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whereas St. John's Gog and Magog come from the four quarters of the earth; and that the former attack the Jews only, whereas the latter attack the saints and church of God in generul-To this I reply, that Ezekiel no doubt represents Gog and Magog as issuing from the northern regions of Rosh, Mesech, and Tubal; but he likewise represents the invading army as composed, not only of these northern warriors, but of auxiliaries both froin the east, the south, and the west. Gog is in-. deed the chief of the confederacy ; but he musters under his banners the future inhabitants of Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya. He comes up as a cloud to cover the land, both he and all his bands froin their place out of the north-parts, and many people with him from the three other quarters of the globe. And, when he thus comes up in number like the sand of the sea, against whom is his attack directed? Ezekiel tells us, The Israelites now dwelling confidently in their own land; St. John tells us, The camp of the saints, and the beloved cits. Now where is the fancied discordance between these two accounts? If the Jews are to be restored to the country of their fathers, and to dwell there during the period of the Millennium, the beloved city can only be Jerusalem ; and, if the Jews are to be converted to Christianity, they are undoubtedly, though perhaps not exclusively, the saints that inhabit that beloved city. It appears then, that both Ezekiel and St. John equally foretell an invasion of Palestine by some powers which they equally term Gog and Magog; that this invasion is to take place after the Millenniam has commenced ; and that it is totally to fail of success, God raining down upon the conductors of it fire from heaven *. Such being the case, what authority have we for saying, that the one Gog and Magog is a type of the other; that the two invasions are two entirely different events; and that they take place, the one at the beginning and the other at the end of the Millene nium?

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If from this statement it be allowed, that the expedition of Gog and Magog, predicted by Ezekiel, takes place at the end of the Millennium, and is consequently the same as that predicted by St. John, it will be almost superfluous to shew that Ezekiel's Gog and Magog cannot be the Turks. Nevertheless, that my position may be the more fully established, I shall point out why it is utterly impossible that they should be the Turks, even if we place their expedition at the era of the restoa ration of the Jeu's, and immediately before the commencement of the Millennium-Mir. Mede himself supposes (what I think, consistently with the analogy of the apocalyptic phraseology, cannot be doubted t), that the exhaustion of the Eu

Compare Ezek. xxxviii. 22. with Rev. xx. 9. and see Abp. Newcome's Ezek. in loc. See my Dissert. on the 1260 years, Chap. xi. Sect. 2.



phrates under the sixth vial means the subversion of the Turkish empires and be inclines to believe (very justly, in my opinion), that the kings, for whom a way is prepared by this exhaustion, are the Jews, or (to speak more accurately) the Israelites, scattered through the East. Now, if such an interpretation be well-founded, it is obvious, that the Ottoman monarchy will be subverted previous even to the beginning of thie restoration of the Israelites. And it is equally obvious, that it will be subverted previous to the beginning of the restoration of the Jews : because it will be subverted before the confederacy of the Roman beast, the false prophét, and the kings of the earth, is gathered to Armageddon; which confederacy will be broken contemporaneously with the return of the Jews, under the seventh vial, and at the close of the 1260 years *. This being the case, it is manifest, that the Turks can have no concern, at least nationally, in an invasion of Palestine at the era either of the restoration of Juduh or of Israel (even allowing, that the expedition of Ezekiel's Gog and Magou then takes place); and for this plain reason: they will have been broken as a people a certain length of time before either the Jews or the Israelites even begin to return; and their subversion will be instrumental in preparing a way for the Israelites at least to return. But, according to Ezekiel, the expedition of Gog and Magog takes place after the restoration both of Isruel and Judah, and when they have long been dwelling confidently in their land: the restoration of Israel however does not take place till after the overthrow of the Antichristian confederacy; and the very gathering together of the Antichristian confederacy to the pluce of its destruction does not commence till after the overthrow of the Ottoman empire * : what possible connection then can Gog and Magog have with the Turks, whether we place their expedition before or after the Millennium? A commentator, who lives in the present day, might further observe, that we have little cause indeed to believe that Turkey will ever headt a grand expedition like that of Ezekiel's Gog and Magog : but mere probabilities or improbabilities, deduced from the passing aspect of affairs, and as yet hid in futurity, I ani unwilling to build upon; we have sufficiently decisive scriptural evidence without them.

Compare Dan. xi, 40, 43. xii, 1,6, 7-Rev. xii. 5. xvi. 17. xix. 19, 20.

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Here it may be asked, How are we to understand the reference which Ezekiel himself gives us

* Isaiah lxvi. 19, 20-Rev. xvi. 12-16.

+ It is not impossible, that some individual Turks and other Mohammedans may be in the armiy of Antichrist ; but this falls very far short of Ezekiel's description, which plainly represents Gog, whoever he may be, as the head of an expedition undertaken by various different nations.


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to others who have foretold the same war of Goga and. Magog, if we place it at the end rather than at the beginning of the Millennium? 6. Thus saith “ the Lord : Art not thou he, of whom I have “ spoken in old time by my servants the prophets “ of Israel, which prophesied in those days many

years, that I would bring thee against them?"Mr. Mede is of opinion, that Ezekiel alludes in this passage to Isaiah xxvii. 1. with the two last verses of the foregoing chapter; to Jeremiah xxx. 23, 24; to Joel iii. 1. and the following verses ; and to Micah v. 5, 6, 9, 15. In all these references I certainly think him mistaken, because I believe that the war of Gog and Magog will take place at the close of the Millennium, whereas the events predicted in the passages to which he refers will come to pass immediately before the commencement of the Millennium. Isaiah xxvü. relates to the subversion of the Egyptian government, at the period of the restoration of Judah, and during the time of unexampled trouble mentioned by Daniel *. Jeremiah xxx. 23, 24. relates to the overthrow of the Antichristian confederacy at the same era, that is to say, at the end of the 1260 years : and, after it is thus overthrown, the prophet foretells, in perfect accordance with Isaialı t, the restoration of Ephraim or the kingdom of the

• Compare Isaiah xi. 10--16. xvii. xviii. xix, xxvi. 19, 20, 21. xxvii. 1, 6, 7, 12, 13. Dan. xi. 42, 43. xii, 1, 2, 7. + Isaiah lxvi. 7-24.


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