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AMHERST, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, county Hampshire, 8 m NNE Northampton, and 91 w Boston; P. 2630 in 1830.

AMHERSTBURGH, a town and fort of North America, Upper Canada, on the E side of the Detroit, at its entrance into lake Erie Lg. 82.56 w, Lt. 42.36 N.

AMIENS, the ancient Samarobrica, a city of France, and an episcopal see, capital of the department Somme, with a citadel, 20 m SE Abbeville, and 75 N Paris. The cathedral is a stately structure, the nave of which is considered as the most beautiful in France. There are 10 parish churches, one in the suburbs, and an academy of belles lettres. Three branches of the Somme pass through this city, and afterward unite. It has manufactures of linen and woollen cloth, which employ, in the city and its vicinity, 30,000 people. The celebrated Peter the Hermit, Voiture, Gresset, and the learned Du Cange, were born here. A treaty of peace was concluded here in 1802, between Spain, Holland, France, and England: Lg. 2.18 E, Lt. 49.54 N.

AMIRANTE, or ALMIRANTE, islands in Asia, a small group of inconsiderable islands in the Indian ocean, sw of the Seychelles, or Mahee islands. They are not very fertile, nor is their geographical position accurately known.

AMLWICH, a town of Wales, on the Nw coast of Anglesea, with a harbour for small vessels, 25 m w Beaumaris, and 275 NW London. See PARYS. The church was erected by the Parys Mine Company, who have also greatly improved the town and harbour; P. 6285. Polling place.

AMMAN, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Syria, anciently the capital of the Ammonites, called Rabbah Ammon, and now the principal place of a district. It is 30 m sw Bosra.

AMMERPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Nepaul, on the right bank of the Bagmutty, 43 m SSE Catmandoo.

AMOL, a town of Asia, Usbeck Tartary, in Bokharia: seated on the Amu, 60 m w Bokharia; it has a considerable trade : Lg. 62.4 E, Lt. 39.4 N.

AMOL, or AMUL, a town of Asia, Persia, in Mazanderan, with the remains of an ancient fortress and palace. It stands in a plain between Mount Taurus and the Caspian sea, 50 m www Sari. It has manufactures of cotton, and in the neighbourhood are iron mines and cannon foundries.

AMONEBURG, a town of Hesse-Cassel, seated on the Olim, 8 m ENE Marburg.

A MORGO, an island, in the Mediterranean

Archipelago, fertile in wine, oil, and corn. The best cultivated parts belong to a monastery. It is 30 m in circuit, and 67 N Candia; Lg. 26.15 E, Lt. 36.20 N.

AMOY, an island in Asia, on the SE coast of China, 15 m in circuit. The English had a factory here, but abandoned it, on account of the impositions of the inhabitants. Its port, on the w side, is capable of receiving 1000 ships: Lg. 118.45 £, Lt. 24.20 N.

AMPHILA, an island of Africa, in the Red-sea, on the coast of Abyssinia, at the entrance of a bay to which it gives name: Lg. 41.9 E, Lt. 14.42 N.

AMPLEPUIS, a town of France, department Rhone, 16 m w Villefranche, and 26 NW Lyons; celebrated for its wines.

AMPTHILL, a town of England, county Bedford, with a market on Thursday. It is situated between two hills, 8 m s Bedford, and 45 Nw London; it was the residence of Catherine, queen of Henry VIII, during the time her unjust divorce was in agitation; and this event is commemorated by a poetical inscription on a column where the old castle stood; P. 1688. Polling place.

AMPURIAS, a seaport of Spain, in Cataluna, at the mouth of the Pluvia, 70 m NE Barcelona: Lg. 3.0 E, Lt. 42.9 N.

AMRAN, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, with a small square fort. It is seated on the gulf of Cutch, 28 m NE No


AMRAS, a castle or palace of Austria, in Tyrol, at the foot of a mountain, 2 m se Inspruck.

AMRETSIR, a city of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, and the capital of the Seik na

tion, with a modern fort. It is an open town, about 8 m in circuit, known for merly by the name of Chak, and afterward called Ramdasspoor, 40 m E by s Lahore. The present appellation is from the famous tank, or reservoir, named Amritsir, or the pool of immortality, a basin about 135 paces square, built of bricks, and in the centre stands a temple, which is attended by upward of 500 priests. The streets of the town are narrow, the houses in general lofty and built of bricks, but the apartments are confined. It is the emporium of trade for the shawls and saffron of Cashmere, and a variety of other commodi ties from the s and E parts of India; but the manufactures are only a few coarse cloths and inferior silks. It has a canal brought from the Ravee, a distance of 34 m : Lg. 74.48 E, Lat. 31.35 N.

AMSTERDAM, the largest city in Holland, formerly fortified, at the conflux of the Amstel and Wey, 46 in by post road NNE of Rotterdam. Next to London, it is deemed the most commercial city in the world. Toward the water it is protected by a double range of great piles, strengthened by transverse beams, with openings to admit vessels into the canals, which are closed by booms at night. Its chief security consists in the facility of inundating the vicinity by means of sluices. Few cities have their public buildings so fine, numerous, and well kept. Here are many handsome churches, colleges, and hospitals for persons of all religions and countries. The new church, which is of vast dimensions, contains a grand organ, reckoned superior to that at Haarlem. The exchange is one of the principal ornaments of the city, and the harbour is one of the finest in Europe. The foundation of this town is laid upon piles, driven into a morass; and under the stadthouse alone are 13,659. The stadthouse, now the royal palace, has long been celebrated for its extent and durability; and the furniture and decorations of the interior are in a style of costly magnificence. The streets are broad and well paved, and most of them have canals, with rows of trees on each side; but there are no spacious public places nor squares. It surrendered to the king of Prussia, in 1787, when that prince invaded Holland, in

favour of the stadtholder; it received the French troops in 1795, without any resistance; and in 1813 it was the first place that declared for the restoration of the house of Orange; P. 220,000: Lg. 4.53 E, Lt. 52.23 N.

AMSTERDAM, and ST. PAUL, two uninhabited islands of Australasia, in the Indian ocean, nearly in the same longitude, at 40 m asunder, the northern one is Amsterdam, and the southern one St. Paul. The former presents no very high land, and is

covered with trees, but has no convenient landing-place. St. Paul, or the southern island, is high land, upward of 4 m long by 2, and has a fertile soil, but is destitute of trees. On the E side is a crater, into which the sea has made a narrow and shallow entrance; its shelving sides are 700 feet in perpendicular height, in which are several hot springs of fresh water: Lg. 77.28 E, Lt. 38.23 s.




AMWELL, a village of England, county Hertford, 1 m s of Ware, 21 m N London'; famous for originally giving rise to the New River, which supplies a great part of London with water, which was designed by Sir Hugh Middleton in 1606, and completed in six years.

ANACOPIA, the capital of the nation of the Abkas, and is situate on the entrance of the Makai into the Black-sea: Lg. 40.30 E, Lt. 43.20 N.

ANADYR-SEA; see ANADYRSKOE-MORE. ANADYRSKOE-MORE, or sea, or gulf of Anadyr, in the North Pacific ocean, Russia: Lg. 197 to 205 E, Lt. 63 to 66 N.

ANADYRSKOI-OSTROG, a fort of Asia, Russia, in Siberia, on the Anadyr, now abandoned: Lg. 1833 E, Lt. 66.9 N.

ANAGNI, a town of Italy, in Campagna di Roma, situate on a lofty eminence, 32 m ESE Rome.

ANAH, OF ANNA, a town of Asia, Turkey, in the pachalic of Bagdad. It stands on the Euphrates, 160 m WNW Bagdad, in a country producing abundance of corn and fruit.

ANAMOOR, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Caramania. It is situated on a promontory, in the Mediterranean, 38 m sw Selesk, formerly a place of note from the extent of its ruins.

ANANOUR, a town of Georgia, Asia, at the foot of one of the Caucasian mountains, on the right bank of the Aragua, 30 m NNW Teflis, formerly considerable for its population and military strength, but now greatly reduced. It still possesses the remains of a noble church, which stood within the walls of a castle, that is also sinking to decay.

ANATTOM, an island of Australasia, the most southern of the New Hebrides, in the Pacific ocean: Lg. 170.9 E, Lt. 20.10 s.

ANBAR, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Irak. It is seated on the Euphrates, 40 m w Bagdad, with a palace, built by Solyman the Great.

ANCASTER, a village of England, county Lincoln, 15 m s Lincoln, on a Roman high

way, at the foot of a hill which abounds with antiquities; P. 471.

ANCASTER, a town of North America, Upper Canada, between the w end of lake Ontario and the Ouse, or Grand River, which flows SE to lake Erie, 30 m sw York.

ANCENIS, a town of France, department Loire-Inferieure, seated on the Loire, 20 m E Nantes.

ANCOBRA, a district of Africa, Guinea, on the Ivory coast, separated from the Gold coast, on the E, by the Ancobra, or Axim. At the mouth of the river, within the bar, is a good harbour: Lg. 1.10 w, Lt. 4.50 N.

ANCONA, LA MARCA D', a province of Italy, in the Ecclesiastical State, 70 m long by 50; bounded on the Nw by Urbino, NE by the gulf of Venice, s by Naples, and sw by Spoleto. The soil is fertile, particularly in hemp and flax, and there is plenty of wax and honey.

ANCONA, a city of Italy, and the capital of the province of Ancona; a bishop's see, with a citadel on a hill; 116 m N by E of Rome. The cathedral stands upon another hill, and the houses extend down the side of the eminence toward the gulf of Venice. Clement XII built a mole, to render the harbour safe; it is erected on the ruins of the mole raised by Trajan, and is 2000 feet long, 100 broad, and 68 high, with a battery and light-house on the point. Near this stands the triumphal arch of Trajan, built of white marble, and deemed the most perfect remains of Roman magnificence existing. Here likewise Clement erected a lazaretto, which advances a little way into the sea, in the form of a pentagon. Great numbers of Jews are settled in this city, where they have a synagogue; and they have the principal share of its commerce. Ancona was taken in 1796 by the French, who surrendered it to the Austrians in 1799: Lg. 13.35 E, Lt. 43.36 N.

ANDALUSIA, a province of Spain, sometimes divided into Upper and Lower: Upper Andalusia comprehends the province of Granada, and Lower Andalusia the districts of Seville, Cordova, and Jaen. Andalusia, in a restricted sense (excluding Granada), is 270 m long by 80; bounded on the N by Estremadura and Mancha, E by Murcia, s by Granada and the Mediterranean, and w by the Atlantic and Portugal. The Guadalquiver runs through its whole length; and it is the most fertile and trading country in Spain. The capital is Seville.

ANDAMAN ISLANDS, several islands of Asia, on the E side of the bay of Bengal. The largest, called Great Andaman, is 140 m long by 20, indented by deep bays af

fording good harbours, and intersected by vast creeks, two of which pass through the island, and at high water are navigable

for small vessels. In the centre of this island is a mountain, named Saddlepeak, about 240 feet high. The forests afford some valuable trees, as ebony and the Nicobar bread-fruit; and the edible birds' nests abound here. The only quadrupeds are wild hogs, monkeys, and rats. The inhabitants are Negroes, in a state of barbarism, and livé chiefly on fish, fruits, and herbs; their canoes are of the rudest kind. In 1793 the English made a settlement on the end of Great Andaman, which is called Port Cornwallis, and has a commodious harbour to shelter ships during the NE monsoon: Lg. 93.0 E, Lt. 13.30 N.

ANDAYE, a forified town of France, department Basses-Pyrennees, near the mouth of the Bidassoa, almost opposite Fontarabia, in Spain, 18 m sw Bayonne. It is famous for brandy.

ANDELY, a town of France, department Eure, 17 m NE Evreux, and 20 SE Rouen. It is divided by a paved road into Great and Little Andely, a mile from each other: the cloths manufactured here are in high


ANDERAB, a city of Asia, in Usbec-Tartary, capital of the province of Tokaristan ; seated on a river, and near a pass through the mountains of Hindoo-ko, 240 m ESE Balk. In its vicinity are rich quarries of lapis lazuli: Lg. 69.58 E, Lt. 36.10 N.

ANDERNACH, a post town of Prussia, province Lower-Rhine, with a castle on the Rhine, 24 German m wxw Coblentz, post road to Coln. It is famous for excellent millstones, and stones for making cement that hardens in water, from the neighbouring mountains. Great quantities of timber are also collected here, which are formed into vast rafts, and floated to Dort in Holland.

ANDES, or CORDILLERAS, a vast chain of mountains in South America, extending 4300 m along the coast of the Pacific ocean, from the isthmus of Panama to the strait of

Magalaes. In some parts they are 100 m from the coast, in others not above 50; and their greatest width is 60 m, where they divide into two branches. They are superior in height to any other mountain, except those of Himaleh, in Asia; for the plain of Quito, which may be considered as the base of the Andes, is more elevated above the sea than the top of the Pyrennees. The storms often roll, and the thunder bursts below their summits, which, though exposed to the rays of the sun in the torrid zone, are always covered with snow. highest part of this chain rises from the plain of Quito, and the loftiest mountains are from 18,000 to 21,000 feet above the


level of the sea: the medium height under the equator may be reckoned at 14,000 feet. These mountains are distinguished from others by frightful quebradas, or perpendicular rents, some of which measure about 4000 feet in a vertical descent; and the task of crossing such tremendous clefts is often a work of great toil and danger. The Andes contain numerous volcanos, many of them constantly burning, and some of the lower ones ejecting lava and other matter; they likewise give rise to waterfalls of immense height and amazing force. They are clad with large forests; and abound in gold, silver, and other metals, precious stones, marbles, and mineral earths of the rarest qualities. See ANTISANA and CHIMBO


ANDLAU, a town and castle of France, department Bas-Rhin, on a mountain, 18 m ssw Strasburg.

ANDOVER, a borough of England, county Hants, near the river Ande, 14 m x by w Winchester, and 67 w by s London. It returns 2 M.P.'s, and has a market on Saturday. It has a manufacture of shalloons, and a considerable trade in malt. A navigable canal passes hence to Southampton water; P. 4843. Polling place.

ANDOVER, a town of North America, in the United States, state Massachusetts, Essex county, on the Shawsheen, 20 m wsw Newburyport, and 22 NNW Boston. Here are a theological seminary, and an excellent academy, called Phillips's academy; also manufactures of paper and gunpowder; P. 4540 in 1830.

ANDRAIGIRY, a town of Asia, the capital of a kingdom on the E coast of Sumatra. It is seated on a river, commodious for trade, 200 m N by w Bencoolen. The chief produce is pepper: Lg. 102.0 E, Lt. 0.56 s.

ANDRARUM, a town of Sweden, province Christianstadt, 10 m s Christianstadt. It has the greatest alum work in the kingdom. ANDRAVIDA, a town in the kingdom of Greece, in the Morea, province Gastouni, 18 m E by s cape Klarenza.

ANDREASBERG, a town of Hannover, province Göttingen, 28 m NE Göttingen; with good silver mines.

ANDREOSSA, or ANDROUSSA, a town in the kingdom of Greece, Morea, at the foot of a perpendicular mountain, and near the Pirnazza, 40 m w Mistra.

ANDROS, an island of the kingdom of Greece, in the Archipelago, Mediterranean, 24 m long by 8. It has fertile plains, but no good harbour. The inhabitants are of the Greek church, and have a bishop and several monasteries. Its exports consist of silks, oranges, citrons, mulberries, pomegranates, and figs. Andros is the capital,

situated on the E coast: Lg. 25.2 E, Lt. 38.0 N.

ANDROS ISLANDS, North America, a chain of islands among the Bahamas, extending in a sort of curve, from N to 8, upward of 40 leagues. The principal island is 50 m long, but it has few inhabitants, and its shores are difficult of access. High-Point, the most s part, is 26 m ssw of the w point of Providence: Lg. 77.25 w, Lt. 24.48 N.

ANDROUVSOVA, a village of Russia, goRussia and Poland was signed here in 1667. vernment Smolensk. A treaty between

ANDUGAN, a town of Asia, in UsbecTartary, the capital of province Fergana, 300 m NE Samarcand: Lg. 68.55 E, Lt. 42.25 N.

ANDUJAR, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir, 25 m NNW Jaen. It has six churches and nine convents; the environs abound in wheat, wine, oil, honey, and fruit; P. 20,000.

ANEGADA, North America, the most northern of the English Virgin-Islands: Lg. 64.7 w, Lt. 18.40 N.

ANGARAES, a province of South America, in Peru, E of the Andes, of which the capital is Guancavilica.



ANGERBURG, a post town of Prussia, province Ost-Preussen, on the N side of a lake called Maner-see, with a castle, 174 German m by post road SE Konigsberg.

ANGERMANLAND, or WESTER-NORERLAND, a province of Sweden, 150 m long by 25 to 80, the widest part being to the E, on the sea of Bothnia. It is mountainous and woody; produces a quantity of flax, which is spun and dressed in a peculiar manner; and has considerable iron-works. The chief town is Hernosand.

ANGERMUNDE, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, on lake Munde, 50 m by post road NE Berlin.


ANGERS, a city of France, the capital of department Mayenne-et-Loire, and an episthe influx of the Sarte, 50 m ENE Nantes, copal see. It is seated on the Mayenne, at and 167 sw Paris. It is divided by the Mavenne into two parts; the western, which extends into a plain, and the eastern, which rises on the side of a hill. castle, flanked by 18 round towers, is situated on a rock, and contains the tomb of Réné, king of Sicily. The cathedral consists of one long avenue, surmounted by a Gothic arched roof, without a pillar; it contains the monument of Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry IV of England. Here are considerable manufactures of kerchiefs and canvas; and the slate quarries,

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ANGLEN, OF ANGELEN, a small country of Denmark, in the duchy of Sleswick. Many authors suppose that from the people of this country the English originated; being called in to assist the Britons against the invaders from Norway, and in process of time becoming masters of the country, they gave it the name of England.

ANGLESEY, an island, and the most northern county of Wales, 24 m long by 18, containing 257,280 acres It is divided into 6 hundreds, and 77 parishes; has 2 market towns; returns 1 county and 1 borough M.P., and has 4 polling places. It is separated from Carnarvonshire by a narrow channel called Menai, which passes from St. George's channel, by Carnarvon and Bangor, to the Irish sea, and over which a stupendous suspension bridge has been recently erected, so high that vessels pass under. That part of the island which borders the strait is finely wooded, recalling to mind its ancient state, when it was the celebrated seat of the Druids, whose terrific religious rites were performed in the gloom of the thickest woods. rude mounds, circles, and monumental stones, said to be druidical remains, are still to be seen; but a little way within, the whole appears an open tract, without trees or hedges, watered by numerous rills, fertile in grass and corn, and abounding in cattle. Produces vast quantities of copper and sulphur (see PARYS), and in the NW part is a quarry of green marble, intermixed with asbestos. Beaumaris is the county town, but Holyhead is the largest ; P. 33,806 in 1801, and 48,325 in 1831.


ANGOLA, Africa, a kingdom of Congo, bounded on the N by Congo Proper, E by Matamba, s by Benguela, and w by the Atlantic. The country is divided among several petty princes, and the Portuguese have several settlements on the coast; but the British and Dutch traffic with the natives. Loanda is the capital. It produces maize, beans, oranges, lemons, and several

other fruits. The inhabitants are very lazy, generally idolaters, and take as many wives as they think fit.

ANGORA, OF ANGOURA, the ancient Ancyra, a city of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, and a Greek archbishop's see. The castle, in a dilapidated state, occupies the summit of a high rock, perpendicular on three sides, and has a triple enclosure. It stands on a lofty situation, near a small river, 210 m ESE Constantinople. The environs are rich in fruit and pasturage. Here, and for many

miles around, are bred the finest goats, whose white and silvery coats, almost like silk, are worked into fine shawls. Near this place Tamerlane defeated Bajazet, and took him prisoner, in 1402; P. about 22,000 : Lg. 32.36 E, Lt. 39.50 N.

ANGOSTURA, a town of South America, in Colombia, province Carthagena, on the Magdalena, at the influx of the Nures, 110 m N by w Bogota, 300 s Carthagena.

ANGOULEME, a town of France, capital of department Charente, and the see of a bishop. It is seated on a hill, by the river Charente, 66 m s by w Poitiers. It has manufactures of woollen, earthenware, and excellent paper; also a royal foundry of cannon for the marine, and numerous forges. Balzac, whose letters were once greatly admired, and Ravaillac, the assassin of Henry IV, were both natives of this place; P. about 15,000: Lg. 0.9 E, Lt. 45.39 N.

ANGOU MOIS, an old province of France, lying to the s of Poitou, and E of Saintonge. It now forms the department Charente.

ANGRA, Africa, the capital of the island defended by a strong castle. It is a bishop's of Terceira, one of the Azores, fortified and Azores. The town is well built, and popusee, and the residence of the governor of the lous; and here are royal magazines for all sorts of naval stores. It stands on a bay, between two mountains, on the s side of the

island; Lg. 27.14 w, Lt. 38.39 N.

ANGRA-DE-LOS-REYS, a seaport of South America, in Brazil, province Rio Janeiro, 70 m w St. Sebastian: the harbour is much larger than that of Rio, and has three entrances, formed by two islands, two of which will admit vessels of the largest size; a great number of islands are scattered in the bay, most of which are inhabited. The town is defended by two redoubts, and has a considerable commerce.

ANGUILLA, or SNAKE ISLAND, North America, the most northerly of the Caribbee islands, 30 m long by 3, 60 m Nw of St. Christopher. It takes its name from its winding figure: Lg. 63.10 w, Lt. 18.12 N.


ANHALT, a small principality, Germany, by Prussia. It abounds in corn, and is watered 42 m long by 10 to 15; bounded on all sides by the Saale and Mulda. Its ancient castle is in ruins. Zerbst is the largest town.

ANHALT, an island of Denmark, in the Categat, surrounded by sand banks, but it affords good anchorage and supplies of water. It was taken by the British in 1809, who defeated the Danes in their attempt to retake it in 1811. On it there is a lighthouse: Lg. 11.35 E, Lt. 56.41 N.


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