Page images

of Poland, voevod Augustow, near the border of a fine lake; houses all of wood; a large square in the centre; the streets are long, straight, and dirty; P. 1200.

AULENDORF, a town of Würtemberg, 22 m wsw Memingen, 8 m wNw Waldsee.

AULNAY, 2 towns of France, about 1 m distant, department Calvados, 14 m sw Caen; P. of both 3500.

AULTEN, a town of Holland, province Gelderland, 2 m s Lichtenvoorde; P. about 3600.


AUMONT, a town of France, department Lozere, 15 m Nw Mende.


AURAS, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the river Oder, 14 m Nw Breslau.

AURAY, a town of France, department Morbihan, 8 m w Vannes.

AURILLAC, a town of France, department Cantal, with lace and velvet manufactures, 30 m sw St. Flour.

AURIOL, a town of France, department Bouches-du-Rhone, 12 m SE Aix, and 12 NNE Marseilles.

AURORA, an island in Australasia, one of the New-Hebrides, in the Pacific-ocean. It is 36 m long by 6, affords plenty of wood and water, and has a small bay on the NW coast: Lg. 168.18 E, Lt. 15.8 s.

AURUNGABAD, Asia, a province of the Deccan, Hindostan, 300 m long by 160; bounded on the N by Gusarett Khandesh and Berar, E by Beedes, s by Bejapoor, and w by the sea. It is also known by the names of Ahmednagur and Dowletabad, each of those towns having been its capital formerly. The surface is very irregular, and in general mountainous, particularly towards the w Gauts, where the hills rise to a great elevation; and it abounds with natural fortresses and strong holds; but it is fertile in the low districts. The seacoast (excepting the islands of Bombay and Salsette) with three-fourths of this province are possessed by the Mahrattas, and the remainder by the nizam.

AURUNGABAD, a considerable city of Asia, capital of Aurungabad. It stands in a fertile plain, almost surrounded by mountains, 110 m ssw Boorhampoor, and 250 SE Surat. It was originally a village called Gurka, and owes the greater part of its magnificence to the great Aurungzebe, who resided here, and gave it the present name; but it is now much fallen. The city is within the nizam's territories, and has a very extensive bazaar: Lg. 76.3 E, Lt. 19.54 N. AURUNGABUNDER, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Sindy, on a branch of the

Indus, to which it gives name, 40 m ssw Tatta.

AUSSIG, a town of Austria, Bohemia, seated on the Elbe, 11 m NNW Leutmeritz.

AUST, a village of England, county Gloucester, 10 m N Bristol, noted for its ancient ferry over the Severn; P. 203.

AUSTERLITZ, or SLAWKOW, a town of Austria, Moravia, near which, in 1805, a great victory was obtained by the French over the Austrians and Russians, 12 m E Brunn, and 30 ssw Olmutz.

AUSTRALASIA, one of the five great divisions of the world, bounded N by the equator, E by 120° w Lg., extends s to the South Pole, and w by a line departing from the equator at 133° E Lg., passing w of the island of Wageeroo, and proceeding in a direction nearly sw, and including the islands of Mysol, Ceram, Ombay, Panter, St. Paul, and Amsterdam, whence on reaching 60° E Lg. in Lt. 40, it runs due s to the South Pole, including Kerguelen's Land. This division embraces a considerable portion of the South Pacific-ocean, as also of the Indian and Southern oceans, containing Australia, Papua, or NewGuinea, New-Zealand, the New-Hebrides, Soloman's-isles, and all those groups, the Friendly and Society-isles, the Marquessas, &c. Ducie's island is the nearest to the E boundary.


AUSTRIA, an empire of Europe, bounded N by Saxony, Prussia, and Russia, E by Russia and Turkey, s by Turkey, the Adriatic-sea, the States of the Church, Modena, and Parma, and w by Sardinia, Switzerland, and Bavaria. The empire is politically divided into the Archduchy of Austria, Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, Moravia, Sclavonia, Styria, Transylvania, Tyrol, Saltzburg, the kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, and the kingdom of Illyria: area, about 300,000 geographical square m; P. nearly 30 millions. Wien or Vienna is the capital.

AUSTRIA, an archduchy, empire of Austria, bounded on the N by Bohemia and Moravia, E by Hungary, s by Styria, and w by Bavaria and Saltzburg; divided by the Ens into Upper and Lower Austria, and is traversed near its centre from w to E by the Danube: Vienna is the capital of the Lower, and Lintz of the Upper. The inhabitants are polite, intelligent, and gay; fond of honour, which they strive to gain by the arts and sciences, or by arms; and there is no country in Germany where foreigners are more courteously entertained. Austria excels all Germany in the fertility of its soil: corn, wine, and fruit are plentiful, and the saffron is better than that of the East Indies: the principal rivers are the

Danube, Inn, Drave, and Save. In 1806 Francis II, emperor of Germany, renounced that title in a formal manner; erected his own dominions into an hereditary empire, and was crowned emperor of Austria.

AUTUN, the ancient Bibracta, a city of France, and a bishop's see; department Saone-et-Loire, situated on the Arroux, at the foot of three mountains, 45 m E by s of Nevers, and 162 SE of Paris. It contains many vestiges of Roman magnificence, particularly the temples of Janus and Cy bele. Manufactures tapestry, carpets, coverlets, and glue: the cathedral, college, and seminary, are worthy of notice.

AUVERGNE, an old province of France, s of Bourbonnois, w of Forez and Velay. It now forms the departments of Puy-deDome and Cantal.

AUVILLARD, a town of France, department Lot-et-Garonne, on the river Garonne, 13 m SE Agen.

AUXERE, a city of France, capital of the department of Yonne; lately a bishop's see; containing many fountains and squares, and the episcopal palace is deemed one of the most beautiful in France. Its chief trade is in wine, hemp, cotton, iron, and drugs; on the side of a hill, by the river Yonne, 75 m WNW Dijon, 90 SSE Paris: P. 16,000; Lg. 3.34 E, Lat. 47.48 N.

AVATCHINSKAIA, Asia, volcano, N side of the bay of Awatsk, or Avatscha, E of Russia; district Nejne Kamtschatska; constantly smoking: the most considerable irruption was in 1737, which continued about 24 hours, and terminated by expelling a vast quantity of ashes.

AVEIRO, a town of Portugal, in Beria, with a good harbour for vessels of a moderate size. Its chief trade is in salt, of which great quantities are made in the vicinity; situated 33 m s Porto: Lg. 8.30 w, Lt.

40.40 N.

AVEIRON, department France, including the old province of Rouergue; bordered by the departments of Cantal, Lozere, Herault, Tarn, and Lot; its soil feeds numerous cattle, and its mines supply copper, iron, alum, vitriol, and sulphur. It is named from a river which rises near Severac, flows by Rhodez, Villefranche, and Montauban, and then joins the Garonne. Rhodez is the capital: P. 339,422.

AVELLA, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Lavoro; noted for its honey and apples; 15 m NE Naples.

AVELLINO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Principato-Ultra; it was almost ruined by an earthquake in 1805. Near it is the celebrated convent of Monte-Virgine, on a wild mountain, which formerly had a sumptuous temple of Cybele: famous for the dye of Auxox, a town of France, department cloth; also for nuts and macaroni. BeAube, 13 m s Troyes.

AUXONNE, a town of France, department Cote-d'Or; with a castle, arsenal, and a foundry for cannon; on the Saone, 17 m E Dijon.

AVA, a city of Asia, formerly the capital of a kingdom of Ava, now called Burmah; about 4 m in circuit, with a lofty wall, mouldering to decay. The materials of the houses, consisting chiefly of wood, were removed, about 1783, to the new city; and its numerous temples, on which the Birmans never lay sacrilegious hands, are dilapidating by time. Clumps of bamboos, a few plantain trees, and tall thorns, occupy most of the area of this once flourishing capital; situated on the s side of the Irrawaddy, 4 m sw Ummerapoor, the present capital.

AVALLON, a town of France, department Yonne; trades in grain, wine, wood, and cattle; situated on the Cousin, 24 m SSE Auxerre.

AVATCHA, or PETROPAULOVsк, a port and town of Asia, Russia, government Irkoutsk, canton Okhotsk, district Nijne Camtchatsk, or Kamtschatska, in the bay of Avatchinskaia; it has an excellent harbour; its church and government buildings are very good formerly called Niakine.

tween it and Benevento is Val-di-Gargano, celebrated in history as the Faxcæ Caudinæ, where the Romans were compelled to pass under the yoke by the Samnites, in the 443rd year of Rome; 25 m E Naples.

AVENAY, a town of France, department Marne; on the river Marne, 15 m wNW Chalons-sur-Marne.

AVENCHE, a town of Switzerland, canton Berne; formerly the capital of Helvetia, but now greatly decayed, grain and tobacco being grown on the site of part of the ancient city; on the Broye, near its entrance into lake Morat, 15 m w Bern.

AVERBACH, or AUERBACH, a town of Saxony, in Voightland, near 'which is a rock famous for pale topazes; 14 m s Zwickau.

AVERSA, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Lavoro: in 1805 it suffered greatly by the earthquake; situated in a fine plain, 10 m NE Naples.

AVES, a small island in North America, Caribean sea, from which a bank, called the bank of Aves, extends to St. Eustatia, 140 m to the NNE.

AVES, or BIRD ISLANDS, North America, a cluster of islands and rocks in the Caribean sea, so called from the great num

ber of birds that frequent them; 70 m E Curaçva, and 100 N of the coast of Ca


a market on Thursday; P. 998. Pollingplace.

AXEL, a town of Zealand, province Hol

AVESNES, a strong town of France, de- land, 14 m NE Ghent. partment Nord, 25 m E Cambray.

AVESTAD, a town of Sweden, province Stora-Kopparbergs, noted for its copperworks, and a mint for copper money; on the Dahl, 43 m SSE Falun.

AVIGLIANO, a fortified town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, on a hill, near the Cottian Alps, 10 m w Turin.

AVIGNON, a city of France, capital of the department of Vaucluse, and a bishop's see. It was lately dependent on the pope, and an archbishop's see. This city suffered much by the revolutionary fury, and the pope's palace, separated only from the cathedral by some ruins, presents a labyrinth of dilapidated apartments. It has a university, several handsome churches, a synagogue, some literary and scientific societies, and several benevolent institutions; trades chiefly in madder, hemp, flax, and oil: it was the residence of the popes from 1307 to 1377. Here Petrarch's Laura was born and interred; and Vernet, the celebrated painter of marine subjects, was born here in 1712. It is seated on the Rhone, 20 m ENE Nismes; P. 30,000: Lg. 4.48 E, Lat. 43.57 N.

AVILA, a city of Spain, province Old Castile, a bishop's see, with a university. Here is a manufacture of cotton cloth, begun in 1789 by two Englishinen; seated on the Adaga, in a large plain, surrounded by mountains, covered with fruit-trees and vineyards; 56 m Nw Madrid.

Avis, a town of Portugal, province Alentejo, on an eminence, with a castle, near the river Avis; hence the military order of the knights of Avis have their name; 25 m NW Estremos.

AVISO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terradi-Lavoro, 6 m E Sora.

AVLITA, a good harbour of Russia, government Taurida, Cremea, at the mouth of the Kirikli-Evzene; Nw Balaklava.

AVRANCHES, the ancient Ingena, a town of France, department La-Manche, at the foot of a mountain, near the mouth of the Sees, 22 m s Coutances, and 220 w Paris; lately the see of a bishop, and celebrated for its cider; P. 6,433.

AWERI, or OVERO, a kingdom of Africa, dependent on Benin, with a town of the same name, on the river Formosa: Lg. 5.10 E, Lat. 6.10 N.

AXBRIDGE, a town of England, county Somerset, situated on the river Ax, under the Mendip hills, 10 m Nw Wells, and 130 w London; governed by a mayor, and has

AXIM, a district of Africa, Guinea, on the Gold coast, separated on the E from the Ivory coast by the river Ancobra, called also the Axim. It produces palm oil, cocoa, oranges, pine-apples, yams, water-melons, and abundance of rice: the Dutch have a fort and a factory here, called Axim, or Anthony, near the mouth of the river; 70 m w by s Élmina: Lg. 2.56 w, Lat. 4.42 v.

AXMINSTER, a town of England, county Devon, on the river Ax, with a market on Saturday, 27 m E by N Exeter, and 147 w London. King Athelstan established a minster here to the memory of the princes slain in his army, when he defeated the Danes in this neighbourhood. Here is a manufacture of leather gloves, &c., and a considerable one of carpets.

AXUM, a town of Africa, anciently the capital of Abyssinia, 80 m Nw Antalo; its ruins are very extensive, among which are many obelisks of granite, with sculptures and inscriptions. The inhabitants are celebrated for making parchments: Lg. 33.55 E, Lat. 14.12 N.

AYAMONTE, a seaport of Spain, province Andalusia, with a castle on a rock, at the mouth of the Guadiana, opposite Castro Marim, and Villa-real in Portugal: Lg. 7.15 w, Lat. 37.12 N.

AYLESBURY, a borough of England, and the largest town in the county of Buckingham, 17m SE Buckingham, and 39 Nw London; returns 2 M.P. The spring assizes are held here, and it is the centre of the business of the fertile vale of Aylesbury. Many people here derive their support from a peculiar manner of rearing early ducks for the London market, and the making of lace is carried on to a great extent: P. 4,907; Lg. 0.50 w, Lat. 51.48 N. Polling-place.

AYLESHAM, a town of England, county Norfolk, 11 m N Norwich, and 121 m NE London, with a market on Thursday; seated on the Bure, which is navigable to Yarmouth; P. 2334.

AYLESFORD, a town of England, county Kent, on the Medway, and has a stone bridge, 32 m E London; P. 1301.

AYMOUTH, a town of Scotland, county Berwick, 6 m x Berwick.

AYR, a borough of Scotland, county Ayr, on a sandy plain, on the s side of the mouth of the river Ayr, over which is a bridge to Newtown, 75 m sw Edinburgh. Its chief trade is in coal, and the fishery for salmon and all kinds of white fish; it has also an extensive manufacture of leather and soap: two light-houses are erected to conduct ves

sels into the harbour, which is often incommoded with sand. Here are the ruins of a Dominican monastery, and the celebrated poet Robert Burns was born and buried here: with Irvine it returns 1 M.P.; P. 7,606; Lg. 4.37 E, Lat. 55.28 N.

AYR, a county of Scotland, bounded on the w by the Irish channel and the frithof-Clyde, N by Renfrewshire, E by Lanark, Dumfries, and Kirkcudbright, and s by Wigtonshire; it forms a vast bay at the mouth of the Clyde, and is divided into 45 parishes; returning 1 M.P. The sw angle, though mountainous, is rich in pasture, but the greater part of the Nw is a fine level country, intersected by the Ayr, Irvine, Girvan, Stinchar, and several other rivers, which abound with salmon. inexhaustible seams of coal; also freestone, limestone, iron, lead, and copper; a great quantity of sea-weed is thrown ashore, from which abundance of kelp is made: P. 84,306 in 1801, and 145,055 in 1831.

It has

AYRSTON, a town of North America, United States, state New Jersey, county Burlington, on the middle branch of Ancocus creek, 13 m sw Burlington.

AYSGARTH, a village of England, North Yorkshire, seated on the Eure, 4 m E Askrig; it has a picturesque waterfall, called Aysgarth Force, and a bridge of one arch 72 feet in the span, overgrown with ivy: P. 5,796.

AYTH, a town of Africa, Abyssinia, in Dalcali, with an open roadstead in the Redsea, 130 m ENE Antalo: Lg. 41.45 E, Lt. 13.57 N.

AYTON, 5 in England, county North York; 1st, East, a village on the E side of the Derwent, 5 m sw Scarborough; P. 360. -2nd, West, a town on the w side of the Derwent, opposite East Ayton, 5 m sw Scarborough; P. 256.-3rd, Great, 3 m NE Stokesly; P. 1103.-4th, Little, on the Leaven, 1 m SE Great Ayton; P. 63.-5th, parish; P. 1296.

AZAMOR, a town of Africa, kingdom of Fez, fortified with walls: the great mosque is a fine edifice. It is situated in a plain, on the N side of the river Morbeya, near the sea, 126 m N by w Marocco: Lg. 8.4 w, Lt. 33.19 N.



AZIMGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Allahad: here and in the vicinity considerable quantities of cotton cloths are made: it is 37 m NE Ivanpoor.

AZINCOURT: see AGINCOURT. AZMERIGUONGE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, on the Soorma, 70 m NE Daeca.

AZOF; see Asopн.

AZORES, or WESTERN ISLANDS, Africa, a group of nine islands in the Atlantic, between 25° and 32° w Lg., and 37° and 40° N Lt., about 800 m w Portugal: they are named St. Mary, St. Michael, Terceira, St. George, Graciosa, Pico, Fayal, Flores, and Corvo; the last two are at a considerable distance from the others, more to the w and N they were discovered in 1439, by Vanderburg, a merchant of Bruges, who, ine a voyage to Lisboa, was driven to them by stress of weather; on his arrival at Lisboa he boasted of his discovery, and the Portuguese afterward took possession of the islands, and called them the Azores, from the number of hawks found among them. Their rugged precipices and conical moun-tains indicate the violent and numerous convulsions by which they have been agitated. The climate is favourable to human bealth, and the soil in general fertile, abounding in corn, grapes, oranges, lemons, and other fruit, and feeding many cattle, hogs,, and sheep. The woods and high lands present a multitude of birds of different descriptions, but no poisonous animal nor any rep tile: the governor-general resides at Angra, in Terceira, but St. Michael is the largest.

AZUA, a town of North America, WestIndies, St. Domingo: has a trade in mahogany, fustic, lignum vitæ, and sugar: it stands at the mouth of a river, in the bay of Neyba, 69 m w St. Domingo: Lg. 71.6 w Lt. 18.16 N.


BABA, or TOMISVAR, a town of Europe;. Turkey, in Bulgaria, on a gulf of the same name, in the Black-sea, 90 m NE Silistria;: celebrated for the manufacture of knives. and sword blades: it is supposed to be the ancient Tomis, the place of Ovid's banishment: Lg. 28.38 E, Lt. 44.40 N.

BABEL MANDEB, a strait between the coast of Abyssinia and Arabia, uniting the Red-sea with the Indian-ocean; in the narrowest part is a small island called Perim: Lg. 43.48 E, Lt. 12.38 N.

BABSKAIA-STANITZA, a Cosaque village of Russia, on the right bank of the Don; rich in vineyards.

BABUYANES, a cluster of small islands in the North-Pacific-ocean, off the N coast of the isle of Luconia: the chief produce is wax, ebony, bananas, cocoas, and plantains Babuyan is the largest island, about 25 m in circuit: Lg. 121.30 E, Lt. 19.43 N.

BACANO, a town of Italy, patrimony of St. Peter, near a river of the same name, 20 m NW Rome.

BACHARACH, a small post town of Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine, 6 Germ SSE Coblenz, the high-road to Mainz: P. 1250.


BACHSERAI; see BAKTCHISSARAI. BACHIAN, an island of Asia, the largest and most southern of the Proper Moluccas: it is 70 m in circuit, and the interior rises into woody hills; governed by a sultan, who is also sovereign of Ouby and Deram: Lg. 127.0 E, Lt. 0.25 s.


BACKAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Mooltan, with a remarkable fortress, on an island in the Indus, 100 m s by w Mooltan.

BACKERGUNGE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, capital of a district, 120 m E Calcutta.

BADAJOZ, a city of Spain, capital of Estremadura, and a bishop's see, 12 m E Elvas, and 175 s by w Madrid: it is famous for a bridge built by the Romans over the Guadiana; and on it the Portuguese were defeated by Don John of Asturias, in 1661: it is a frontier town toward Portugal, and well fortified; surrendered to the French in 1811, and was retaken from them by the British and Portuguese in 1812: Lg. 6.47 w, Lt. 38.49 N.

BADAKSHAN, a city of Asia, Usbec-Tartary, capital of the province of Kilan, seated on the Herat, or Âmu, in a branch of the Belur mountains, 320 m E Balk: gold, silver, and rubies, are found in its vicinity, and caravans pass by this city to Cabul and China: Lg. 70.35 E, Lt. 36.55 N.

BADAUMY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bejapoor, with a strong fort, 55 m NE Darwar.

BADBURY, a village of England, county Dorset, on a considerable eminence, 4 m NW Winborn: it was a summer station of the Romans, and many of their coins, urns, &c. have been found; here is also a Saxon camp.

BADELONA, a town of Spain, province Cataluna, on the Mediterranean, 10 m NE Barcelona.

BADEN, a grand duchy, bounded on the N by Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt, E by Würtemberg, s by Switzerland, and w separated from France by the Rhine, and part of Bavaria; formerly a margravate, and is divided into Upper and Lower Baden, frequently called Baden-Baden and BadenDurlach, from the chief towns: the seat of government is now at Carlsruhe; P. about 1,000,000.

BADEN, a town of the grand duchy of Baden, with a castle on the top of a hill, where the grand duke often resides: it is famous for numerous hot baths, and many Roman monuments; it stands on the Oelbach, near the Rhine, 40 m w Stuttgart; P. 2000: Lg. 8.22 E, Lt. 48.46 N.

BADEN, a town of Switzerland, canton of

Aargau, capital of a county, with a new castle. It is divided into the old and new town by the river Limmat, over which is a beautiful bridge. Here are seven handsome churches and a splendid townhouse; and near it are warm baths, mentioned by the ancients under the names of Aqua and Therma Helvetica: 10 m NW Zurich: Lg. 8.24 E, Lt. 47.26 N.

BADEN, a town of Lower-Austria, famous for numerous hot baths; seated at the skirt of a mountain, near the Suechat, 15 m ssw Vienna.

BADENWEILER, a town of the grand duchy of Baden, circle of Weisen, frequented for its hot baths; seated near the Rhine, 10 m ssw Freyburg.

BADRACHELLUM, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Hydrabad, near which is a pagoda of high repute. It stands on the left bank of the Godavery, 85 m xw Rajamundry.

BADULA, a town of Asia, Ceylon, chief of the district of Ouva, with a star fort; it has two temples, a bazaar, and a hospital. It is situated in a rich valley, and on a river of the same name, 40 m SE Candy.

BAEZ, or BAEÇA, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, 70 m E by N Cordova; the streets and squares are handsome, and there is a beautiful fountain; it is much fallen; P. about 16,000.

BAEZA, a town of South America, in Quito, capital of the district of Quixos, which is covered with thick forests that contain some trees of prodigious magnitude. It was formerly considerable, but is now a small place, 110 m ESE Quito.

BAFFA, a town in the island of Cyprus, with a fort; it stands on the w coast of the island, 80 m wsw Nicosia. It is the ancient Paphos, of which considerable ruins remain, particularly some broken columns, which probably belonged to the temple of Venus. The vicinity abounds in minerals, among which are a beautiful variety of crystallized quartz, called Baffa diamonds. Amianthus of a very superior quality, as flexible as silk, and perfectly white, is also found here: Lg. 32.18 E, Lt. 34.48 N.

BAFFIN'S BAY, a large bay of North America, to the N of Hudson bay, discovered in 1616 by Wm. Baffin, an Englishman, who here attempted to find a Nw passage to the Pacific-ocean. It is entered from the Atlantic through Davis strait; and some maps also show an entrance into it from the N end of Hudson bay. The N extremity is Smith sound, so named by Baffin, in Lg. 76.15 w, Lt. 77.55 N; and on the w side two inlets were seen, which he named James sound and Lancaster sound: In 1819 Lancaster sound was entered and

« PreviousContinue »