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Bradner and Rustock, a town, county Hereford; P. 424.-15th, Barton-in-theClay, a parish, county Bedford; P. 720.— 16th, Barton-and-Eastley, a tithing, county South Hampton; P. 70.-17th, Great Barton, a parish, county Suffolk; P. 778.— 18th, Barton Hartshorn, a parish, county Bucks; P. 145.-19th, Barton-on-theHeath, a parish, county Warwick; P. 208. -20th, High Barton, a town, county Westmoreland; P. 346.-21st, BartonMills, parish, county Suffolk; P. 591.— 22nd, Barton-Regis, a hundred, county Gloucester; P.44,812-23rd, Barton-underNeedwood, county Stafford; P. 591.-24th, Barton-St. David, a parish, county Somerset; P. 410.-25th, St. Mary-Barton, a hamlet, county Gloucester; P. 786.-26th, Barton-upon-Humber, a town, county Lincoln, with a market on Monday; it contains 2 large churches, and was formerly a considerable place, surrounded by ramparts, of which there are extensive remains; it has passage boats to Hull, in Yorkshire, every tide; it is 35 m N Lincoln, 164 London; P.3231. Polling-place.-27th, St. Michael's Barton, a hamlet, county Gloucester; P. 676. -28th, Barton-Seagrave, a parish, county Northampton; P. 203.-29th, BartonStace, a parish, county South Hampton; P. 623.-30th, Barton-Steeple, a parish, county Oxford; P. 606.- 31st, Barton-inthe-street, a parish, county North York; P. 436.-32nd, Barton-le-Street, a town, County North York; P. 190.-33rd, BartonTurf, a parish, county Norfolk; P. 391.— 34th, Barton-Westcott, a parish, county Oxford; P. 258.-35th, Barton-Willows, a town, county North York; P. 202.

BARUTH, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, with a castle, 33 m SE Pots


BASARTSCHICK, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Romania. It has a great trade, and is seated on the Meritz: Lg. 24.40 E, Lt. 42.19 N.

BASCAKOVKA, a small town of Russia, government Saratof, district Volsk, 58 m from Saratof, on the Tichanka, which falls into the Volga. It is a German colony, founded in 1763; P. 35 families, Lutherans.

BASEL, or BASLE, a canton of Switzerland, 34 m long by 21, bounded on the N by France and Brisgau, E by Aargau, s by Soleure and Bern, w by Bern. In 1815 a small part of the late bishopric of Basel was added to the canton.

BASEL, the capital of canton Basel, and the largest city in Switzerland, 174 m N by E Geneva, and 250 E by s Paris. It is surrounded by thick walls, flanked by towers and bastions, and is divided into 2 parts by the Rhine, which communicate by a handsome bridge. The smaller part stands on a plain, and has 2 gates; the

large has 5 gates, 6 suburbs, numerous streets and fountains, and is partly seated on a hill. The principal church, an elegant Gothic building, contains the tomb of the great Erasmus. The town house, and its fine paintings by Holbein, a native of this city, are much admired. The university, founded in 1459, has a fine library, and a rich cabinet of medals. Basel has several manufactures, particularly of paper, ribands, and cottons; and it carries on an extensive trade. Three treaties of peace were concluded here in 1795 with the French republic, namely, by Prussia, Spain, and Hesse-Cassel. In 1814 the emperors of Russia and Austria, and the king of Prussia, met here, and proceeded on their warfare to Paris. Paper is said to have been invented here; and here were born Hans Holbein, the painter, John and James Bernouilli, celebrated mathematicians, and Euler, a mathematician and a philosopher: Lg. 7.30 E, Lt. 47.35 N.

BASEL, or BASLE, BISHOPRIC OF, lately a territory in the Nw part of Switzerland, whose sovereign bishop was a prince of the German empire, and the capital was Porentru. In 1798 the French seized on this territory, and added it to the department of Haut-Rhin. In 1815 it was re

stored to Switzerland, when a small part was added to the canton of Basel, and the remainder to that of Bern; P. 55,330.

BASHEE, an island of Asia, in the Chinasea, the most eastern of a cluster called the Bashee-islands, lying to the s of Formosa; of a circular form, 6 m in diameter, and has a town of the same name. The productions are plantains, bananas, pine apples, sugarcanes, potatoes, yams, and cotton. The quadrupeds are goats and hogs: Lg. 120.30 E, Lt. 21.0 N.

BASILICATA, a province of Italy, in Naples, bounded on the N by Capitanata and Bari, E by the gulf of Taranto, s by Calabria Citra, and w by Principato Citra and Ultra. It has some mountains continually covered with snow, but is fertile in corn, wine, oil, cotton, honey, and saffron. Acerenza is the capital.

BASINGSTOKE, a corporate town of England, county Hants, with a market on Wednesday. It has a great trade in corn and malt, a manufacture of druggets and shalloons, and a navigable canal to the Wey, near its entrance into the Thames. It is 18 m NNE Winchester, and 45 w by s London; P. 3581. Polling-place.


BASOUDHA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Malwah, seated on the Betwah, 46 m NE Bilsah.

BASQUES, LES, a district of France, in Gascony, s of the Adour, now part of the

department of Basses-Pyrenees. The language of the inhabitants is said to be a dialect of the Celtic.

BASS, an insulated rock, near the coast of Scotland, at the entrance of the frith-ofForth, between North Berwick and Dunbar. It is inaccessible on all sides, except the sw, and there it is with difficulty a man can climb up by the help of a rope or a ladder. In May and June it is covered with the nests, eggs, and young birds of the gannets, or solan geese. The rock is 1 m in circuit, and a ruinous castle, once the state prison of Scotland, stands at the edge of the precipice. The garrison, in 1694, surrendered to William III, and the fortifications were demolished.

BASS-STRAIT, Australasia, a channel about 40 leagues wide, which separates Van-Diemen-Land from the s extremity of New-South-Wales. It was discovered in 1798, by surgeon Bass, in an open whaleboat, and passed through by him and Lieutenant Flinders, in the Norfolk, in 1799. It is crossed towards the E end by a chain of small islands.

BASSANO, a town of Italy, in Vincentino, on the Brents, 18 m N Vicenza. It is situated in a country producing excellent wine and oil. The French defeated the Austrians at this place in 1796.

BASSE, a town of France, department Nord, formerly of great strength, but dismantled by Louis XIV, 18 m sw Lisle.

BASSES-ALPES, a department of France, the capital of which is Digne; P. 147,910.

BASSEIN, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Aurungabad, chief of the mountainous but fertile district of Baglana; on the sea coast, opposite the NW point of the island of Salsette, 27 m N Bombay. The teak forests that supply the marine yard at Bombay extend along the w side of the Ghauts, to the NE of the town. It was taken by the British in 1780, but restored to the Mahrattas in 1783; and here, in 1802, was signed the celebrated treaty between the peishwa and the British, which annihilated the Mahrattas as a federal empire: Lg. 72.56 E, Lt. 19.15 N.

BASSETERRE, North America, WestIndies, the capital of St. Christopher, built by the French, when this part of the island was in their possession, before it was ceded to the English in 1713. It stands upon the SE end of the island, has a considerable trade, and is defended by 3 forts: Lg. 62.36 w, Lt. 17.24 N.

BASSETERRE, North America, WestIndies, the capital of Guadaloupe, on the sw part of the island, defended by a citadel and other fortifications: Lg. 94.53 E, Lt. 16.52 N.

BASSEIN, OF PERSAIM, a town of Asia, in Pegu, capital of province Bassein. It is a trading place, on the Bassein, which is the w branch of the Irrawaddy, 110 m sw Pegu: Lg. 94.53 E, Lt. 16.52 x.

BASSORA, or BASRA, a city of Asia, Turkey, in Irak. It stands on the Euphrates, a canal from which divides the city into two parts, and over it is a bridge of boats; 40 m NW of the mouth of the Euphrates, in the gulf of Persia, and 270 SE Bagdad. Merchants of Arabia, Turkey, Armenia, and Greece, and many Jews and Indians, reside here; the English and Dutch have their consuls, and their ships come loaded with all the merchandise of India, which are conveyed hence to Bagdad, Aleppo, Constantinople, and even to the Mediterranean shores. The neighbouring countries furnish also merchandise for exchange; the most considerable of which are the ancient copper of Persia, pearls, grain, dates, wine, and dry fruits. Bassora be longs rather to the Arabs than the Turks ; the language of the former is chiefly spoken, and their prince pays but little respect to the Ottoman court. It is surrounded by a wall of clay, 6 m in circuit, and defended by circular bastions. The streets are narrow, and the houses have a mean aspect; P. 80,000: Lg. 44.46 E, Lt. 30.31 x.

BASTIA, a seaport of Europe, Turkey, in Albania, opposite the island of Corfu, at the mouth of the Calamu: Lg. 20.20 E, Lt. 39.40 N.

BASTIA, a fortified city of Corsica, and capital of the island, with a good harbour for small vessels. It stands on the side of a hill, and is divided into the old and new towns. Its fortifications are a rampart flanked with bastions. It was taken by the British in 1794, and evacuated in 1796. It is 80 m ssw Leghorn; P.11,000: Lg.9.26 E, Lt. 42.41 N.

BASTIDA, a town of Spain, in Biscay, 17 m ssw Vittoria.

BASTOGNE, a city of Belgium, grand duchy Luxemburg, near the forest of Ardennes. It was fortified by the French in 1688, and being so very populous and well built, was frequently called Paris in Ardennes. It is 23 m NNW Luxemburg.

BATACOLO, a town of Asia, on the E coast of Ceylon, with a small fort, and a harbour that adınits of small craft. It is 66 m SSE Trincomalee.

BATALHA, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, celebrated for its rich monastery, founded in 1386 by John I, who is interred here with his queen Philippa. It is 8 m ssw Leira.

BATAVIA, the ancient name of an island in Holland; see BETUWE. The term Batavia is sometimes used to denominate the

whole country of Holland, or Dutch Ne- meeting-houses. Bath exceeds every town therlands.

BATAVIA, a city and seaport of Asia, in Java, capital of the island, and of all the Dutch settlements in the East-Indies. Its figure is that of a parallelogram, 4200 feet long by 3000, and the streets cross each other at right angles. The public edifices consist of the great church, a Lutheran and Portuguese church, a mosque, a Chinese temple, the stadthouse, the spiclhouse, the infirmary, and the chamber of orphans. The fort is built of coral rock, brought from some of the adjoining islands. A part of the town wall is built of dense lava from the mountains in the centre of Java. No stone, of any kind, is to be found for many miles beyond this city; but marble and granite are brought here from China. The harbour is excellent, and there are canals in the principal streets, planted on each side with trees. All the goods brought from other parts of the East-Indies are laid up here, till they are exported to their places of destination. The city surrendered

to a British force in 1811. It stands on the Jacatra, amid swamps and stagnant pools, which, with the fogs and climate, render the air unwholesome to Europeans; P. reduced from 160,000 to 48,000: Lg. 106.52 E,

Lt. 6.8 s.

BATAVIA, a county town of North America, in the United States, state New-York, Genessee county. It is 40 m E by N Buffalo, and 48 w by N Canandaigua; P. 4271 in 1830.

BATE, OF BHATTA, an island and town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, with a fort, a good harbour, and a temple connected with that of Dwaraca. It is situated at the sw point of the gulf-of-Cutch: Lg. 69.20 E, Lt. 22.24 N.

BATH, a city of England, county Somerset, governed by a mayor, with a market on Wednesday and Saturday. Returns 2 M.P. It has been famous, from the time of the Romans, for its hot springs, which are not only used as baths, but internally as a medicine; and great benefits are derived from them in gouty, paralytic, bilious, and other cases. The reputation of these waters has so much increased, that Bath is become the principal resort, next to the metropolis, for the nobility and gentry, and the constant residence of many opulent invalids, as well as numerous votaries of dissipation. poor who come here to drink the waters, may be received into a noble hospital. The baths are distinguished by the names of the Cross, the Hot, the King's, the Queen's, the Corporation, and the Duke of Kingston, or Abbey bath. This city, conjoined with Wells, constitute one bishopric. The cathedral is a magnificent edifice; and there are 8 parish churches, beside chapels and


in England in splendour and elegance of buildings; they being constructed of a white stone, and many of them quite open to the country. It is seated on the Avon, which is navigable hence to the sea, 13 m ESE Bristol, and 107 w London; P. 38,063: Lg. 2.21 w, Lt. 51.22 N. Polling-place.

BATH, 4 in North America, United States. 1st, a town, state Maine, Lincoln county, head of winter navigation, w side of the Kennebec, 35 m NE Portland; P. 3773 in 1830.-2nd, a county, state Virginia, Bath county town; P. 4003.-3rd, a county town, state Virginia, Bath county. 4th, a county town, state New-York, Bath county; P. 3387, all in 1830.

BATHGATE, a town of Scotland, county Linlithgow, which has a manufacture of muslin, and extensive quarries of freestone. It is 13 m w by s Edinburg; P. 3593.

BATHUMI, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Guriel, at the mouth of the river Bathumi, in the Black-sea, 30 m N by E


BATNEER, OF BATINDA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, and capital of the Bhatty country, whose chiefs were originally Rajpoots, but are now Mohammedans. It is 150 m WNW Delhi: Lg. 74.56 E, Lt. 29.26 N.

BATO, one of the Ladrone islands, Asia: Lg. 143.0 E, Lt. 12.0 N.

BATOA, Asia, a small island in the Indianocean, near the w side of Sumatra, on the equinoctial line: Lg. 98.0 E.

BATOURINE, a town of Russia, government Tchernigof, district Nejine, on the Sejma, which falls into the Desma. It has

1 convent and 4 churches; P. of town and

dependencies, 9259 males.

BATTALAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, situated in a fruitful plain, 26 m NE Amritser.

BATTECOLLA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, on the coast of Concan. It produces much rice and pepper; 24 m SSE Onore.

BATTENBURG, or BATENBURG, a town of Holland, province Gelderland, with a castle, on the N bank of the Maas, 10 m sw Nimegen.

BATTENBURG, a town and castle of Hesse-Cassel, on the Eder, 16 m N Marburg.

BATTERSEA, a village of England, county Surrey, 4 m wsw London, with a wooden bridge over the Thames to Chelsea; P. 5540.

BATTICALO, a town and fortress of Asia, on the E side of Ceylon, on a small island, at the entrance of a narrow inlet of the sea,

which extends 30 m into the country. It is 54 m SSE Trincomalee.

BATTLE, a town of England, county Sussex, with a market on Thursday, 24 m E Lewes, and 56 SE London. Between this place and Hastings, William duke of Normandy defeated Harold king of England, in 1066, and in memory of the victory he founded here an abbey, which from its remains appears to have been magnificent. It is famous for a manufacture of gunpowder; P. 2999. Polling-place.

BATTLEFIELD, a village of England, county Salop, 5 m N Shrewsbury. Here the decisive victory was gained by Henry IV over Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur, in 1403; P. 70.

BATURIN, a small town of Russia, government Tchernigof, once the residence of the hetman of the Cosaques, 80m ESE Tchernigof; P. about 2000.—LYALL's Travels in Russia, &c.

BAVARIA, circle, one of the former divisions of Germany, was bounded E by Austria, w by Suabia, N by Franconia and Bohemia, and s by Tyrol, area 16,588 square m; P. about 1,300,000.

BAVARIA, a kingdom, the largest of the second rank in Europe, bounded E and s by Austria, N by several small states, and w by Baden and Würtemberg: divided into 8 provinces or circles, each having a capital or chief town, viz. 1st, Ober-Main, capital Baireuth; 2nd, Unter-Main, Würzburg; 3rd, Regen, Regensburg; 4th, Rezat, Ansbach; 5th, Ober-Donau, Augsburg; 6th, Isar, München; 7th, Unter-Donau, Passau; 8th, Rhein, Speyer, a detached portion of the kingdom; present area, 32,000 square m, but in 1801 was only 22,000, with a P. of about 2,300,000. During the wars of the revolution, Bavaria, having generally followed the politics of Bonaparte, was rewarded by extensive territorial additions chiefly separated from Austria; on the reverses which the French experienced in 1813, the king concluded a secret treaty with the allies, engaging to supply a certain body of troops to act against the French, by which he secured the integrity of his enlarged territory. The government is an unlimited monarchy: the succession hereditary in the male line, but should every male heir be extinct, then it passes to the nearest female. The revenue is estimated at about 24 millions sterling. The military forces amount to about 50,000. The face of the country is diversified; that part towards Tyrol is mountainous, but nearer the Donau or Danube it is flat; on the N of that river are other mountainous tracts; the s contains many lakes, forests, and sandy tracts; the E is the most fertile. The provinces towards the Maine and Rhine produce much

rye, wheat, oats, barley, fruit, hops, flax, &c. and rear great quantities of swine for export. There is but one iron mine, which is near Hohen-Aschau, where forges and foundries are established; its other minerals are gypsum, pit-coal, mill-stones, salt, vitriol, lime, marble, and various argillaceons earths. Its chief manufactures are coarse woollens and cotton cloths, playingcards, glass, earthenware, paper, porcelain, clocks and watches, nearly all carried on at or near München, Friedburg, and Nymphenburg. At München the art of drawing on stone or lithography was first discovered, and is there practised to a great degree of perfection; P. about 3 millions, of whom one-fifth only are Protestants, yet they enjoy every civil and military privilege.

BAULEAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, on the Ganges, 21 NE Moorshedabad.

BAUME-LES-NONES, or BAUM-LESDAMES, a town of France, department Doubs, on the Doubs, 15 m NE Besançon. It had a nunnery, from which it received its appellation.

BAUMAN-ISLANDS, three islands of Australasia, in the Pacific-ocean, discovered by Bauman, a Dutchman, who accompanied Roggewin, in 1772. They are covered with fruit trees, and divers sorts of vegetables. The inhabitants are numerous, and armed with bows and arrows, but friendly to strangers. The largest island is about 22 m in circuit: Lg. 169.30 w, Lt. 13.50 s.


BAUTZEN, or BUDISSEN, a post town in the E of Saxony, on the Spree, which is here very inconsiderable, 7 Gerinan m ENE by post road to Dresden, post road to Breslau. The town-hall, academy, orphan's-house, house of correction, water machines, and public walks, are interesting. It has manufactures of cloth, linen, leather, paper, fustian, and worsted stocking knitting. this place, in June 1813, the French, retreating from Moscow, after a very sanguinary battle, gained a temporary victory over the Russians and Prussians. Many of the houses in the town were struck by the cannon shot, and the proprietors in memory of that event have cemented cannon shot, half projecting, into the holes thus made; P. 3500.

BAUX, a town of France, department Bouches-du-Rhone, seated on a rock, with a castle, 10 m E by N Arles; P. 3540.

BAWTRY, a town of England, county West York, with a market on Thursday; it is seated on the Idle, 9 m s by E Doncaster, and 153 N London; and has a trade in lead, millstones, and grindstones; P. 1149.

BAYA, a seaport of Africa, Guinea, on the Gold-coast, 60 m ESE Acra: Lg. 1.50 E, Lt. 5.45 N.

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BAYAZID, a city of Turkish Armenia, with a strong castle on a hill, situated on the confines of Persia, and at the foot of mount Ararat, 180 m ESE Erzerum. It is surrounded by a wall and ramparts, and is governed by a pashaw. Here is a monastery famous for its architecture, antiquity, and grandeur: Lg. 44.43 E, Lt. 39.23 N.

BAYEUX, a town of France, department Calvados, the ancient Biducassum, a bishop's


It is seated on the Aure, 4 m from the English channel, and 145 w by N Paris. The cathedral is a fine structure, and contains the celebrated tapestry representing the conquest of England by William the Conqueror, said to be the work of his wife Matilda. Its chief trade is corn, hemp, cattle, woollen stuffs, stockings, lace, and leather; P. 10,000.

BAYLEN, a town of Spain, province Andalusia. In 1808, the Spaniards, under Castanos, captured the whole of a French army, 25,000 men, near this place. It is 20 m N Jaen.

BAY-OF-GOOD-HOPE, on the w coast of North America, in the Polar-sea, sw portion of Kotzebue-sound, Cape Espenberg on the Nw, and Cape Deceit on the SE; for Lg. and Lt. see the Capes.

BAYONA, a fortified town of Spain, province Gallicia, on a small gulf of the Atlantic, with a convenient harbour, 12 m w by N Tuy.

BAYONNE, a fortified city and seaport of France, department Les-Basses-Pyrenees, and a bishop's see. The Nive and Adour unite their streams in the city, and proceed to the sea, at the distance of 3 m. The first, which is deeper and more rapid than the Adour, divides the town into 2 parts, the smallest of which is called the Bourgneuf, or new-town. They have a communication by 3 wooden bridges; a bank of sand, at the mouth of the Adour, renders the entrance of the harbour difficult. The citadel is very strong; the cathedral is remarkable for the height of the nave, and the delicacy of the pillars which support it. The military weapon the bayonet, derives its name from this city, where it was invented. The chocolate and hams of Bayonne are much esteemed; it exports wines, woollen cloths, silks, cottons, &c. Its chief trade is with Spain, and it is a kind of emporium for the merchandise of that country. It is 105 m s by w Bourdeaux; P. 13,250: Lg. 1.29 w, Lt. 43.29 N.

BAYPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, int Malabar, at the mouth of a river. Vessels of 400 tons are built here of teak; and from the chips and saw-dust teak tar is extracted. It is 7 m s by E Calicut.

BAYREUTH, OF BAIREUTH, a city of Bavaria, capital of province Ober-Main, with a palace, a castle, and college. Near it, forming a kind of suburb, is the town of Georgen, which has a large castle, a manufacture of brown and white porcelain, and a house of correction, in which the marble of the country is polished by means of a machine; see CULMBACK. Bayreuth is 33 m E Bamberg: Lg. 11.52 E, Lt. 49.55 N.

BAZA, a town of Spain, province Granada, at the foot of a high mountain. The front of the market-house is supported by 9 iron cannon, which, in 1489, aided in taking this place from the Moors. It is 21 m ENE Guadix.

BAZAAR, a town of Asia, Afghanistan, in Cabul, near the w bank of the Indus, about 20 m above Attock, in Hindostan.

BAZAS, a town of France, department Gironde, seated on a rock, 30 m SSE Bourdeaux; P. 4500.

BEACHY-HEAD, the highest promontory on the s coast of England, between Hastings and Seaford, in Sussex. Off this cape, in 1690, the French obtained a decisive victory over the combined English and Dutch fleets : Lg. 0.15 E, Lt. 50.44 N.

BEACONSFIELD, a town of England, county Buckingham, with a market on Thursday. It is seated on a hill, 23 m wNw London; P. 1763. Polling-place.

BEAMINSTER, a town of England, county Dorset, with a market on Thursday, 15 m WNW Dorchester, and 137 w by s London; manufactures of canvass, iron, and copper suffered greatly by fire, in 1781; P. 2968. Polling-place.

BEARN, an old province of France, s of Gascony, on the confines of Spain, now part of Les-Basses-Pyrenees.

BEAUCAIRE, a town of France, department Le-Gard, on the Rhone, opposite Tarascon, with which it communicates by a bridge of boats; much trade is carried on here, and its annual fair, on the 22nd July, is held for days; P. 9800. it is 12 m E Nismes.

BEAVER, a county town of North America, United States, state Pennsylvania, Beaver county, on the Ohio, at the influx of the Big Beaver, 36 m Nw Pittsburg. It has various manufactures; P. 914, in 1830.

BEAUFORT, 4 in North America, United States:-1st, a county of North Carolina; P. 10,949.—2nd, a district of South Carolina, on the sea-coast, between Savannah and Com

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