for raising the generality of plants in the greatest perfection. This last described soil is called loam, and is a medium earth, between the extremes of clay and sand.

I have, in most cases, recommended drills to be made at certain depths for the different kinds of seed; and when I have stated that the drills should be two inches deep, it is intended that the seed should be covered only one inch, which it will be when planted in these drills, and covered, and so in proportion for any other depth required. This may serve as a guide to the young gardener, but circumstances alter cases ; if, for instance, some particular crops should fail, this would render it necessary, if the season be far advanced, to risk a further planting of seed, even if the

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