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passed through into the Arctic sea by lieut. Parry, who gave it the name of Barrowstrait.

BAGAIEFSKAIA-STANITZA, Russia, a Cosaque village, on the right bank of the Don, 20 m above Tcherkask; celebrated for its water melons.

BAGATYR, a Grecian colony, government Ecatherinoslav, Russia, 127 m from Ecatherinoslav; it contains 200 houses.


BAGDAD, a city of Asia, Turkey, capital of Irak, with a castle; the walls are 5 m in circuit, and flanked with bastions. It is situated on the Tigris, 410 m Teheran. The houses, in general, are built of brick, few above two stories high, and without windows, and the streets are very narrow. Its vaulted bazaars, numerous domes, and lofty minarets, give it a pleasant appearance at a distance. Bagdad was the capital of the Saracen empire, till taken by the Turks in the 13th century; since which it has been often taken by the Turks and Persians, the last time by the Turks in 1638. It is still a place of considerable resort for all the commodities of

Natolia, Syria, Persia, and India; but has lost much of its ancient splendour. The chief manufactures are red and yellow leather, and silk and cotton stuffs. Six miles to the sw is a very ancient structure, 190 feet in height, and 100 in diameter, called the tower of Babel by Europeans; P. about 190,000: Lg. 44.45 E, Lt. 33.20 N. BAGHERMI, Africa, the capital of Baghermi, in the empire of Bernou; it is 180 m SSE Bernou: Lg. 24.10 E, Lt. 17.40 x.

BAGLANA, Asia, a country of Hindostan, forming the Nw part of the province of Aurungabad. It is exceedingly mountainous, but fertile in many places; and has a number of hill forts, possessed by several Mahratta chiefs. The rivers are small, and there are no towns of any great note; the chief is Chandor.

BAGNARA, a seaport of Italy, Naples, in Calabria-Ultra, near the strait of Messina, 15 m NNE Regio. Here are several high waterfalls; and among the rocks are the ruins of the former town, in which 3017 persons perished by the earthquake in 1783.

BAGNERES-DE-CAMPAN, or EN-BIGORRE, a town of France, department Haute-Pyrenees, famous for its baths and hot mineral waters; seated on the Adour, at the foot of Mount Olivet, 11 m s by E Tarbes; P. 6500.

BAGNOLS, a town of France, department Gard, 8 m s Pont-St.-Esprit ; P. 5000.

BAGSHOT, a village of England, county Surrey, 12 m N by E Farnham. Here our monarchs had formerly a house and park, which was laid open after the civil wars.

It is surrounded by an extensive heath, chiefly barren, but on its borders are a great number of handsome seats.

BAHAMA, or LUCAYO ISLANDS, North America, in the Atlantic-ocean; they are 500 in number, some of them mere rocks, but 12 are large and fertile. They extend along the coast of Florida to Cuba, on two sand-banks, called the Little and Great bank of Bahama; the former lying N of the latter. Few of them are inhabited, and they are subject to the English. The islands that give name to the whole are Bahama and Lucayo, both of them on the s part of the Little bank, which is separated from the Great-bank by a passage called Providence channel.

The passage between the two banks and the continent is called the new channel of Bahama, or gulf of Florida; Cuba, the old channel of Bahama. and the passage between the Great-bank and


of these islands was the first land of the new world descried by Columbus, in 1492, on which he landed, and called it San Salvador. The Bahamas were not known to the English till 1667, when captain Seyle being driven among them in his passage to Carolina, gave his name to one of them; and afterward, being a second time driven upon it, called it Providence. These islands produce abundance of salt, also a great quantity of dyeing woods, and some lignum vitæ, and mahogany. The only articles cultivated for exportation are cotton and coffee.

largest of the Bahama islands, lying on the BAHAMA, North America, one of the s side of the Little Bahama bank, and extending from the gulf of Florida to the island of Abaco. It contains much fine timber, but is difficult of access; it is uninhabited, and the w end is 20 leagues E of the coast of Florida: Lg. 78.54 w, Lt. 27.5 N.

BAHAR, a province of Asia, Hindostan, 230 m long by 210; bounded on the N by Nepaul, E by Bengal, s by Gund wana, and w by Gundwana, Allahabad, and Oude. The Ganges crosses it from w to E. Most

of the saltpetre exported to England is manufactured in this province; opium is also rate, and it is one of the most fertile, highly a staple commodity. The climate is tempecultivated, and populous countries of Hindostan. Patna is the capital.

BAHAR, a town of Asia, province Bahar, 35 m SE Patna. It has some mosques in a ruinous condition, and a number of magnificent funeral monuments.

BAHAWAL POOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Mooltan, the capital of a principality of considerable extent. It is noted for the manufacture of silk girdles and turbans, and stands near the left bank of the Setledge, or Gurrah, 62 m s by E Mooltan: Lg. 71.29 E, Lt. 29.19 N.

BAHIA, a province of South America, Brazil, 350 m long by 240; bounded on the N by Pernambuco and Seregipe, E by the Atlantic, s by Porto Seguro and MinasGeraes, and w by Pernambuco, from which it is separated by the St. Francisco. It has its name from the great importance of a fine bay, on which is the capital, called Bahiade-Todos-Santos [bay of All Saints], which is a great basin, nearly 30 m in diameter, and interspersed with a number of pleasant islands. It is deemed the richest and most fertile in the empire; producing gold, silver, crystals, and abundance of cotton, sugar, flax, timber, spices, and drugs. St. Salvador is the capital.

BAHREN, Asia, a cluster of islands on the sw side of the Persian gulf, near the coast of Arabia, having the most productive pearl fishery in the world.

BAHIRA, BAHIRI, or KIF, the names given by the Arabian geographers to the Delta-of-Egypt, and to the nearest districts to the E and w parts of it.

BAHRENBURG, a town of Hannover, province Hoya, on the river Suhlingen, 20 m w Nienburg.


BAHRY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Agra; it contains several fine Mahomedan tombs, and is 36 m sw Agra.

BAIAS, the ancient BALE, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Lavoro, with a castle on the brow of a rocky precipice. It was formerly famous for its hot baths and elegant palaces, of which some ruins remain. It is seated on the bay of Naples, 12 m w Naples.

BAJA, a town of Austria, Hungary, and the place of assembly for Batsch county; stands on the Danube, 35 m w by N Theresiopol.

PAILUR, OF BELOUL, a scaport of Africa, Abyssinia, and chief town in the country of Dancali. It stands on a bay of the Redsea, opposite Mocha in Arabia, 190 m E Antalo: Lg. 42.37 E, Lt. 13.13 N.

BAILURA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Mysore, with a stone fort. It has a manufacture of cochineal, and carries on a considerable trade with Jamalabad, in Canara. It is seated near the Bhadri, 60 m wNw Seringapatam.

BAIROUT, anciently Berytus, a seaport of Asia, Turkey, Syria, pachalic of Acre, surrounded by a wall with five gates, and defended by two castles. Though now garrisoned by the Turks, it is deemed the chief town of the DRUSES, who were formerly its masters. The port is nearly choked with sand and ruins; but it has a good roadstead, and vessels of different sizes are built here. The chief trade is in raw silk, wine, and

oil, and many cottons and silks are exported to Cairo. It stands on the N side of a broad promontory, environed by gardens and vineyards, 60 m NNE Acre; P. 8000, some of whom are Greeks: Lg. 35.36 E, Lt. 33.45 N.

BAKABANYA, a town of Austria, Hungary, with a rich gold mine, 14 m ssw Schemnitz.

BAKEWELL, a town of England, Peak of Derbyshire, on the Wye, 27 m NNW Derby, and 152 London, with a market on Monday. Here is a large cotton-mill; and near it, at the village of Ashford, the black and grey marbles found are sawn and polished; P. 1898. Polling-place.

BAKHMOUT, a town of Russia, government Ecatherinoslav, built on both banks of a small river of the same name; it has coal, iron, and copper mines, a cannon foundry, distilleries, and 5 churches. It is 120 m E by s Ecatherinoslav.

BAKOU, a district of Russia, of which the most populous part is the peninsula Apcheronsky, containing many salt lakes, and springs of naphtha, near Basson. The trade consists of naphtha, salt, sulphur, rice, and silk.

BAKTCHISSARAI, a large town of Crimea Russia, in a deep valley between two mountains; the rivulet Tchourouk-sou runs through the town and falls into the Catcha: it contains the khan's palace, 31 mosques, 1 Greek church, 1 Armenian, 2 synagogues, 3 Mahomedan schools, 2 public baths, 38 coffee-houses and cabarets, 5 mills, and 517 shops. The manufactures are Turkey' leather, saddles, silk-stuffs, and cutlery; P. 6000, chiefly Tartars.

BAKU, a town of Asia, Persia, province Schirvan, surrounded by a double wall and deep ditch. It is a place of considerable trade, and the most commodious and safe haven of the Caspian sea. The vicinity produces much rock salt, sulphur, naphtha, and saffron: E of the naphtha springs is a fire temple of the Guebres, near a mile in circuit, from the centre of which a bluish flame and sulphurous gas arises; and the country around has, at times, the appearance of being enveloped in flames. Baku was taken by the Russians in 1801. stands on a peninsula, 100 m E by N Schamachi: Lg. 50.15 E, Lt. 40.30 x.


BALA, a corporate town of Wales, county Merioneth, 13 m sw Corwen, 214 Nw London, with a market on Saturday; it stands on the lake of Bala, or Pemblemere, where the river Dee issues; and has a great trade in woollen stockings, webs, and flannels. Polling-place.

BALACHEF, a town of Russia, government Saratof, on the left bank of the

Khoper, 140 m s Saratof: Lg. 43.40 E, Lt. 52.0 N; P. 1500.

BALACTAVA, a seaport of Russia, Crimea, district Simphéropol, now fallen into decay, and the navigation of it prohibited in 1796: it is 18 m SSE Sebastopol.

BALAGAUT, a large country of Asia, Southern Hindostan, consisting of vast fertile plains, bordered by a stupendous wall of mountains, called the Ghauts. The form is triangular, the base to the E 240 m long, and the two sides about 280 each; bounded on the N by the rivers Toombuddra and Kissna, which part it from Bejapoor and Hydrabad, E by the Circars and the Carnatic, s by Salem and Mysore, and w (the apex) by Canara. Owing to the elevated surface of this region it has no large rivers except the two that define its N boundaries; but the soil is generally good: it is divided into many districts. Indigo and cotton are the chief products; and diamond mines are found in many parts, especially in the eastern district. This country was ceded by the nizam of the Deccan to the British in 1800; and is now formed into two collectorships, Cudapah and Balhary, the former containing the eastern, and the latter the western section.

BALAGUER, a town of Spain, province Cataluna, with a strong fort that defends a difficult pass from Tortosa to Tarragona. The fort was taken from the French by the British in 1813. It stands on the Segra, at the foot of a craggy rock, 20 m sw Tarragona, and 28 NE Tortosa.

BALAISE, a small island of North America, in the gulf-of-Mexico, with a fort, at the principal mouth of the Mississippi: Lg. 89.20 w, Lt. 29.6 N.

BALAKHNA, a town of Russia, government Nijnii, the chief of a district, on the right bank of the Volga, 16 m from Nijnii. It was founded in 1536; and is fortified with earthern ramparts and a deep ditch. It has a trade in wheat; and contains 15 churches and 1 convent; P. 3000.

BALAMBANGAM, an island of Asia, in the China-sea, 15 m long by 3, lying off the N extremity of Borneo. A settlement was formed here by the British in 1774, and treacherously expelled by the Sooloos in 1775; it was re-established in 1803, but afterward abandoned: Lg. 117.5 E, Lt. 7.15 N.

BALAPOOR, CHICA, and DODA, or Little and Great Balapoor, Asia; see CHINABALABARAM and PEDDABALABARAM.

BALARUC, a town of France, department Herault, famous for its baths. It is 12 m from Montpellier.

BALASORE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Orissa, and a place of considerable trade.

It was ceded by_the_Mahrattas to the British in 1803. It is situated on the Gongaher, 8 m from its mouth, in the bay of Bengal, and 120 sw Calcutta: Lg. 86.56 E, Lt. 21.32 N.

BALBASTRO, an episcopal city of Spain, province Aragon, 45 m ENE Saragossa.

BALBEC, the ancient Heliopolis, a town of Asia, Turkey, Syria, at the foot of Mount Libanus, near the NE extremity of the fertile valley of Bocat. On the E side are magnificent ruins, particularly those of the temple dedicated to the sun. The town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake in 1759, and is now a poor place: 37 m NNW Damascus.

BALBRIGGEN, a town of Ireland, county Dublin, with a small harbour, defended by a pier, 20 m N by E Dublin.

BALDOCK, a town of England, county Hertford, with a market on Thursday; seated among hills, 9 m wsw Royston, and 37 NNW London; P. 1704.

BALDONE, a small town of Russia, government Courland, near Mittau; famed for its mineral springs, which in summer attract much company: it contains 1 church. BALE; see BASEL.

BALEARES, or BALEARIC-ISLANDS, a number of islands lying to the E of Spain, in the Mediterranean-sea. The principal are Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica, which are populous; but those of Formentera, Cabrea, Dragonera, and other smaller ones, have few inhabitants: they belong to Spain.

BALECUNDA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Hydrabad, near the right bank of the Godavery, 94 NNE Warangol.

BALFRUSH, a town of Asia, Persia, in Mazanderan, meanly built. The bazaar, which forms the principal street, denotes an active traffic. It lies in a low valley, near the Caspian-sea, 40 m Nw Sari.

BALGA, a town of Prussia, on the FrischHaff, 24 m sw Konigsberg.

BALHARY, a fort and town of Asia, Balagaut, with a hill fort. It stands on the Hindostan, the capital of the w portion of Hoggry, 186 m N Seringapatam: Lg. 76.59 E, Lt. 15.5 N.

BALIZE, a town of North America, Yucatan, at the mouth of the Balize, in the bay of Honduras. The houses are built of wood, raised on piles, and it is the principal settlement of the English on this coast. The river is navigable for above 200 m, but vessels of burthen cannot approach the town, on account of a bar. The chief trade is in logwood and mahogany: Lg. 87.40 w, Lt. 17.30 N.

BALK, a city of Asia, Usbec-Tartary, the capital of a province lying E of Chorasan.

It has a considerable trade in silk, and is the chief seat of the commerce between Bokharia and Hindostan. The khan's castle is a magnificent structure, built of marble from the neighbouring mountains. It is seated on the Dewash, which flows into the Amu, 260 m SE Bokhara, and 310 NE Herat: Lg. 65.16 E, Lt. 36.28 N.

BALLANTRAE, a town of Scotland, county Ayr, near the mouth of the Stinchar, 24 m ssw Ayr; P. 1506.

BALLIMONEY, a town of Ireland, county Antrim, 7 m ESE Colerain, and 28 NNW Antrim.

BALLIMORE, a town of Ireland, county West Meath, 13 m NE Athlone.

BALLIMOTE, a town of Ireland, county Sligo, with an extensive linen manufacture, 14 m s Sligo.

BALLINA, a town of Ireland, county Mayo, on the Moy, 19 m N by E Castlebar.

BALLINASLOE, a town of Ireland, county Galway, where the greatest wool and cattle fairs in the island are held. It is seated on the Suck, 9 m wNw Clonfert.

BALLINROBE, a town of Ireland, county Mayo, where the assizes are held alternately with Castlebar. It is seated on both sides of the Robe, 18 m s by E Castlebar.

BALLINTOY, a town of Ireland, on the N coast of Antrim, with a tolerable good bay, and a trade in coal, 4 m w by N Ballycastle.

BALLOGISTAN, or BELOOCHISTAN, a country of Asia, comprehended between Lg. 59 and 68 E, and Lt. 25 and 30 N; but its political limits are frequently changed; it has Candahar and Cabul to the N, Hindostan to the E, the Arabian-sea on the s, and Persia on the w; and is divided into several provinces. It is composed of stupendous mountains, arid plains, and a few fine valleys. The Ballogese are so adverse to all the arts of civil life, that they have few commodities suited for trade; the popu lation is also dispersed in small societies, generally hostile to each other, and yielding but a nominal obedience to any chief. Kelat is the capital.

BALLSTON, a county town of North America, United States, state New-York, in Saratoga county. It is famous for medicinal springs, much resorted to in summer; 29 m N Albany, 406 Washington; P. 2113 in 1830.

BALLY, an island of Asia, East-Indies, 75 m long by 40, separated from the E end of Java by a channel called the strait of Bally. It is populous, abounds in rice and fruit, and furnishes checkered cloth, cotton yarn, and pickled pork. Toward the w end is the peak of Bally, which is a volcano. At the foot of this mountain, and near the

strait of Lombock, is Carang-Assem, the principal town: Lg. 115.30 E, Lt. 8.28 s.

BALLYCASTLE, a town of Ireland, on the N coast of Antrim. It has some good collieries, and stands at the mouth of the Glenshesk, 35 m x by w Antrim.

BALLYCONNEL, a town of Ireland, County Cavan, on the Woodford, 11 m xw Cavan.

BALLYMENA, a town of Ireland, county Antrim, on a branch of the Maine, 12 m NNW Antrim.

BALLYNAHINCH, a town of Ireland, County Down. Near this place, in 1793, the rebels were defeated; and the greater part of the town was burnt. It is 26 m NE Newry.

BALLYNAKILI, a borough of Ireland, Queen's county: here are some woollen manufactures, and the ruins of a castle. It is 18 m Nw Kilkenny.

BALLYSHANNON, a borough and seaport of Ireland, county Donegal, with an extensive linen manufacture. It stands near the mouth of the Erne, over which is a bridge of 14 arches; and a little above is a cataract, deemed the greatest salmon heap in Ireland. It is 11 m ssw Donegal, and 110 Nw Dublin; P. 7316.

BALMERINO, a town of Scotland, county Fife, which has a trade in corn and salmon, and a manufacture of coarse linen. The ruins of its once magnificent abbey are much admired. It is seated on the frithof-Tay, 10 in Nw St. Andrew.

BALRUDERY, a town of Ireland, county Dublin, near the sea, 18 m N Dublin.

BALTA, a small town of Russia, government Podolie, the chief of a district; the small river Codéma runs through it. It is 56 m w Doubossar.

BALTIC, an inland sea, in the xw of Europe, between the coasts of Sweden, Russia, Prussia, and Denmark. It includes the sea and gulfs of Bothnia and Finland; and a great number of islands, the principal of which are Aland, Dago, Oesel, Gothland, Oland, Bornholm, Rugen, and Laaland; and the islands of Seland and Funen, or Fyen, separate it from the Categat, by which it communicates with the ocean. The Baltic receives 240 rivers, beside a vast number of torrents and rivulets formed by the melting of the snow and ice. It has no tide, and a current always sets through the sound into the ccean. Yellow amber is found on the coast.

BALTIMORE, a borough of Ireland, county Cork, on a headland which runs into the sea, and forms a good harbour, 5 m NE of Cape Clear. It has the ruins of an abbey, and is 50 m sw Cork: Ig. 9.14 w, Lt. 51.18 N.

BALTIMORE, a city of North America, United States, state Maryland, the capital of a county, in which are numerous iron works. It is seated on the Patapsco, near its entrance into Chesapeak-bay; a creek divides the city from a town called Fellspoint, which are connected by bridges. At Fellspoint the water is deep enough for ships of 600 tons, but small vessels only go up to the town. The harbour is one of the finest in America, with a narrow entrance defended by a fort; and the commerce of this place is very considerable. It has one of the most splendid hotels in the world, which makes up 200 beds. It is 30 m Annapolis, and 38 NE Washington: Lg. 76.36 w, Lt. 39.17 N; P. 80,625 in 1830.

BALTINGLASS, a town of Ireland, county Wicklow, with extensive manufactures of linen and woollen; seated on the Slaney, 35 m sw Dublin.

BAMBA, a town of Africa, kingdom of Congo, in the rich province of Bamba, on the Loze, 160 m sw St. Salvador. It carries on a traffic in slaves: Lg. 13.52 E, Lt. 7.2 s.

BAMBAKOO, a town of Africa, Nigritia, in Bambara, on that part of the Niger where it begins to be navigable, 220 m w by s Sego: Lg. 3.45 w, Lt. 12.42 N.

BAMBARA, Africa, a large kingdom of Nigritia, lying to the sw of that of Timbuctoo. The cultivation of corn is here carried on to a great extent. Sego is the capital. MUNGO PARK'S Travels.

BAMBERG, a city of Bavaria, province Ober-Mayn, with a university. The palace is a large pile of building, and the cathedral a vast Gothic edifice. It was taken in 1758 and 1762 by the Prussians, and in 1794 by the French. It is seated on the Regnitz, near its conflux with the Mayn, 30 m N Nürenberg: Lg. 11.10 E, Lt. 49.55 N.

BAMBERG, a town of Austria, Bohemia, 47 m N Brünn.

BAMBOROUGH, a village of England, County Northumberland, on the seacoast, 14 m N Alnwick. It was once a borough, and gave name to a tract called Bamboroughshire. It has a castle, on a high rock, inaccessible on all sides, except the s, said to have been built by king Ida, about 560; it was purchased, with the manor, after the rebellion of 1715, by lord Crew, bishop of Durham, who left it for many benevolent purposes, particularly that of ministering instant relief to seamen and vessels that happen to be cast on this dangerous coast; P. 3949.

BAMBOUK, Africa, a kingdom of Nigritia, between the rivers Senegal and Gambia. It is said to be very populous, and fertile on the borders of the rivers, but in other parts

sandy and barren. The most remarkable animals are a species of white apes, white foxes, and the girafa, or cameleopardalis. There are mines of gold, silver, tin, lead, and iron. The inhabitants are Mandingos; they profess the Mohammedan religion, but disregard its rigorous laws. The capital is of the same name: Lg. 9.18 w, Lt. 14.28 N.

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BAMIAN, a city of Asia, Usbec-Tartary, the capital of a district, province Balk, near the Bamian, 170 m SSE Balk. Here are a great number of apartments and recesses cut out of a mountain; some of which, from their ornamental work and extraordinary dimensions, are supposed to have been temples: Lg. 66.57 E, Lt. 34.30 N.

BAMOO, a town of Asia, on the N borders of the Burman empire, with a fort; seated on the Irrawaddy, 20 m w from the frontiers of the province of Yunan in China, and 170 NNE Ummerapoor: Lg. 96.58 E, Lt. 24.0 N.

BAMPTON, a town of England, county Oxford, near the Isis, 16 m w by s Oxford, and 70 w by N London, with a market on Wednesday. Some remains of its ancient castle yet exist; and it has a trade in leather gloves, jackets, and breeches; P. 2514.

BAMPTON, a town of England, county Devon, 20 m N Exeter, and 162 w by s London, with a market on Saturday, a chalybeate spring, and a manufacture of serges; P. 1961.

BAMRAGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Orissa, near which to the s are iron mines and forges. It stands on the left bank of the Braminy, 52 m sw Konjeur.

BANAGHER, a borough of Ireland, King's county, on the Shannon, over which is a bridge into Galway, 33 m wsw Philiptown; P. 1814.

BANAUL, a town of Asia, Hindostan, Cashmere, in a mountainous district, 43 m SE Cashmere.

BANAWARA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Mysore, with a mud-fort, and the ruins of an extensive palace; much tobacco is cultivated in the vicinity. It is 68 m NW Seringapatam.

BANBURY, a borough of England, county Oxford, on the Charwell, 73 m NNW London, governed by a mayor, with a market on Thursday, and returns 1 M.P. It has a manufacture of plush, and is noted for its cakes and ale; P. 5906.

BANCA, an island of Asia, lying off the SE coast of Sumatra, from which it is separated by the strait of Banca. It is 130 ni long by 35, covered with wood, and celebrated for rich mines of tin. The British took possession of the island in 1812, it having been ceded to them by the sultan of Palambang. The capital is Mintao, near

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