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ANIMALAYA, Asia, a town of Hindos tan, in Coimbetoor, with a fort, seated on the Alima, 21 m s Coimbetoor. It has a trade in drugs, honey, and wax, collected in the hills to the s; and in its district are extensive woods and many elephants.

ANJAN, a town and fort of Asia, in Hindostan, province Cutch, capital of a small district, ceded to the British in 1816. It is situated on the side of a hill, 9 m from the gulf of Cutch, and 40 SE Bhooj. The town is 2 m in circuit, and encompassed by gardens and cultivated fields: Lg. 70.11 E, Lt. 23.3 N.

ANJENJA, a town of Asia, in Hindostan, Travancore, at the mouth of a river, 46 m WNW Travancore. It has a manufacture of excellent coir cables, and a trade in pepper and calicoes: Lg. 76.53 E, Lt. 8.37 N.

ANJIER, a town and fort of Asia, on the w coast of Java, on a bay, in the strait of Sunda, 18 m w Bantam.

ANJOU, an old province of France, lying to the E of that of Bretagne. It now forms the department Mayenne-et-Loire.

ANKоBER, a town of Africa, the capital of province Efat, 250 m s by E Antalo. The province of Efat, with that of Shoa on the w, are deemed very fertile and populous. The two provinces are now under one ruler, who resides at Ankober, and may be considered as an independent sovereign, who keeps up a friendly intercourse both with Gondar and Ontalo, and occasionally sends valuable presents of horses. Ankober is a place of traffic; and caravans pass lience to the N coast of Adel: Lg. 42.27 E, Lt. 9.47 N. ANNA; see ANAH.

ANNABERG, a town of Saxony, noted for silver mines and the manufacture of lace, 17 m s Chemnitz.

ANNAGH, an island on the w coast of Ireland, 5 m in circuit, between the isle of Achil and the coast of Mayo: Lg. 39 w, Lt. 53.58 N.


ANAMABOE, a town of Africa, on the Gold-coast, which, during the prevalence of the home trade, was very flourishing. It was destroyed in 1808 by the Ashantees, who made an ineffectual attempt to take the British fort of Cape Coast Castle.MEREDITH, Gold Coast of Africa.

ANNAMOOKA, or ROTTERDAM, Australasia, one of the Friendly islands, in the Pacific ocean, discovered by Tasman in 1643, and visited by Cook in 1774 and 1777. In many place are plantations of yams and plantains, enclosed with neat fences of reed; and the bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees are interspersed without order, but chiefly near the habitations. The other parts of the island, especially towards the sea, are co

vered with trees and bushes: it lies in about 174.31 E Lg. and 20.15 s Lt.

ANNAN, a borough of Scotland, county Dumfries, on the Annan, 3 m from its mouth, which forms a good harbour for vessels of 250 tons. It is 14 m ESE Dumfries, and 56 s Edinburgh. Here was a fine castle, built by one of the Bruces, the ruins of which still remain. Much corn is exported; and there is a manufacture for carding and spinning; P. 4492.

ANNANDALE, a district of Scotland, county Dumfries, situated on both banks of the river Annan.

ANNAPOLIS, North America, in the United States, capital of state Maryland. It is situate on the Severn; near its mouth is Chesapeak bay, 22 m s by E Baltimore, and 37 E by N Washington. The state house stands in the centre of the city, from which point the streets diverge in every direction. Here also is St. John's college, which with Washington college, at Chester, constitute one university, named the University of Maryland; P. 2623 : Lg. 76.40 w, Lt. 39.2 N.


ANNAPOLIS, a royal seaport of North America, in Nova Scotia, on the E side of the bay of Fundy, protected by a fort. has one of the finest harbours in the world, but the entrance is through a difficult strait, called the Gut of Annapolis. The town and fort are on the s side of the harbour, at the mouth of a river of its name, 86 m w by N Halifax: Lg. 65.32 w, Lt. 44 49 N.

ANNECY, a town of Switzerland, canton Geneva, at the E end of lake Annecy. It lately belonged to Savoy, and was the see of a bishop, who also assumed the title of bishop and prince of Geneva. It is 30 m s Geneva; P. 3440.

ANNOBON, or ANNOBOA, an island of Africa, in the gulf of Guinea, so called from having been discovered by the Portuguese on New-year's-day, 1526. It is 24 m in circuit, rising in two high hills; produces all the tropical fruits, with excellent cotton, and is well stocked with cattle and poultry: Lg. 5.30 E, Lt. 1.32 s.

ANNONAY, a town of France, department Ardeche, 12 m sw Vienne. It has manufactures of very fine paper.

ANOPSHEHER, a town of Asia, HindosIt tan, Delhi, with a large brick fort. stands on the right bank of the Ganges, 65 m ESE Delhi, and is surrounded by a strong mud wall.

ANSBACH, or ОNOBZBACH, Bavaria, a considerable district in Franconia, which, by a distribution made in 1810, is mostly included in the province of Rezat and the Upper Danube. It was added to Bavaria by Bonaparte in 1806, and confirmed to

that kingdom by recent treaties, an indem nity being given elsewhere to Prussia.

ANSBACH, Bavaria, the capital of the province of Rezat, on the Rezat, 23 m sw Nürnberg. It has four suburbs and about 100 houses. The objects worthy of notice are, the prince's castle and gardens; the church of St. John, with the tombs of the princes; a well endowed orphan-house for 60 children, and an hospital; the prince's library and cabinet of medals, begun to be collected by the margrave William Frederic in 1720; and the academy. The principal manufactures are, woollen and cotton cloths, earthenware, white lead, and playing cards; P. about 11,000: Lg. 10.33 E, Lt. 48.12 N. ANSTRUTHER, EAST and WEST, 2 boroughs of Scotland, on the SE coast of the county of Fifeshire, 9 m SSE St. Andrew. They adjoin each other; and East Anstruther has a quay, and some trade in shipbuilding; P. of the first 1007, that of the second 430.


ANTALO, or ANTALOU, a town of Africa, in Abyssinia, the capital of province Enderta, and of all Tigre; seated on the side of a hill, in a fertile district, 170 m ENE Gondar. The ras of the empire here appears to exercise supreme authority, independent of the neguz or emperor, who resides at Gondar: Lg. 39.52 E, Lt. 13.22 x.

ANTALIA, or ADALIA; see SATALIA. ANTEQUERA, a town of Spain, province Granada, divided into Upper and Lower. The Upper is seated on a hill, and has a castle; the Lower stands in a plain, and is watered by many brooks. In and around it are numerous ancient edifices in ruins; and in the vicinity are large quantities of natural salt, quarries of excellent stone, and a spring famous for the cure of the gravel. The neighbouring hills produce the wine called Mountain or Malaga.-PLAYFAIR'S Geo. It is 26 m Nw Malaga: Lg. 4.30 w, Lt. 37.1 N.

ANTEQUERA, in Mexico; see GUAXACA. ANTIBES, a town of France, department Var, with a strong castle, and a harbour for small vessels. It is seated on the Medi

terranean, 11 m ssw Nice. The vicinity produces excellent fruit; and the anchovies caught in its vicinity are greatly esteemed: Lg. 7.11 E, Lt. 43.35 N.

ANTICOSTI, an island of North America, at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 120 m by 30. It is rocky, woody, and has no harbour; but possesses an excellent cod fishery.

ANTIGUA, one of the Caribbee islands, North America, in the West Indies, 16 m long by 12, and 60 E by s of St. Christopher. It has several good ports, and in that called English harbour, on the SE

side, are a royal naval yard and arsenal. It has no fresh water, excepting rain water, gathered in cisterns. The chief products are sugar, rum, cotton, wool, and coffee. It was taken by the French in 1782, but restored in 1783. The capital is St. John; P. in 1817, white 2102; colour 1747; black 31,890.

ANTILLES, the name which the French give to the Caribbee islands.

ANTIOCH, or ANTAKIA, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Syria, pachalic Aleppo, on the left bank of the Orontes, 12 m from its mouth in the Mediterranean. It was formerly the capital of Syria, with a P. of 800,000; now very inconsiderable. The ancient Roman and Greek walls, with square towers at every hundred yards, still mark its former extent. Its situation is beautiful, and it is noted as the place where the dis

ciples of Christ were first called Christians: Lg. 36.8 E, Lt. 36.11 N.

ANTIOCHETTA, a town of Asia, in Turkey, on the coast of Caramania, and a It is seated on the Mediterbishop's see. ranean, 88 m s Konieh: Lg. 32.20 E, Lt. 36.5 N.

ANTIOQUIA, a province of South America, in Colombia, bounded on the N by Darien and Carthagena, E by Bogota, s by Popayan, and w by Choco. It is famous for mines of gold and silver, and consists almost entirely of mountainous land, having part of the central ridge of the Andes within its limits.

ANTIOQUIA, a town of South America, and the capital of the province of the same name; it is also called St. Fe-de-Antioquia : it stands on the left bank of the Cauca, 170 m NNW Bogota: Lg. 75.17 w, Lt. 6.46 N.

ANTIPAROS, the ancient Oleiros, an island of the Archipelago, 2 m w of Paros. It is very rocky, 16 m in circuit; yet, in some parts, is well cultivated, and produces as much barley as supports a small village. It has a grotto, about 80 yards high and 100 broad, which is descended into by ropes, from the different declivities; it contains a vast variety of figures, of a white transparent crystalline substance, resembling vegetables, marble pillars, and a superb marble Pyramid. Lg. 25.13 E, Lt. 37.2 N. ANTIPOVSKAIA-STANITZA, Asia, in Russia, government Saratof, a cosaque village on the Volga.

ANTISANA, one of the loftiest volcanos of the Andes, in the vicinity of Quito. On it, at the height of 3800 feet above the plain of Quito, and 13,500 above the sea, is a hamlet of the same name, which is deemed the highest inhabited spot on the earth. Humboldt, in 1802, ascertained the height of a crater on this mountain, rising in the

midst of permanent snow, to be 19,150 feet above the level of the sea.

ANTON-GIL, a large bay of Africa, in the Indian ocean, on the E coast of Madagascar, much frequented by Europeans for commercial purposes.

ANTRIM, a county of Ireland, 46 mm long by 27; bounded on the N and E by the sea, s by Down, and w by Londonderry. It is divided into 77 parishes, and returns 2 county M.P.'s. This county is much intersected with bogs and morasses, yet it enjoys good air. It has a great natural curiosity on the N coast, called the Giants' Causeway, which projects 600 feet into the sea. The linen manufacture is carried on very extensively. The principal rivers are the Ban, Lagan, and Bush. The assizes are held at Carrickfergus: P. 314,608.

ANTRIM, a borough of the county of Antrim; stands on a rivulet, which a little below the town enters the NE end of Lough Neagh, 16 m w Carrickfergus, 107 Dublin. It is now much decayed, but still carries on some linen manufacture; P. 2690.

ANTWERP, a fortified city of Belgium, lately a bishop's see, 26 m N Brussels, and 80 s Amsterdam: it stands on the Scheldt, which is here 400 yards wide, and large vessels may come up to the quay, and into a large basin. On the opposite side is the strong Tête-de-Flandre, docks for building large vessels, a canal that communicates with Brussels, and several inferior ones. In 1568, Antwerp was the chief mart of Flemish commerce, and then contained 200,000 inhabitants; but the civil wars, caused by the tyranny of Philip II, drove the trade to Amsterdam. The cathedral is a fine structure, and contains an assemblage of paintings by the greatest masters of the Flemish school, among which is the celebrated descent from the cross, by Rubens: and there are many fine paintings in the other churches. The exchange, once so thronged, and from which sir Thomas Gresham took the model of that for London, now serves for the accommodation of an academy for painting, sculpture, architecture, and the mathematics. The townhouse, in the great market-place, is a noble structure. The citadel is very strong, but was besieged successfully by the French in 1833. It was taken by the prince of Parma in 1585, after a long and memorable siege: Lg. 4.22 E, Lt. 51.14 N.

ANVILLE, a town of North America, United States, state Pennsylvania, on the canal between the Susquehana and the Schuylkil, 65 m wNw Philadelphia.

ANZERMA, a town of South America, Colombia, in Popayen, 140 m NNE Popayen; it has mines of gold.

ANZIKO, a kingdom of Africa, in Guinea,

lying E of Gabon, and N of Congou, but is little known. The king is styled the Micoco, whence the country is sometimes so called: the capital is Monsol.

AOSTA, or AOUSTA, a city of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, and a bishop's see; stands at the foot of the Pennine and Greek Alps, on the Doria, 45 m NNW Turin: it contains several monuments of the Romans.


APAMEA, a town of Asia, Turkey, Syria, on the Osi, 35 m s Antioch.


APANORMIA, a town of Turkey, island of Santorin, mouth of the Archipelago, on the NW coast, 7m NNW Scauro: Lg. 25.24 E, Lt. 36.37 N.

APEE, one of the New Hebrides in the Pacific ocean: Lg. 168.27 E, Lt. 16.42 s.

APENNINES, a chain of mountains, and gins near Oneglia, on the gulf of Genova, in a branch of the Alps, in Europe, which bethe Mediterranean, passes round that gulf, at no great distance from the sea, then proceeds E to the centre of Italy, and afterward divides that country in a mediate SE direction to the extremities of the kingdom of Naples. Some of them are above 5000 feet high; but on the border of Parma they turn to the SE, and afterward, in general, they may rather be regarded as hills than as mountains. Hence proceed all the rivers which water Italy.

APENRADE, a seaport of Denmark, in Sleswick, with a citadel; seated at the head of a gulf of the Little Belt, 27 m NNW Sleswick; it has a considerable trade: Lg. 9.26 E, Lt. 55.3 N.

APHRIM, AFIOM, or AFRUIN-KARAHISSAR, Asia, Turkey, Asia Minor, the Black City of Opium, 162 m E Smyrna. It is a large and populous place, the principal town of a district of Natolia; the chief trade is in opium.

APOLONIA, a kingdom of Africa, stretching along the Gold coast, w of the Ancobra, to an extent of 100 miles. The country is flat, and produces abundance of rice, sugar, and palm trees: the exports are gold, ivory, palm oil, rice, and pepper.

APPENZEL, a canton in the NE part of Switzerland, completely environed by the canton of St. Gall. It is a mass of hills and mountains, generally cold, and subject to sudden changes; P. 5510.

APPENZEL, Switzerland, the capital of a canton of the same name. It is large and populous, and situated on the river Setter, 40 m E Zurich: Lg. 9.31 E, Lt. 47.21 N.

APPINGADAM, or DAM, a town of Holland, province Groningen, on the Damster,

3 m from its entrance into the estuary of the Ems, and 15 m NE by E Groningen.

APPLEBY, a borough of England, county Westmoreland, with a market on Saturday, 20 m NE Kendal, and 270 NNW London. It was twice destroyed by the Scots, and now consists of only one broad street of mean houses. At the s part is the castle, and at the N end is the church; it is governed by a mayor, and almost encircled by the Eden; P. 851. Polling place.

APPLEDORE, 2 in England-1st, A town in the county of Kent; P. 568-2nd, A village in the county of Devon, at the mouth of the Torridge, Barnstable Bay, 3 m N by E Biddeford: known as a bathing-place.

APRICENA, a town of Italy, Naples, province Capitanata; P. 3650.

APT, a town of France, department Bouches-du-Rhone, 30 m ESE Avignon: its chief trade is in prunes, coarse serges, and wax chandlery; it contains many fine Roman antiquities.

AQUAMBOE, Africa, a kingdom of Guinea, which occupies about 20 m along the coast, on the E side of the Volta, and extends above 100 m inland. It is one of the greatest monarchies in Guinea; and is divided into a number of petty royal ties, but all of them subject to the king of Aquamboe, who exercises an unlimited authority over them. The natives are haughty, turbulent, and warlike; and their power is formidable to the neighbouring kingdoms.

AQUASSIM, Africa, a kingdom in the interior of the Gold-coast, behind Acra, and w of the Fantee territory,

AQUI, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, in Montserrat, with a citadel, on the Bormida, 15 m s Alexandria; it has baths of mineral water.

AQUILA, Italy, a city of Naples, the capital of Abruzzo Ultra, and a bishop's see, with a castle; it stands on a hill, near the Pescara, 93 m N Naples. An earthquake destroyed, in 1700, 2400 persons.

AQUILEIA, a town of Italy, in Friuli, formerly a large city, but demolished by the Huns in 452. Its ancient patriarch was next in power to the pope; but in the 15th century his power was much reduced. In 1750 the patriarchate was entirely abolished, and the archbishoprics of Gorz and Udine established in its stead; it is now a small place near the gulf of Venice, 20 m SSE Friuli. Here Richard Coeur-de-Lion was shipwrecked, on his return from the Holy-Land, in 1191.

AQUINO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Lavoro, near the Garigliano, 20 m

s by E Sora; ruined by the emperor Con rade. It is the birth-place of Juvenal.

ARABIA, a country of Asia, extending 1430 m in length and 1200 in breadth; bounded on the w by the Red-sea and the isthmus of Suez, NE by the Euphrates, which divides it from Diarbeck, E by the gulfs of Persia and Ormus, and s by the Indian ocean. It is divided into three parts, Arabia Petrea, Deserta, and Felix, so named by Europeans from their supposed qualities. Arabia-Petrea, much the along the E coast of the Red-sea. The N smallest of the three, lies to the s of Syria, sandy, and barren; but some parts yield part is mountainous, and in general stony, sufficient nourishment for cattle, whose milk and the flesh of camels are the chief food of its few inhabitants. Arabia-Deserta lies s of Syria, and E of Arabia-Petrea; it is mostly desert, being intersected by barren mountains. Many of the plains are sands and heaths; but there are some plains and valleys that feed great flocks of sheep and goats; there are also great numbers of ostriches, and a fine breed of camels in several places. Mecca is the capital. Arabia Felix, so called on account of its fertility with regard to the rest, lies to the s of Arabia-Deserta, between the Red-sea, the Indian ocean, and the Persian-gulf. It is by far the most extensive part, and though the centre is occupied by very dry deserts, there are many rich provinces en the coasts, producing a variety of fruit, honey, wax, cinnamon, cassia, manna, spikenard, frankincense, myrrh, and coffee, of which latter prodigious quantities are exported. Sana is deemed the chief city.

The Arabs are of middle stature and brown complexion; and have always a grave and melancholy air, which, aided by the im posing aspect of their beards, gives a dignity in their manner that is very striking. They live in tribes amicably, consider hospitality as a religious duty, and always act with kindness to their slaves and inferiors. Selfishness, the vice of civilized nations, seldom degrades an Arab; and drunkenness and gaming are unknown among them. They derive their subsistence from their flocks, from hunting, and from what they acquire by plunder. They acknowledge no sovereign but the emir, or leading sheik of their tribe, who is their natural prince, and to whom they pay obedience. They have also sheiks, or chiefs, of an advanced age, whom they often consult, and whose advice they follow. The dress of the Arabs consists of a white robe, bound round with a broad leathern girdle, fastened by a strong buckle or large clasp. Their drawers are made of linen, and descend to the lower part of the head; and sometimes they wear slippers, leg. They wear a kind of red cap on the after the manner of the Turks, hut are ge

nerally in half boots, that they may be ready to get on horseback. Winter and summer they wear a large cloak, striped black and white, made of the hair of goats or some other animal. Their emirs dress in

the same manner, except that their cloaks are for the most part all black. The Arabs in the deserts live in tents, and remove from place to place, partly for the sake of pasture, and partly to lie in wait for the caravans, which they often rob, as they travel over from Bassora to Aleppo, and from Cairo to Mecca. The famous Mohamed was a native of this country; and his first followers, called Saracens, soon after his death, conquered a great part of Asia, Africa, and Europe, establishing their religion wherever they came.

ARACAN, a fertile country of Asia, Burman empire, extending along the E side of the bay of Bengal, and bounded on the N by Chittagong, E by Burmah, and s by Pegu. The rainy season continues from April to October; and the rest of the year is called summer. The interior of the country is little known; but it seems to be a continuation of the Chittagong plain on the seacoast, bounded on the E by a high range of mountains, which, toward the s, approaches to within 10 m of the sea, and its length may be 500 m. It is welltimbered, though not the best kind for ship building, and there are plenty of elephants and buffaloes, but few horses. The principal exports are bullion, salt, elephant teeth, wax, and rice; but its trade is inconsiderable. Aracan was long an independent nation, governed by a king, but subdued by the Burmans in 1783, and is now a province of that empire.

ARACAN, Asia, the capital of Aracan, with an extensive fort, 230 m wswAva. The river Aracan runs through the city, and waters the streets by means of several arms or canals, into which it is divided. It was taken by the Burmans in 1783: Lg. 93.5 E,

Lt. 20.38 N.

ARAD, a town of Austria, Hungary, with a fortress, on the river Marosh, 32 m x by E Temeswar.

ARAGON, a province of Spain, bounded on the N by the Pyrenees, w by Navarre and the two Castiles, s by Valencia, and E by Valencia, and Cataluna. The country, though abounding in rivers, is in want of good water. It is fertile in wine, corn, flax, and fruit, near the rivers, but in other places dry and sandy; it also produces saffron, and there are many mines of salt. Saragossa is the capital.

ARAICHE, Africa, a seaport of the kingdom of Fez, with a castle, and several batteries on the banks of the river; it is 40 m ssw Tangier. The larger vessels of the

emperor generally winter in a cove of the river, where there are magazines of naval stores: Lg. 6.2 w, Lt. 35.11 N.

ARANDA, a town of Spain, province Old Castile, on the Douro, 42 m s Burgos.

ARANJUEZ, a town of Spain, province New Castile, with broad streets, intersecting each other at right angles. The great square is surrounded by porticos, and has a fountain that supplies the town with water. Here are three churches, a royal palace with beautiful gardens, and a theatre for the bull-fights. It is seated on the Tejo, 30 m s by E Madrid.-Twiss's Tour.

ARARAT, a stupendous detached mountain of Asia, in Persian Armenia, on the confines of Turkey. It has two peaks, which are generally surrounded by clouds, and their summits always covered with snow. This immensity of earth, rock, and snow, rises from a spacious plain, and its height is estimated at 9500 feet. Various attempts have been made, in different ages, to ascend its tremendous pyramids; but their form, snows, and glaciers, are insurmountable obstacles. The Armenians venerate this mountain, from a belief of its being that on which Noah's ark rested.

ARAU, a town of Switzerland, capital of Aar, over which it has two bridges, 27 m w the canton of Argau. It is seated on the Zurich: and it has manufactures of cotton, printed linen, velvet trimmings, and


ARAVACOUCHY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Coimbetoor, with a neat fort, 24 m E Daramporam, and a good bazaar.

ARAUCANIANS, or ARAUCANOS, South America, a fierce and courageous tribe of Indians in Chili, whom the Spaniards have never been able to subdue. They inhabit the country situated between the Andes and the rivers Bobbio and Valdivia.

Though the sworn enemies of the Spaniards, they nevertheless carry on some trade with them. They are a robust, handsome race, and remarkable for their bravery. It is said there is amongst them a tribe of European whites. CALDCLEUGH, Travels in South America.

ARAUCO, a fortress and town of South America, in Chili, situated in a fine valley, on the river Arauco, 40 m s by w Conception.

ARBERG, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Bern, on an island formed by the Aar, 10 m xw Bern.

ARBIL, OF ERBILLE, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Kurdistan. It is seated in an extensive plain, 80 m E Mosul; it is the ancient Arbela, near which Alexander defeated Darius. Here are the remains of an

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