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that these things were to come to pass in the day's of the Messiah *. The last of these opinions, provided we understand the days of the second advent, is, I believe, the true one. As for the others, I cannot discover, that any one of them at all accords with the prophecy, excepting perhaps that which applies it to the invasion and destruction of Sennacherib. It is to be observed, that Joel does not merely foretell an invasion, but likewise the destruction of the invaders; and that too in a region which he very particularly specifies, the land of Palestine between the eastern sea and the western sea. Now the Chaldèans, who carried away the ten tribes, were successful in their enterprize, instead of experiencing a total overthrow. So likewise were the Babylonians, who destroyed the first temple. And so were the Romans, who destroyed the second. None of these perished in Palestine between the two seas: how is it possible then that they can be meant by the locust-army? Sennacherib undoubtedly did fail in his expedition, and his army was miraculously destroyed near Libnah † which is situated between the two seas : I am willing moreover to allow, that his overthrow may be considered as the type of the yet future overthrow of Antichrist in the same bismarine re

The reader will find all these authors cited by Chandler himself, except Mede and Abarbanel, to whom I have there. fore given references.

1 2 Kings xix. 8.
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gion, though not precisely in the same place : but I think it sufficiently evident, that the propliecy can only have received a sort of inchoate accomplishment in that event, even granting that it at all relates to it, which is by no means clearly certain. Joel bimyself fixes the accomplishment of the whole of his prophecy to a certaint era, which lie calls the gredt day of the Lord. All things contained in it are to come to pass either immediately before this great day, or in this great day. He beholtis the approach of the locust-army: and exclaims, Alas for the day! for the day of the Lord is at hand *. He sees them commence their wild career of havock, and occasion tremendous revolutions in the political heavens; and again exclaims, The day of the Lord is great and very terrible t. He briefly touches upon their destruction between the two seas, and predicts the subsequent happy state of Isruel both in temporals and spirituals; and eleclares, that the revolutions occasioned by them shall take place before the great and terrible day of the Lord come . Lastly, when calling together the multitudes of the nations to the valley of judgment, he announces that the day of the Lord in that valley is near; and foretells that it shall be marked, not only by another and most awful revolution, a revolution about to be experi

* Joel 1: 15.

† Joel ii. 11. Joel ii. 10, 20, 23, 25, 31, 32.


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enced in their turn by the causers of revolutions, but likewise by the roaring of the Lord out of Zion, by his dwelling in his holy mountain, by his suffering hostile strangers no more to pass through Jerusalem, and by his conferring upon his people every kind of blessing *. It is evident therefore, that the great day of the Lord must, as it is used by Joch, mean the period in which the locust-army should be destroyell, and the nations be cut off in the calley of concision : aud it is further evident from Joel's (as it were) anxious repetition of the phrase, that, since the locust-army and the army of the nations are both to be overthrown in the same great day, they must consist of the very same persons; in other words, that the last chapter of Joel contains only an enlarged description of the already mentioned overtlarow of the locust-army between the two seas. It moreover appears, that the great day of the Lord comprehends not only the destruction of the nation, but likewise the grant of much temporal and spiritual happiness to the Jews.

What period then are we to understand by this greut day Chandler most arbitrarily denies, that the prophet uses the term throughout his prediction in the same sense; a denial, to which, according to his scheme, he was necessarily led by St. Peter's application of a part of the prophecy to the day of Pentecost f. Accordingly he tells us, that the great day of the Lord, with which the locusts are connected, means nothing more than the time of calamity and distress which their ravages occasioned; and therefore a day, supposing the locusts to be natural ones, long since past : but that the great day of the Lord connected with the effusion of the Spirit, means the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. In both cases I believe him to be mistaken, at least so far mistaken as he confines the great duy in the second case to the sacking of Jerusalem. Let the expression mean what it may, it is only reasonable to suppose, that Joel, who four times uses it in the course of a very short prediction, uses it always in the same sense. And, if this be allowed, it will at least follow that the destruction of the locusts cannot have taken place during the existence of Judea as a kingdom. Maimonides is probably right in thinking, that the expression in the abstract denotes any day in rihich God sends a singular or extraordinary punishment * : but I am persuaded that it peculiarly means the two times of the first and second advent of the Messiah ; insomuch that I am almost inclined to believe, that, whenever it is applied to other events, it is only applied to them as being typical of those two great times. Malachi uses it to describe the first advent t: and Joel, if we interpret

* Joel iii. 14-21,

+ Act: ii, 16-21.


• Mor. Rev. L. ii. C. 29. cited by Chandler, + Mal. iv. 5.

him with strict accwacy, to describe the second allvent. The one advent however is a figure of the other; and they are both equally denominated the ģreat day of the Lord. Hence St. Peter applies to the first a prophecy, which properly and ultimately belongs to the secund*. And hence Bp. Horsley most truly observes, that." a far greater proportion "* of the prophecies. even of the Old Testament, “ than is generally imagined, relate to the second " advent of our Lord; that few comparatively re“

late to the first advent by itself, without refer

ence to the second; and that of those, that have “ been supposed to be accomplished in the first,

many had in that only an inchoate accomplish

* When this prophecy is applied to the first advent, the signs in the sun and moon will relate to the dissolutiou of the Jewish polity: but I certainly think, that it properly relates to the second advent and to the revolutions which are to precede and usher it in. Nothing however is more common in prophecy, than a sort of double allusion both to the first and second advent ; to the first as typical of the second. I believe Dr. Gray to be right in observing, that Joel, in this prediction, “ foretells the

general effusion of the Holy Spirit, which was to characterize " the Gospel dispensation; concluding with a striking descrip'ssa tion of the destruction of Jerusalem which followed soon

“ after, and pupished the Jews for their obstinate rejection "' of the sacred influence; speaking in terms that, as well as “ those of our Saviour which resembled them, had double " aspect, and referred to a primary and a final dispensation. • Comp. Joel ii. 30, 31, with Matt. xxiv. 29." Key to the Old Testament. p. 436.

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