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the four artificers, they are plainly allegorical characters: and this part of the prophecy merely denotes, that the four persecuting horns should be successively broken *.

Having thus sufficiently taught us, that we are to understand the rest of his prediction as referring to the restoration, not merely of the Jews from the 70 years captivity, but of both Israel and Juduh from the scattering both of the Assyrian horn and the Roman horn, Zechariah dext introduces the imagery, so common among the prophets, of measuring Jerusalem. An angel is then charged to tell him, that Jerusalem shall hereafter overflow with men and with cattle; and that the Lord will be a wall of fire around her, and for glory in the midst of her. By this glory I think we can only understand the divine Shechinah; which will be the glory of the Millennian church, as it heretofore was of the Levitical church *. At least the subsequent context seems almost to compel us to adopt such an opinion.

Israel was led into captivity previous to the rise of the Babylonian empire properly so called, and because the Persians were protectors, not persecutors, of Judah. Yet it is proper to observe that the Jews themselves have generally been of opinion, that these four horns symbolize the four great empires described in the seventh chapter of Daniel. See Dr. Blayney in loc. Mr. Lowth thinks the expression four may perhaps be indefinite, signifying their enemies in general among whom they were dispersed to the four winds of heaven. * Dr. Blayney translates the passage in the following man

" And Jehovah shewed me four plowmen. And I said, " What come these to do? And he replied, saying, These are “ the horns which have scattered Judah, so that no man lifted

up his head. And these are come, sharpening their coulter, for to use upon the horns of the nations, which lifted up a 6 horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.” The idea however, so far as the general import of the prophecy is conccrned, will be the same; for he supposes the allusion to be to plowmen striking the horns of mischievous orcn with the coulters of their ploughs.


subsequent * I cannot but think that Dr. Blayney lowers the sense of this passage in a very unnatural manner, by paraphrasing it to mean nothing more than “ I will reside in the midst of her “ for the purpose of promoting her glory and prosperity." The glory of the Lord, or the Lord the glory, is frequently used to denote, what I believe it to denote here, the glorious manifestation of the second person of the Trinity. See Psalm xxiv. 7. Isaiah xl. 5. lx. 1, 2. Malachi iv. 2. Ezek. jii. 12. Heb. i. 3. John i. 14. Rom. ix. 4. See Jamieson's Vindication of the doctrine of Scripture. Vol. i. p. 95. Philo Judèus styles the divine Logos the light of the world and the intellectual sun. See Bryant on the sentiments of Philo Judèus, p. 113, 203. Ses also Mr. Lowth on Zechar. xiv. 4. The same person is sometimes caller the Wisdom both in Seripture and by the Cabalists. Compare John i. 3 and Coloss. i. 16 with Prov. iii. 19, and see 1 Corin. j. 24. “ R. Joseph ben Gekatilia, and the other Ca" balists, are in effect for three Elohim, when they treat of the * three decap.ess or the three first Sephisurh. For they agree, " that the three first Sephiroth were never seen by any body, « and that there is no discord, no imperfection among them. * The note of this R. Joseph Gekatilia is very remarkable. - The Jews, saith he, have been under the severity of judgment, " and shall continue so till the coming of the Messias, who shall be k united with tho sccond Sephirah, which is Wisdom, according as w it is writter (Isaialı xi. 2.), And the Spirit of the Lord shall

upon him, the Spirit of Wisdom: and he shall cuuse the « Spirit of grace and clemency to descend from the first Sephirah, " who is called 910 on the Infinite. And he follows in that R. 6

“ Solomon


Here the Lord raises his voice aloud, and calls to the dispersed of Israel to gather themselves together from the north, and from the four winds of heaven : from Assyria, the dominions of the literal Babylon, through which the ten tribes were scattered; and from the West, the dominions of the mystical Babylon, through which in a peculiar manner the tæo tribes are dispersed. The Lord of hosts that speaks is the Messiah ; who, wliile he solemnly announces his second advent, avows that the Lord of hosts, God the Father, hath sent him, thus bearing an illustrious testimony to his own divinity*. After the glory, he declares himself to be sent unto the vations that spoiled his ancient people : and now he will shake his hand upon them, and cause them in their turn to become a spoil to those, whom they had made their servants. I have no doubt that the destruction of Antichrist, at the period of the restoration of Judah, is here predicted, in exact harmony with the writings of all the other prophets. After the glory, Christ is sent to take vengeance upon the collected nations of his enemies. This glory I conceive to be the same, as the glory which Zechariah had already mentioned ; for the context seems to require, that, what the one glory means, the other should likewise mean. Subsequent* then to this glory, that is to say, subsequent to the manifestation of God's glory in the midst of Jerusalem, Messiah will shake his hand over the vassal allies of Antichrist. I know not what inference we can draw from this remarkable passage, especially when viewed in connection with other parallel passages, except the following: that, after the Antichristian faction has succeeded in taking Jerusalem, and when its armies are on the full march to Megiddo with a view of attacking the dispirited remnant of the Jews and their protectors the maritime power, then will the glory of the Lord appear in the midst of his holy city; and, after it has thus appeared, Messiah will go forth in

" Solomon Jarchi, who saith upon Isaiah xi, that the Cochma, " which is the second Sephirah, shail be in the middle of the Mes- sias." Allix's Judgment of the Jewish Church. p. 170.

* Sce Dr. Eveleigh's very clear and satisfactory sermon on

this passage.


* Dr. Blayney gives quite a different sense to the word after, and explains the whole passage in a manner altogether unlike that which I have adopted. To send a person after any thing," says he, “ implies the requisition of his services for that particular

purpose. When therefore God is said to have sent the angel

after the glory, he must be understood to have charged him “ with the means of bringing it about.” The word after sometimes bears such a sense in English, and I will not presume so far to set my knowledge in competition with that of the late learned professor as to assert that ins never bears such a sense in Hebrew: but this I may safely say, that I do not recollect to have met with the word thus used elsewhere, nor do either Buxtorf or Parkhurst assign to it any such signification. I have adopted in short what appears to myself at least the most natural interpretation of the passage.


his strength to tread the wine-press of the mystic Edom. His enemies being thus subdued, the whole body of his ancient people shall acknowledge that the Lord of hosts hath sent him. They shall look upon him whom they have pierced, when he cometh, and dwelleth in the midst of them; and the daughter of Zion shall sing, and rejoice in the presence of her incarnate God. Meanwhile, after the destruction of the apostate army, many nations shall be joined unto the Lord of hosts. They shall acknowledge his divine mission, and walk in his courts. They shall be awfully silent before him, when he riseth up out of his holy habitation : and every mouth shall be stopped, when he inherits Judah his portion, and when he chooses Jerusalem again.


The general restoration of the Jews, and the conver

sion of the Gentiles.

Zechariah viii. 2. Thus saith the Lord of hosts; I was jealous for Zion with great jealousy, and I was jealous for her with great fury. · 3. Thus saith the Lord, I am returned unto Zion, and I dwell in the midst of Jerusalem : and Jerusalem shall be called, The city of the truth; and the


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