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barree river; P. 25,887, slaves 20,914.-3rd, a seaport of South Carolina, district Beaufort, on Port-Royal island, 73 m s Charlestown; a good harbour, and the tonnage of shipping was 1537 in 1815; a chartered college with considerable funds.-4th, a seaport of North Carolina, Carteret county, 27 m cape Lookout; P. about 500; all in 1830.

BEAUFORT, a town of France, department Mayenne-et-Loire, with a castle, 15 m E Angers; P. 3000.

BEAUGENCY, a town of France, department Loiret, famous for its wines; seated on the Loire, 15 m sw Orleans; P. 4500.

BEAUJEU, a town of France, department Rhone, with an ancient castle, seated on the Ardiere, at the foot of a mountain, 13 m NNW Villefranche; P. 3000.

BEAULEY, a town of Scotland, county Inverness, at the mouth of the Beauley, 12 m NW Inverness.

BEAULIEU, a village of England, county Hants, on a river of its name, 6 m ssw Southampton. It has a manufacture of coarse sacking; and on the opposite side of the river are the remains of its famous abbey, founded by king John. In this abbey Margaret of Anjou sought refuge after the defeat and death of the earl of Warwick. Perkin Warbeck also fled here for safety.

BEAULIEU, a town of France, department Indre-et-Loire, on the Indre, opposite Loches.

BEAU MARIS, a borough of Wales, and the county-town of Anglesey, governed by a mayor, returns 1 M. P. with Amlwich, Holyhead, and Llangefni, each of them polling-places. It has a market on Wednesday and Saturday. It stands on the strait of Menai, was fortified with a castle by Edward I, and has a good harbour; 59 m w by N Chester, and 251 Nw London; P.2497: Lg. 4.13 w, Lt. 53.17 N. Polling-place. BEAUMONT, a town of France, department Nord, between the Maas and Sambre, 10 m E Maubeuge.

a town


BEAUMONT-LE-ROGER, France, department L'Eure, 17 m WNW Eureux; on the Rille; P. 1800.

BEAUMONT-SUR-OISE, a town of France, department Seine-et-Oise, on the Oise, 20 m N Paris; P. 2100.

BEAUNE, a fortified town of France, department Côte-d'Or, famous for its wine. It is seated on the Bouzeoise, 20 m ssw Dijon; P. 10,000.

BEAUVAIS, a city of France, capital of department Oise, an episcopal see. The cathedral is admired for its fine choir; and the church of St. Stephen is remarkable for its curious windows. It has a good trade in beautiful tapestry, linen and woollen cloths, calicoes, and serges. In 1472 it was be

sieged by Charles duke of Burgundy, and saved by the courage of the women, headed by Jeanne Hachette.-MEZERAY, Hist. de France. It is seated on the Thesin, 42 m N Paris; P. 12,800: Lg. 2.5 E, Lt. 49.26 N.

BEAUVOIR-SUR-MER, a town of France, department La-Vendee, on the bay-of-Biscay, 32 m NNW Sables d'Olonne; P. 2250.

BECCLES, a corporate town of England, County Suffolk, with a market on Saturday. It is seated on the Waveney, 12 m sw Yarmouth, and 109 NE London. It has a noble church, with a lofty steeple; and a grammar school, endowed with 10 scholarships for Emmanuel college, Cambridge; P. 3862. Polling-place.

BECHIN, a town of Austria, Bohemia, with several medicinal springs and mines of salt. It has an ancient fortified castle, and stands on the Lausnitz, 57 m s by w Prague: Lg. 14.23 E, Lt. 49.18 N.

BECHOVо, a Greek colony of Russia, government Ecatherinoslov, on the Byk100 houses.

BEDALE, a town of England, county North York, market on Tuesday, 10 m SE Richmond, and 227 NNW London; P. 2707.

BEDDINGTON, a village of England, County Surrey, 2 m w Croydon; the church is a gothic pile, with stalls in the manner of a cathedral; P. 1429.

BEDEN, OF BEDING, a village of England, County Sussex, 13 m w Lewes, near the Beden, which enters the English channel at New Shoreham.

BEDFONT, a village of England, county Middlesex, 11 m sw London; P. 968. Polling-place.

BEDFORD, a borough and county-town of England, county Bedford, with a market on Tuesday and Saturday, 50 m N by w Lon don, and returns 2 M.P. It is seated on the Ouse, which divides it, united by a bridge with a gate at each end; the principal manufacture is thread-lace; P. 6959: Lg. 0.28 w, Lt. 52.3 N. Polling-place.

BEDFORD, 7 in North America, United States:-1st and 2nd, state Pennsylvania, county and county-town, w district; P. of the county 20,248; P. of the town 870.-3rd, a town, state New-York, s district, Winchester county; P. 2750.-4th, New-Bedford, a county-town, state Massachusetts; P. 7592. -5th, a town of Massachusetts, Middlesex county; P. 685.-6th, a county in state Virginia, E district; P. 20,253.-7th, a county in state Tennessee, w district; P. 30,444, all in 1830.

BEDFORD-LEVEL, a tract of fenny land, in England, about 300,000 acres, in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, and Lincoln. After various unsuccessful attempts to drain

these fens, William earl of Bedford, in 1649, undertook and completed it; and a corporation was established for the government of this great level. In these fens are several decoys, in which innumerable quantities of wild-fowl are taken.

BEDFORD, a county of England, bounded on the NE by Huntingdonshire, E by Cambridgeshire, SE by Hertfordshire, sw by Buckinghamshire, and Nw by Northamptonshire. Its utmost length is 35 m, and its greatest breadth 22, containing 296,000 acres. It is divided into 9 hundreds, and 124 parishes; and has 10 market-towns. It returns 2 county and 2 borough M.P., and has 6 polling-places. The principal

rivers are the Ouse and the Ivel. Its chief products are corn, butter, and fuller's earth; its manufactures, lace, straw hats and baskets, and toys; P. 63,393 in 1801, and 95,383 in 1831.

BEDMINSTER, a village and parish of England, county Somerset, near Bristol; P. of parish 13,130. Polling-place.

BEDNORE, OF NAGARA, a city of Asia, Hindostan, capital of the Nw district of Mysore. On the removal of the seat of govern ment from Ikery to this town, it soon became a city of great magnitude and commerce; and when taken by Hyder, in 1762, was estimated at 8 m in circuit. It afterward declined, being neither the seat of a court, nor of any public work except the mint. In 1783 it was taken by the British, and retaken soon after by Tippoo; but on his final defeat, in 1799, it was ceded to the rajah of Mysore, by the British, with the surrounding country, which is hilly and woody, and has many fortified defiles and passes. At Tippoo's death Bednore still contained 1590 houses, beside huts, and has since been recovering, it being a convenient mart for the products of the country, which consist chiefly of betel-nuts, pepper, sandalwood, cardamoms, and a variety of articles brought from distant places. It is 70 m N by E Mangalore, and 150 Nw Seringapatam: Lg. 75.6 E, Lt. 13.50 N.

BEDWELLY, a village and parish of England, county Monmouth, 7 m w by N Ponty-pool; P. of parish 10,637. Polling-place.

BEDOUINS, tribes of wandering Arabs, who live in tents, and are dispersed all over Arabia, Egypt, and the N of Africa, governed by their own chiefs, in the same manner as the patriarchs lived and governed anciently: their principal employinent is grazing of cattle. The Bedouins deem the desert their inheritance, which Allah bestowed on their father Ishmael and his posterity. They are ardent, brave, and independent; and in the relations of private life are liberal, honourable, and virtuous; but toward strangers and enemies they are

cruel, implacable, and relentless; for in the desert there are no neutralities, and whosoever is not with them is against their tribe.

BEDWIN, GREAT, a borough of England, County Wilts, which has neither market nor fair. It is 5 m sw Hungerford, and 70 w London; P. 2191.

BEEDER, a province of Asia, Deccan of Hindostan, 140 m long by 65; bounded on the N by Berar, E by Gunwana, s by Hydrabad and Bejapoor, and w by Aurungabad. The surface is hilly, but not mountainous; and is intersected by many small rivers, which flow into the Beemah, Kistna, and Godavery.

BEEDER, a fortified city of Asia, capital of province Beeder, 6 m in circuit, and though much decayed, is still celebrated for the number and magnificence of its pagodas. It is 73 m Nw Hydrabad: Lg. 77.48 E, Lt. 17.49 N.


BEER, or BEER-REGIS, a market town of England, county Dorset, 9 in from Blandford. Near it, on Woodbury hill, are the remains of a Roman station; P. 1170. BEERING-BAY, on the w coast of North America, 270 leagues NNE Nootka. PORT MULGRAVE.


BEERING'S ISLAND, or BERIN, in the government of Ostrov, a barren and uninhabited island in the North Pacific-ocean. It was discovered by Capt. Beering, where, in 1741, he was wrecked, and ultimately perished with 29 of his crew; its length is about 110 m, and breadth from 3 to 16 m; dangerous approach; west point, or point Kytroff, is in Lg. 194.10.21 w, Lt. 55.17.02 N.-BEECHEY.

BEERING'S, BERING'S, BEHRING'S, or ANIAN'S-STRAITS, so called after Capt. Beering, its first navigator; it is the passage from the North-Pacific into the Polar-sea, and separates the continents of North America and Asia. The narrowest part, about 50 m wide, is from cape Prince of Wales, North America: Lg. 167.59.10 w, Lt. 65.33.30 N, to East-cape, Asia: Lg. 169.43.50 Lt. 66.03.10 N. The soundings, from 25 to 27 fathoms, coarse gravel bottom.BEECHEY.


BEERO, a country of Nigritia, Africa, between Sahara on the N, and Bambara on the s. Walet is the capital.

BEESTON, 8 in England:-1st, a hamlet, county Bedford; P. 258:-2nd, a town, county Chester, 7 m Nantwich; P. 434.-3rd, a town, county Notts; P.2530.-4th, chapelry, County North York; P. 2123.-5th, Beeston-with-Bickering, a parish, county Norfolk, P. 702:-6th, Beeston-Regis, a parish, Norfolk; P.246.-7th, St. Andrew's Beeston, parish, Norfolk; P. 49.-8th, Beeston St. Lawrence, parish, Norfolk ; P. 49.

BEFORT, a fortified town of France, department Haut-Rhin, with manufactures of excellent iron. It stands at the foot of a mountain, 38 m sw Colmar; P. 4750.

BEGIA, OF BEYJAH, a town of Africa, in Tunis, with a strong castle, and a great trade in corn, on the side of a hill, 50 m w Tunis.


BEHABAN, a town of Asia, Persia, in Farsistan. It is situated in an extensive and well-cultivated plain, 153 m WNW Shiras. The walls are 3 m in circuit, and it is the residence of a beglerbeg, whose palace occupies the NE corner of the town; 3 m to the w are the ruins of the ancient city of Ragian, on the banks of the Jerahi: Lg. 50.24 E, Lt. 30.16 N.

BEHAWEL POOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Moulton, in a sandy country, 38 m s by E Moulton.

BEHERAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, 75 m w by N Lahore.

BEJA, a city of Portugal, in Alemtejo, a bishop's see. It is seated on an eminence, in an extensive plain, near a lake of its name, 72 m SE Lisboa. It is the ancient Pax-Julia.

BEJAPOOR, or VISIAPOOR, a province of Asia, Deccan, Hindostan, 320 m long by 200; bounded on the N by Aurungabad, E by Beeder and Hydrabad, s by Balagaut and Canara, and w by the sea. The w part

is very mountainous, but toward the E it is more even, and watered by many fine rivers, the principal of which are the Kistna, Beemah, and Toombuddra. Four-fifths of this province belonged to the Mahrattas, and the remainder to the Nizam; but in 1818, the whole province, with the exception of the territory reserved for the Satara-raja, became subject to the British, in consequence of the expulsion of the peshwa.

BEJAPOOR, a city of Asia, the ancient capital of Bejapoor. In old books it is generally written Viziapoor, 160 m SE Poonah. It was of vast magnitude, but declined after its capture by Aurengzebe in 1689, and now exhibits extensive ruins, many public edifices much injured by time, and some corn fields. The fortifications formed a triple enclosure; the inner about 1 m in circuit, the next 8 m, and the outer immense. Some enormous cannon still remain here; one of them is of brass, cast by Aurengzebe, to commemorate his conquest of Bejapoor; its length is 14 feet and an inch, the circumference in the middle 13 feet 7 inches, and the diameter of the bore 28 inches. The city is thinly inhabited, and most of the buildings, the palaces in the inner fort excepted, appear to have had little or no wood used in their construction: Lg. 75.47 E, Lt. 16.46 N. BEJETSK, a town of Russia, principality

Moscow, government Tver, and chief of a district, on the Molga, 60 m Iver; it has 14 churches and 2 schools; P. 3200.

BEILSTEIN, a town of Prussia, province Nieder-Rhein, on the Moselle, 22 in sw Cob


BEINGHEIN, a town of France, department Bas-Rhin, near its conflux with the Rhine, 22 m NNE Strasburg.

BEIRA, the largest province of Portugal, bounded on the N by Entre-Douro-e-Minho, and Traz-os-Montes, E by Spain, s by Alemtejo, and w by the Atlantic; divided into 9 comarcas, containing 5 cities, Coimbra, Viseu, Lamago, and Guarda, each of them having a bishop, and Aveiro; and 279 towns; the NE portion is very mountainous, the remainder hilly; with the exception of the great mountains, the soil is well cultivated, very fertile, and produces much wine, particularly that called port, which is made in the vicinity of Lamego. Area about 12,000 square miles; P. in 1810, 880,602.

BEIT-EL-FAKIH, a town of Asia, Arabia, in Yemen, 24 m ESE Loheida, a great mart for coffee; the quantity carried to Mocha, distant 25 leagues, is about 4000 bales, of 313lb. each.

BEITH, a town of Scotland, county Ayr, with manufactures of linen and silk gauze; on an eminence 7 m N Ervine.

BEJWARAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, in the Seik territories, 110 m ESE Lahore.

BELA, a city of Asia, Ballogistan, capital of Lus; situated near the source of the Poorally, 210 ms by E Kelat. It contains above 2000 houses, of which about 300 belong to Hindoos, who carry on their mercantile speculations under the protection of the jam, or governor : Lg. 66.38 E, Lt. 26.11 N.

BELAIR, a county town of North America, United States, state Maryland, Harford county, on the Bush, 53 m Annapolis, 61 Washington.

BELASPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Setlege country, and the capital of a principality, called Cahlore, partly extending into the province of Lahore. It is well built, on the left bank of the Setledge, 148 m E by s Lahore: Lg. 76.43 E, Lt. 31.14 E.

BELBEIS, a town of Africa, Egypt, with several mosques, 35 m NNE Cairo.

BELCASTRO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Calabria-Ultra, seated on a mountain, 8 m from the gulf-of-Squilace, and 12 sw Severino.

BELCHOE, a town of Ireland, county Fermanagh, seated on Lough-Nilly, 18 m SE Ballyshannon.

BELCK, a town of Russia, government Smolensk, chief of a district on the Obcha,

96 m Smolensk; it has 4 churches; trade in corn with Riga; P. 2250.

BELEM, a village of Portugal, in Estremadura, on the N side of the Tejo, 4 m below Lisboa. Here is a royal monastery, where the kings and queens of Portugal are interred; a strong fort, which defends the entrance to the city; and to the E a noble modern aqueduct, which conveys water to Lisboa.

BELEM, a city of Brazil. See PARA.

BELEV, a town of Russia, government Toula, chief of a district on the left bank of the Oca, 58 m Toula: it has 2 convents, I seminary, 14 churches, and 2 hospitals; its manufactures, leather, and tallow; its trade, hemp, wax, honey, corn, and butter, with Petersbourg; P. 6782: Lg. 36.25 E, Lt. 53.35 N.

BELEBEÏEVSKAï, a small fort of Russia, on the Orelly, near and N of Ecatherinoslav.

BELFAST, a borough and seaport of Ireland, county Antrim, at the mouth of the Lagan, in Carrickfergus bay. It is one of the most commercial towns in Ireland, and returns 2 M.P. It has manufactures of cotton, cambric, canvas, linen, glass, sugar, and earthenware. A magnificent bridge extends over the Lagan; and by this river and a canal the harbour is connected with Lough Neagh. It is 80 m N Dublin; P. 50,147: Lg. 5.46 w, Lt. 54.36 N.

BELFAST, a town of North America, United States, state Maine, county Waldo, on the w side of the Penobscot, at its entrance into Penobscot bay, 40 m NE WisCasset; P. 3,077 in 1830.

BELFORD, a town of England, county Northumberland, with a market on Thursday, 15 m s by E Berwick, and 322 N by w London; P. 1354.

BELGARD, a town and castle of Prussia, province Pomerania, 18 m SE Colberg.

BELGERN, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, with a good trade in beer; seated on the Elbe, 8 m SE Torgau.

BELGIUM, a kingdom, lately forming the southern portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands, from which this portion revolted in 1831, and after a severe struggle finally established its separation: bounded N by the northern portion of the late kingdom of the Netherlands, now kingdom of Holland, E by Holland and Prussia, s and sw by France, and w and Nw by the German-ocean; divided into 9 provinces, viz. Antwerp, East and West Flanders, South Brabant, Namur, Liege, Haynau, Limburg, being a portion only of the tract bearing that name; the remainder now belongs to the newly

erected kingdom of Holland, and Luxemburg, being the w half of the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, the other half is assigned to Holland, but is quite detached from it: The principal rivers are the Maas, Schelde, Lys, Dyle, Nethes, Sambre, Senne, Ourte, and Epraye; the northern portion embracing East and West Flanders, Antwerp, and the greater part of South Brabant; is very flat, the remainder is beautifully diversi`fied with hill and dale, contains extensive woody tracts, and the whole is exceedingly fertile, and celebrated for the industry and superiority of the farming management; producing vast crops of corn, oats, barley, The minerals are few yet hops, rape, &c.

very valuable, particularly along the southern waters; coal is found of the best quality, and in the greatest abundance, from a few miles w of Mons, to near the frontier with Prussia at Achen, following a direction nearly ENE by Charleroy, Namur, and Liege. Iron also is abundant, but particularly about Mons and Liege, where extensive manufactures of that metal are carried on with considerable success. The cottonchiefly at Ghent and Verviers. The princispinning by steam power, is daily growing, pal towns are Brussels, the capital, Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Mons, Namur, Liege, Bastogne, Leuven, Malines or Mechelen, Dendermonde, Ostend, Dixmuide, Oudenaarde, Courtray, Alost, &c., and many others; their vast extent and population are very striking to the stranger, as also the short distances from each other at which they are placed. The climate is rather colder in winter and hotter in summer than in England, and is generally considered salubrious. The great or postroads are nearly all paved and well maintained; these, together with numerous canals and rivers, afford very great facili ties of communication; and, in addition to these, should the railways projected and now under consideration be carried into effect, and for the construction of which no country is more favourable, the prosperity of this already flourishing country will be incalculably advanced; P. about 24 millions.

BELGOROD, an archbishop's see of Russia, government Coursk, chief of a district, near the source of the Severnoï-Donetz, which falls into the Don, 871⁄2 m from Coursk. has 3 annual fairs, 2 convents, and 13 churches; P. 7000: Lg. 32.31 E, Lt. 51.35.


BELGORODKA, anciently BELGOROD, Russia, government Kiow, on the Roupina, 24 m from Kiow. Formerly a place of great strength and splendour, now a mere village.

BELGRADE, a city of Europe, Turkey, capital of Servia, and a Greek bishop's see,

on the Danube, a little below the influx of the Save, 200 m SSE Buda, and 240 w Bucharest. It was taken by prince Eugene in 1717, and kept till 1739, when it was ceded to the Turks. It was again taken in 1789, and restored at the peace of Reichenbach, in 1790; P. about 25,000: Lg. 21.5 E, Lt. 44.40 N.

BELGRADE, or BELIGRAD, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Romania, on the strait of Constantinople, 20 m1 N Constanti nople.

BELGRADO, a town of Italy, in Friuli, near the Tojamenta, 81 m s by w Udina.

BELIDA, or BLEEDA, a town of Africa, Algiers, province Titeri, at the foot of a ridge of mountains, 15 m SE Algiers.

BELITZ, a post town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, 63 German m by post road, sw Berlin, post road to Leipzig: manufactures linen; P. 1400.

BELITZA, a burg of Russia, government Grodno, post road Moscow to Warszawa; the houses are built entirely of wood, and the inhabitants poor and dirty; P. 500, chiefly Jews.

BELITZA, a small town of Russia, government Mohilef, chief of the district; it has 1 Greek church; P. 700.

BELL-ROCK, a rock in the German-ocean, lying opposite the mouth of the Tay, in Scotland, and 13 m SE of Aberbrothick, the nearest point of land. The average height of this rock above the surface of the sea, in its lowest state, is only 4 feet, and at high water it is covered from 10 to 12 feet. Notwithstanding this disadvantage, Mr. Stephenson, in 1807, commenced the erection of a lighthouse, which was completed in 1810. The building is circular, 42 feet in diameter at the foundation, from which it diminishes to the top, where the light-room is only 13 feet in diameter. The height is 115 feet: it is solid to the height of 30 feet, and the remaining part above is formed into six rooms: Lg. 2.16 w, Lt. 56.26 N.

BELLEEK, a town of Ireland, county Fermanagh, on the Erne, over which is a strong bridge, 20 m NW Enniskillen.

BELLEGARDE, a fortress of France, department Pyrenees-Orientales, an important place, on account of its being a pass to the Pyrenees. It was taken by the Spaniards in 1793, but retaken 1794. It is 15 m s Perpignan.

BELLEGARDE, a town of France, department Saone-et-Loire, on the Saone, 15 NE Chalons.

BELLEISLE, an island of France, in the Bay-of-Biscay, 9 m s Quiberon, department

Morbihan. It is 11 m long by 4, diversified with craggy mountains, salt works, and fertile plains. The principal place is Palais, a fortified town, with a citadel, on the XE side. It was taken by the English in 1761, and restored in 1763: Lg. 3.8 w, Lt. 47.17 N.

BELLEISLE, a high and barren island, at the NE end of a channel between Labrador and Newfoundland, called the strait-of-Belleisle, which leads into the gulf of St. Lawrence. It is 20 m in circuit, and has a harbour for sinall craft on the NW side: Lg. 55.15 w, Lt. 51.58 N.

BELLESME, a town of France, department Orne, with an ancient castle, 80 m sw Paris.

BELLEY, a town of France, department Ain, lately a bishop's see; it is seated near the Rhone, 40 m SE Bourg: Lg. 5.44 E, Lt. 45.47 N.

BELLINGHAM, a town of England, county Northumberland, with a market on Tuesday; it is seated on the N branch of the Tyne, 15 m NNW Hexham, and 300 London; P. 464. Polling-place.

BELLINZONA, a town of Switzerland, capital of canton Tesin; it is seated on the Tesino, 5 m above its entrance into lake Magiore, 22 m wsw Chiavenna.

BELLNHAUSEN, a post town of HesseCassel, on the Lahn, 104 Germanm N Frankfurt, post road to Cassel.

BELLUNESE, a district of Italy, lying between Friuli, Cadorino, Feltrino, and Tyrol. It has large woods, and iron mines; and is fertile in corn, wine, and fruit. Belluno is the only place of note.

BELLUNO, a town of Italy, capital of Bellunesse, a bishop's see. It has 14 churches, and various good buildings; also a profitable trade in wood and timber. It is seated among the Alps, on the river Piave, 43 m x Venice.

BELOIE, a small town of Russia, chief of the district, government Smolensk, on the Obcha, 94 m N Smolensk.

BELOE-MORE, or White-sea, in Russia, a gulf in the Frozen-ocean, government Arkhangel.

BELO-POLIE, a town of Russia, government Kharkof, at the junction of the Vira and Ryga, 143 in Kharkof; it has & churches; P. 9000.

BELOSTOK, a province of Russia, formerly a part of the voevod of Belsk, confirmed to Russia in 1807, by the treaty of Tilsit; bounded on the N and w by many small rivers separating it from Poland; E by Grod

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