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ancient castle, in the vicinity are naphtha pits.

ARBOIS, a town of France, department Jura, 22 m sw Besançon; famous for its wines; the birth-place of the celebrated general Pichegru.

ARBOGA, a town of Sweden, in Westmania, on the Ulvison; a canal of communication with the lakes Hielmar and Maelar, 25 m ENE Orebro.

ARBON, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Thurgau, with a castle; it is seated on the lake of Constance, 12 m SE Constance.


ARBURG, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Arau, with a citadel on a rock, on the Aar, 8 m sw Arau.

ARCADIA, the ancient CYPARISSA, a seaport of the kingdom of Greece, in Morea. It stands at the foot of a rocky

hill, on which is a castle, and on the s part of a gulf of its name, 22 m N Navarino: Lg. 21.34 E, Lt. 37.22 N.

ARCHANGEL, or ARKHANGEL, Russia, an extensive government, lying between Lg. 37.40 and 53.50 E, and Lt. 61.00 to 71.00 N; bounded N by the White sea, E by the government of Tobolsk, s by the government of Vologa and Olonetz, and w by Sweden. Its length is about 2650 m by 539. Its chief rivers are the N. Dwina, Mezen, Petchora, Onega, Oudor, Vaga, Pinega, Outcha, Elma, and Pijma, most of them falling into the Frozen ocean. islands are Vardelouss, Calgouief, Vaigatch, Matveif, Dolgoï, and Novaia-Zemlia, improperly called Nova-Zembla. This government is divided into seven districts, each named after its chief town; viz. Archangel, Chenkoursk, Mezen, Cola, Onega, Pinega, and Kholmagory. The church is governed by an archbishop; P. 170,300.


ARCHANGEL, a city of Russia, capital of the government of Archangel; seated on the Dwina, 4 m from the White sea, and 400 m NE Petersburg; formerly it was the only seaport of Russia, and was first resorted to by the British in 1553. The trade is yet considerable, though greatly diminished since the building of Petersburg. In 1793 a fire destroyed great part of the city and suburbs: but they have been rebuilt with neatness: Lg. 40.47.30 E, Lt. 64.31.40 N.



ARCHIDONA, a town of South America, Quito, chief of the district of Quixas, 130 m ESE Quito. It was almost ruined in 1744, by an eruption of Cotopaxi, and is now a small place.

GÆUM, a part of the Mediterranean sea, having Romania on the N, Natolia on the E, the isle of Candia on the s, Macedonia It is partly and kingdom of Greece on the w. in Europe, and partly in Asia, containing the islands of Rhodes, Negropont, Lemnos, Tenedos, Sciros, Metelin, Scio, Samos, Patmos, Paros, Antiparos, Cerigo, Santorini, Andros, Tina, Naxia, Milo, Delos, Hydra, Argentiera, and many others.

ARCHIPELAGO, NORTHERN, a part of the Pacific ocean, having the peninsula of Kamschatka on the w, and Oonalaska on the E. It includes a number of islands, among which are four principal groups. The first, called Sasignan, contains 5 islands; the second, called Khoa, includes 8; and both these groups together are styled the Aleutian Islands. The third group, called the Andreanoffski Ostrova, comprises 16 islands; and the fourth is the Lissie Ostrova, or the Fox Islands, 16 in number. chiefly for the skins of animals found there, They all belong to Russia, and are valuable particularly the sea-otter. See Fox ISLANDS


ARCIS, a town of France, department Aube, on the river Aube, 13 m N by E Troyes.

ARCO, a town and castle of Austria, in Tyrol, taken by the French in 1703, and abandoned soon after: 15 m wsw Trent.

ARCOS, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, with a castle, seated on a craggy rock, 38 m SSE Seville.

nominal capital of the Carnatic, on the s ARCOT, a city of Asia, Hindostan, the bank of the Palar, 73 m w by s Madras, and 217 E by N Seringapatam. The citadel is nabob often resides at Madras. In the vilarge, and a place of some strength; but the cinity are celebrated temples, visited by numerous pilgrims. It has a manufacture of coarse cotton cloth: Lg. 79.29 E, Lt. 12.52 N.

ARCUEIL, a village of France, on the Bievre, 3 m s Paris; noted for a magnificent aqueduct built by queen Mary de Medicis, to convey water to that city.

ARDAGH, a town of Ireland, county Longford, 7 m SE Longford; united to Kilmore, gives name to a bishopric. There is no cathedral or episcopal place of residence.

ARDEBIL, a town of Asia, Persia, in Aderbijan, 100 m E by N Tabriz; the residence and burial-place of many kings; particularly of sheik Seti, the author of the Persian sect. Pilgrims resort to this place from all parts of Persia; and caravans are frequently passing to and from Constantinople and Smyrna.

ARDECHE, a department of France, 70 m ARCHIPELAGO, anciently called MARE long by 35, including the old province of

Vivarez. It is bounded on the E by the Rhone, and other sides by the departments of Loire, Haute-Loire, Lozere, and Gard. It takes its name from a river, which flows into the Rhone, at the SE extremity of the department. Privas is the capital.

ARDEE, or ATHERDEE, a borough of Ireland, county Louth, on the Dee, 15 m xw Drogheda. Here is a large mount, apparently artificial; some suppose it to have been a burial-place of the Irish kings, or a place where the people assembled to deliberate on public affairs.


ARDENNES, a department of France, 65 m long by 30, containing the N part of the old province of Champaigne. is bounded by Belgium, and the departments of Meuse, Marne, and Aisne. It is named from a famous forest, extending along the Meuse, or Maas, and the Aisne crosses it toward the s: area about 1,029,000 square acres. Mezieres is the capital, but the principal town is Sedan; P. 266,000.

ARDFERT, a borough of Ireland, county Kerry; seated on a river that flows to Tralee bay, 7 m Nw Tralee. It is a bishop's see united with Aghadoe to Limerick; and formerly the capital of the county, but is now a poor place, with extensive ruins. The cathedral is in good repair.

ARDMORE, a town of Ireland, county Waterford, anciently a bishop's see. It stands on a bay of its name, 10 m ssw Dungarvon. Here are the remains of two churches; the chancel of one of them is roofed, and used for divine worship.

ARDOCH, a village of Scotland, county Perth, on the Allan, 6 m NE Dumblane. Here is the vestige of a large Roman camp, supposed to be the most perfect in Great Britain, which is now enclosed with a wall to preserve it from demolition.

ARDRA, Africa, a kingdom of Guinea, on the Slave coast, E of Whidah. The country is fertile in maize, palm-wine, plants and fruits, at all seasons of the year; and it has lakes that produce a great deal of salt. has a town of the same name.


ARDRES, a town of France, department Pas-de-Calais, 8 m SE Calais; on an open plain, called, from the magnificence displayed on the occasion, Champ-du-drap-d'or, between this town and Guisnes, was the celebrated interview between Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England, in 1520. AREBO, or ARBON, a town of Africa, Guinea, Benin, on the Slave coast, 60 m from the mouth of the Formosa, mouth of the Niger: Lg. 5.8 E, Lt. 5.58 N.


ARENA, a town of Africa, Abyssinia, with a port on the w side of Howakil bay; 60 m

SE Arkeeko. The chief exports are slaves, horses, cattle, goats, and ghee; the vicinity is celebrated for producing the opsian-stone, mentioned by Pliny and others.

ARENDAL, a small town of Norway, province Christiansand, near the sea, 10 m NNE Christiana. It trades chiefly in timber, and has rich iron mines in its vicinity.


ARENSBERG, a seaport of Europe, Russia, government of Riga, capital of the isle of Oesel, a bishop's see; 211 m Riga: Lg. 22.48 E, Lt. 58.15 N.

duchy Sleswick, containing the greater part ARENSHARD, a district of Denmark, of the famous rampart built by king Gotric, in the beginning of the 9th century, as a defence against the irruptions of the Saxons. It extends across the country about 9 m in length.

AREQUIPA, a city of South America, Peru, founded by Pizarro, in 1539. It stands in a valley, on the skirt of the mountain Omate, which is a volcano, 60 m from the sea, and 460 SE Lima: it has been four times laid in ruins by earthquakes, the last in 1785; but its edifices were soon rebuilt, and the houses, chiefly of stone, have only one floor, with arched roofs. It has a beautiful fountain in the chief square, and a fine bridge over the Chile, of which the waters are let off by sluices to irrigate the environs; P. about 40,000: Lg. 71.20 w, Lt. 16.17 s.

AREZZO, a town of Italy, Tuscany, in Florentino. It stands on a hill, at the conflux of the Chianna with the Arno, 42 m ESE Florence.

ARGENTAN, a town of France, department Orne; seated on the Orne, 12 m NW Seez, and 110 w Paris. It has a considerable trade in lace.

ARGENTEUIL, a town of France, on the Seine, 5 m NW Paris. It has a fine vineyard, and quarries of gypsum.

ARGENTIERA, a barren island in the kingdom of Greece, department. Cyclades, so called from its silver mines. There is but one village, and it has no water but what is gathered in tanks: Lg. 24.33 E, Lt. 36.50 N.

ARGENTIERE, a town of France, department Ardèche, 5 m sw Aubenas, and 17 w Viviers; P. 2000.

ARGENTON, a town of France, department Indre, on the Creuse, 37 m sw Bourges.

ARGIROCASTRO, a city of Europe, Turkey, in Albania, capital of a pashalic, 50 m NW Janina. It is singularly built, upon three eminences, on the side of a mountain, which is part of a lofty chain that forms the w boundary of a luxuriant vale. On the central ridge is a modern castle of great extent, which includes a large seraglio. The principal trade is in grain, tobacco, and wool;


P. about 20,000, chiefly Turks: Lg. 20.28 E, Lt. 40.18 N.

ARGISH, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Kurdistan, on the N side of lake Van, 30 m Nw Van.

ARGOS, a town in the kingdom of Greece, Morea, department Argolid and Corinthia, on the Xera, near the head of the gulf of Nauplia, anciently a large city and the capital of a kingdom, and is still the see of a bishop; 32 m ENE Tripolizza. It has four Greek churches, and two mosques. The citadel is on a high rock, called Larissa. Its productions are corn, figs, grapes, rice, some tobacco, and a little silk; the bazaar is large and well frequented. Many vestiges of temples, and other structures, evince its former grandeur; 6 m to the NE are some massive remains of Mycenæ, a city laid waste by the Argives, 466 years B. c.: Lg. 22.41 E, Lt. 37.38 N.

ARGOSTOLI, a town of the Ionian islands, island of Cefalonia, with a good harbour, meanly built; P. 5000.

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ARGUIN, a bay, island, and fort of Africa, on the coast of Zaara, 30 m SE Cape Blanco. The Portuguese built the fort in 1444; it was taken from them by the Dutch in 1638; afterward by the French: Lg. 17.5 w, Lt. 20.30 N.

ARGYLE, a county of Scotland, bounded on the N by Invernesshire, E by Perth and Dumbarton, and s and w by the Atlanticocean, by which it is broken into islands and peninsulas. It is 114 m long, from the mull of Cantyre to its NE extremity; its breadth is very unequal, about 40 m where greatest. It is divided into 49 parishes, and returns 1 M.P. To the NW is a peninsula nearly detached from the rest of the county; it contains the districts of Ardnamurchan, Morven, Sunart, and Ardgowar: the peninsulas of Cantyre and Cowal are likewise very large. The chief islands attached to this county are Mull, Islay, Jura, Tirey, and Col. The soil of Argyleshire, in the high grounds, affords excellent pasture; and the only crops cultivated to any extent are bigg, oats, and potatos. Many sheep and beeves are bred here, which, with the fishery, are its principal riches. Some parts are covered with heath, and others exhibit rugged and bare rocks. The sides of the hills and lakes are interspersed with woods; and there are mines of copper, iron, and lead. The chief town is Inverary; P. 71,859 in 1801, and 101,425 in 1831.

ARGYROCASTRO; see ARGIROCASTRO. ARICA, a seaport of South America, Peru, province Arica, s extremity of Peru, 170 m NW Potosi. It is but badly fortified, and has been much injured by earthquakes.

Here the treasure brought from Potosi was shipped; and there are many farms employed in the cultivation of Guinea pepper, in which it has a great trade: Lg. 70.19 w, Lt. 18.27 s.


ARICATY, a town of South America, Brazil, the largest and most commercial in the province Seara. Cotton and hides are the principal exports. It stands on the right bank of the Jaguaribe, 8 m above its mouth, and 70 SE Seara.

ARIPO, a town of Asia, island of Ceylon, on the gulf of Manara, 120 m N Columbo. Here is the residence of the civil and military officers who attend the pearl fishery: Lg. 79.47 E, Lt. 8.42 N.

ARISPE, a city of North America, Mexico, with two forts, 330 m x by w Cinaloa: Lg. 108.58 w, Lt. 30.36 N.

ARKANSAS-TERRITORY, a government of the United States, in North America; bounded on the N by the Missouri; E by the Mississippi; s by Louisiana; sw and w by Mexico: its chief waters are the Arkansas, White-river, St. Francis, and Wasshita; soil fertile, particularly in the extensive alluvial meadows: it is divided into 23 counties: Little-Rock is the capital, 1068 m Washington: the governor is appointed by the president of the United States, for three years; P. 30,383, of whom 4578 were slaves in 1830.

ARKANSAW, a town of North America, a military post of Arkansas-territory, on the left bank of the Arkansas, 65 m from its mouth; P. 1423.

ARKEEKO, or AREKEA, a town of Africa, in the N part of Abyssinia, at the head of a bay of its name, in which is the island and port of Masuah. It is 4 m s Masuah, and 160 N Antalo: Lg. 39.38 E, Lt. 15.34 N.

ARKLOW, a town of Ireland, county Wicklow, with the remains of a castle, and haven for small craft, 13 m s Wicklow, and 46 Dublin; P. 11,398.

ARKOPOLIS, a town of North America, United States, Arkansas-territory, situated on the right bank of the Arkansas: Lg. 92.13 w, Lt. 34.40 N.

ARLES, a city of France, department Bouches-du-Rhone, lately an archiepiscopal see. It is seated on the Rhone, 20 m SE Nismes. The country around produces good wine, vermilion, manna, oil and fruits. There are a great number of antiquities, of which the amphitheatre and obelisk are the most remarkable. Lg. 5.43 E, Lt. 43.40 N.

ARMAGH, a county of Ireland, 32 m long by 19, bounded on the E by Down, w by Tyrone and Monaghan, N by Lough-Neah, and s by Louth. It contains 20 parishes, and returns 3 county M.P. The soil is

reckoned the richest in Ireland except a tract called the Fowes, which is hilly and barren, and there are also some considerable bogs. The chief rivers are the Blackwater, Bann, and Newry. Some good marble is found in this county; and the linen manufacture flourishes in all its branches; P. 220,651.

ARMAGH, a city and county town of Ireland, county Armagh, and the see of an archbishop, who is primate of all Ireland. The venerable cathedral stands on a hill, built in the form of a cross, with a square tower rising from the points of intersection. The public buildings are modern, and the city is deemed the neatest inland town in the island. Here is a handsome archiepiscopal palace, a school founded by Charles I, an observatory, and a public library. It has a great linen market, and many bleaching grounds in the vicinity. It is seated near the river Callen, 52 m SE Londonderry, and 79 N by w Dublin; returns 1 M. P.; P. 7321: Lg. 7.6 w, Lt. 54.20 n.

ARMAGNAC, an old province of France, 8 of Guienne, and now forms the depart

ment of Le-Gers.

ARMEGAN, a town of Asia, Hindostan, the first British establishment in the Carnatic, in 1625; seated on the seacoast, 65 m N Madras.

ARMENIA, a large country of Asia, partly in Turkey and partly in Persia; bounded on the w by the Euphrates, s by Diarbek and Kurdistan, E by Schirvan, and N by Georgia. It is a fine country, though in general mountainous, and includes the celebrated mount Ararat. The chief rivers are the Euphrates, Kur, and Aras, which have their rise here. The lakes are not numerous, but it has an extensive one called Van; and several mineral springs. It possesses great variety of vegetable productions; and is known to have been the country in which was laid the scene of the terrestrial paradise, or garden of Eden. The principal manufactures and trade are in copper, iron, silk, cotton, wine, tobacco, and manna. The Armenians are supposed to be a distinct race of people; having a language of their own, seldom intermarrying with other tribes, and professing a peculiar religion, the basis of which is Christianity. They form the chief class of traders in the Persian empire; a large portion of Asiatic Turkey is occupied by them, and they are found scattered in various other parts, engaged in the most extensive commercial undertakings. The western parts of Armenia are subject to the Turks, the eastern to the Persians. Erzerum and Erivan are the capitals.

ARMENTIERES, a town of France, department du-Nord. It is seated on the Lis, 8 m www Lisle; frontier with Belgium; P. 7600.

ARMUYDEN, a town of Holland, province Zeeland, in the island of Walcheren, now inconsiderable, the sea having choked up the harbour. The salt works are its chief resource; it is 3 m E Middleburg.

ARNAY-LE-DUC, a town of France, department Cote-d'Or, 25 m Nw Baune; P. 3130.

ARNEBERG, a town of Prussia, province Brandenberg, with a ruined castle on a hill, by the river Elbe, 3 m from Werben.

ARNEDO, a seaport of South America, Peru, with a good harbour, in the Pacificocean, 25 m N Callao: Lg. 76.53 w, Lt. 11.40 s.

ARNHEIM, a fortified town of Holland, province Guelderland. It is seated on the Rhine, 8 m N Nimeguen, and was formerly the residence of the dukes of Guelderland. Here are several churches, two of which are particularly large; its manufactures are coarse woollens, paper, and oil; P. 10,080: Lg. 5.54 E, Lt. 51.58 N.

ARNSBERG, Prussia, capital of province Westfalen, on the Ruhr; P. 2535.

ARNSTADT, a town of Schwarzburg, with a castle, a palace, and 3 churches; seated on the Gera, 12 m s Erfurth.

AROGUNSKOI-OSTROG, Asia, Russia, government of Irkoulsk, district Stretinsk, a small palisaded fort on the Argounia.

AROKHAGE, a city of Asia, Persia, in Segestan, the capital of a district; 110 m ssw Candahar.

AROLSEN, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen, near the Ahr,29 m SSE Paderborn,

ARONA, a town of Italy, Austria, Milanese, with a ruined castle, once the principal residence of the Borromean family, where St. Charles was born. On the summit of a hill near the town is erected a colossal statue of this eminent archbishop of Milan. It is an active trading place; and in the cathedral are some fine paintings. It stands on lake Maggiore, 36 m WNW Milan.

ARONCHES, a town of Portugal, province Alentejo, with a castle, 16 m SE Portalegre.

AROO, 5 islands of Australasia, in the Indian-ocean, s and w of New Guinea, extending from 5.30 to 7.0 s Lt. with narrow channels between them. The chief product is sago. During the dry or western monsoon numerous flocks of the birds of paradise from New Guinea reside in these islands, where great numbers are killed, dried, and exported to Banda. The Aroo isles are considered as belonging to the Dutch.

ARPINO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Lavoro, on an eminence, 4 m s Sora; the birth-place of the illustrious Cicero.

ARQUATO, a town of Italy, in Paduan, famous for the villa and tomb of Petrarch. It stands on the N side of a bill, 10m s Padua.

ARQUES, a town of France, department Seine-Inferieure, with an ancient castle, on the Arques, 4 m SE Dieppe. Here Henry IV gained a complete victory over the duke of Mayenne, general of the league in 1589; P. 1200.

ARRACIFFE, a seaport of South America, Brazil, province Pernambuco. It is built on a narrow channel, with a castle to defend the entrance, and esteemed the strongest place in Brazil: Lg. 36.10 w, Lt. 8.20 s.


ARRAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Behar, capital of the rich district of Shahabad. It is extensive and populous, and 35 m w by s Patna: Lg. 84.40 E, Lt. 25.25 N.

ARRAN, an island of Scotland, in the Frith-of-Clyde, s of the isle of Bute. It is of an oval form, 20 m long by 12, and constitutes the greater part of the county of Bute. Ridges of rugged mountains extend across the island, and Goatfel is 2840 feet in height. The s parts present low and cultivated grounds; and great quantities of corn and cattle are raised. The climate is severe, but healthy; and invalids resort hither to drink the whey of goats' milk. Robert Bruce took refuge in this island during the time of his greatest distress. Among the rocks are found iron-ore, spar, and a great variety of beautiful pebbles. On the coast are numerous bays and harbours, and many caverns, which often afford shelter to smugglers. Arran contains a numerous population of persons speaking the Erse language, but has no town. The principal village is Kilbride, on the SE coast, near the bay of Lamlash; P. 6541.

ARRAN ISLES, NORTH, 3 small islands of Ireland, near the w coast of Donegal. On one of them is a neat town, called Rutland, where about 400 fishing smacks annually assemble in the herring season. It is 29 m NNW Donegal.

ARRAN ISLES, SOUTH, 3 lofty islands on the w coast of Ireland, at the entrance of Galway bay. They produce a small kind of oats without husks, and feed a diminutive breed of sheep whose flesh is highly esteemed.

ARRAS, a fortified city of France, capital of department Pas-de-Calais, and an episcopal see. It is divided into two parts, the city, which is ancient, and the town, which is modern. The great square is full of fine buildings, surrounded with piazzas. The manufactures are, lace, cambric, thread, and stockings. The sanguinary Robespierre was born in this place. It is seated on the Scarpe, 22 m WNW Cambray; P. 20,000: Lg. 2.46 E, Lt. 50.17 N.

ARRIECE, a department of France, 60 m long by 35, containing the old pro

vinces of Couserans and Foix. The s side borders on Spain, and on the other surrounded by the departments of Haute-Garonne, Aude, and Pyrenees-Orientales. It is so named from a river, which rises in the Pyrenees, and passing by Foix and Pamiers, enters the Garonne near Toulouse. Gold dust is found among its sands. Its area is 240 square leagues. Foix is the capital; P. 235,078.

ARROE, a small island of Denmark, in the Baltic, between the islands of Funen and Alsen: Lg. 10.20 E, Lt. 55.10 x.

ARSACIDES, an archipelago in the South Pacific-ocean, to which the former name of Solomon's isles is now restored.

ARSUR, a town of Asia, Turkey, on the coast of Syria, in Palestine, with a fortress, 10 m N Jaffa.

ARTA, a city of Europe, Turkey, in Albania, and a Greek archbishop's see. It is seated in a marshy plain, on the Arta, 10 m from its mouth in the gulf of Arta, and 30 SSE Janina. It contains 6 mosques and 24 Greek churches, and has a considerable trade in corn, cotton, wool, leather, taffeties, tobacco, wine, timber, &c: Lg. 21.20 E, Lt. 39.28 N.

ARTAKI, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia, on the s coast of the sea of Marmora, 76 m sw Constantinople: Lg. 27.40 E, Lt. 39.30 N.

ARTHUR'S-SEAT, Scotland, a bold conical hill, chiefly composed of basaltic pillars, 810 feet in height, near the city of Edinburgh.

ARTOIS, an old province of France, bounded by French Flanders, Cambresis, Picardy, and Boulonnois. It is now included in the E part of the department of Pas-de-Calais.

ARVAL, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bahar, on the left bank of the Soam, 40 m sw Patna.

ARUNDEL, a borough of England, county Sussex, 8 m E Chichester, and 58 ssw London. It is governed by a mayor, returns 1 M.P., and has a market on Wednesday and Saturday. It stands on the side of a hill, by the Arun, and has a venerable Gothic church, formerly collegiate. Its castle, the ancient seat of the dukes of Norfolk, is said to be a mile in compass: the owner of this castle, without any creation, is earl of Arundel. The river is navigable for barges; and great quantities of timber are sent hence for the dock-yards; P. of rape 31,064, of borough and parish 2803: Lg. 0.22 w, Lt. 50.55 N. ARRZOUM; see ERZERUM.

ASAB, a town of Africa, Abyssinia, in Dancali, on a bay of the Red-sea, 36 m SE Bailur.

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